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Historical background of Soil Fertility

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Historical background of Soil Fertility

  1. 1. Historical background of Soil Fertility By: Jhan Nian J. Mi-ot Reporter
  2. 2. History of Soil Fertility A. Cultivation of plants for food allowed humans to convert from a nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to a more settled existence.
  3. 3. B. Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates River in what is now Iraq shows evidence of very early civilization. Writings dating to 2500 B.C. mention fertility of the land. Fertility was due to annual flooding of the land and a system of canals were built for irrigation of crops.
  4. 4. C. On uplands shifting agriculture was necessary "slash and burn“ D. Golden Age of Greeks 800-200 BC 1. Manure increased productivity and prolonged land use 2. Green manure crops, especially legumes, enriched the soil 3. Marl increased productivity (liming) 4. Wood ashes were beneficial 5. Saltpeter (KNO3) was beneficial to plants 6. Saline soils could be detected by taste test
  5. 5. E. First 18 centuries A.D. 1. Pietro de Crescenzi (Roman). 1233-1320. Published a book on agricultural practices
  6. 6. 2 .Jan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644) His willow tree experiment "proved" that water was the sole nutrient of plants.
  7. 7. 3. Jethro Tull(1674-1741) - Thought small particles were ingested by plants, and that cultivating the soil made it easier for plants to take up soil particles. wrote the Book - "Horse Hoeing Husbandry" and developed the horse hoe and the seed drill.
  8. 8. F. Modern Period (1800-1900) 1. Justus Von Liebig (1803-1873) Laid the foundation for the modern fertilizer industry. (a) Stressed the value of mineral elements from the soil (b) Found that carbon in plants comes from CO2 of the atmosphere not from humus in the soil as was thought at the time (c) Hydrogen and oxygen come from water (d) The alkaline metals (Ca, Mg and K) were needed to neutralize acids formed by plants (e) Phosphates are necessary for seed formation
  9. 9. 2. He manufactured fertilizer but made the mistake of fusing P and K with lime (unavailable to plants) 3. Liebig's Law of the Minimum - If one of the essential nutrients is deficient, growth will be poor even if all other elements are abundant. Liebig's Barrel. Barrel 2
  10. 10. 4. Liebigs contribution to philosophy was important Perfect agriculture is the true foundation of all trade and industry -- It is the foundation of the riches of nations. But a rational system of agriculture cannot be formed without the application of scientific principles for such a system must be based on an exact acquaintance with the means of vegetable nutrition. The knowledge we must seek through chemistry.
  11. 11. G. Development of Soil Fertility in the U.S. 1. 1733 James E. Oglethorpe - Experimental garden on bluffs of Savannah River in Georgia to produce exotic food crops.
  12. 12. 2. Benjamin Franklin - Had an interest in agriculture and demonstrated the value of gypsum. Applied to hill in a pattern which outlined the words "This land has been plastered" Quotes
  13. 13. 3. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) Founding father and agronomist . Quotes related to agriculture. 4. Edmund Ruffin in Virginia from 1825-1845 one of the first to use lime on humid region soils
  14. 14. 4. Morrill Act (1862) of agriculture and mechanic arts. Teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.
  15. 15. 4. 1862 Department of Agriculture established. Connecticut first ag experiment station 1875 1877 N. C. Ag Experiment Station established 1887 N. C. State University , General History In 1887 the state legislature established the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (now NC State) as the state's land-grant institution
  16. 16. Importance of Soil Fertility and Conservation
  17. 17. Importance of Soil Fertility and Conservation The Human Advantage Humanity has a huge advantage over all life on earth—the ability to grow food. Every other life form spends most of their day hunting for and gathering nourishment. Today, billions of us are sustained by what farmers grow. When it comes to survival, growing food is clearly an asset.
  18. 18. Soil Feeds When soil is protected, it helps plants create more nutrients our bodies need, like protein. Soil Cleans Healthy, vibrant soil can help keep the environment cleaner and healthier. Soil Protects When properly managed, soil protects plants from harm.
  19. 19. Soil Unlocks Human Potential Since the dawn of agriculture, food has become more accessible to more people. In large part, this is due to soil. Fertile soil leads to better harvests which helps meet our most basic needs. Those living in countries with healthy soil are then free to think, invent, create and imagine new possibilities. When humans are properly nourished, they do amazing things.
  20. 20. Restoring Soil The more active and vibrant the soil, the more alive and nutritious the food. We must invest in soil conservation not just for farmers and people, but for all life on earth. Less than 3% of all land on earth has fertile, nutrient- rich soil. We seek to share, collaborate and innovate new ways of protecting and restoring this natural resource.
  21. 21. THAT’S ALL THANK YOU !!! BY: JHAN NIAN J. MI-OT

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