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Instructional Planning

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Instructional Planning

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Instructional Planning

  1. 1. WELCOME. T.Johnson. Principal of BE.d College Kannanallor.
  2. 2. CAN YOU SAY WHAT IS OUR SUBJECT OF TALK.
  3. 3. INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING What is planning. Which parts of given course content need to be emphasized more What teaching method need to be used to achieve the desired outcome. How should instructions be planned to achieve the objective in a specified time.
  4. 4. WHAT TO PLAN- (THE CONTENT) In the process of planning the teacher arranges the content out line or subject matter under series of headings, topics and sub- headings sub-topics.
  5. 5. SUBJECT MATTER FOR TEACHING. Don’t leave any portion from the text book Let the children may have a self study  You are suppose to probe into it.
  6. 6. METHODS TO BE USED DURING TEACHING How to present your content. The teaching is 4 what.
  7. 7. THE TEACHER IS THE ONE WHO HELPS TO OPEN THE EYES  Teaching is to bring a desired change in the behavior of student.  So here the method to be adopted is an important thing
  8. 8. TEACHER SHOULD KNOW Facts Concepts Rules Generalization
  9. 9. WHAT IS FACT  Facts are based on observations of events that have either occurred in the past or exist in the present.  Example sun rises in the east
  10. 10. CONCEPT.  Concepts are the names given to the categories formed as a result of classifying factual data.  Cat, dog  Then they are called animal also.
  11. 11. RULES AND REGULATIONS  Statements that link two or more concepts.  Eg., Every action has equal and opposite reaction is a principle in science.
  12. 12. The teacher should be master of all the above stated aspects of every chapter.
  13. 13. PLANNING AND LEVELS OF INSTRUCTION.  Who is the best teacher in the world.  One who teaches  One who love students  One who punishes students  or the person who does all the above.
  14. 14. WHAT KIND OF A TEACHER YOU ARE. Teacher of high standard Average Below average Or one who can go to any realm .of the above
  15. 15. THREE LEVELS OF TEACHINGS ARE THERE.  Memory level. Fro passing an information to students the teacher may decide that students should memories and retain the factual material. This kind of learning is called memory level of learning.
  16. 16.  Understanding level Here the student assimilate the content and apply the knowledge in different situations. The learner is given an opportunity to practice the learnt content on his/ her own life situation.
  17. 17. REFLECTIVE LEVEL. Learner is engaged in original, imaginative and the critical approach to the subject and does deep thinking.
  18. 18. YOU MAY SAY THAT WHICH LEVEL YOU TEACH Memory Understanding Reflective Or all.?
  19. 19. ORGANIZING LEARNING How you start a class. By?s Jokes Attendance Opening the book and starting.
  20. 20.  There is theoretical journey
  21. 21. Ask first what the learner already knows. Then step by step easy to complex. Concepts and sub-concepts should be taught.
  22. 22. PLAN ACCORDING TO THE STUDENTS NEED AND INTEREST It also depends upon the capacity of the teacher in using a suitable situation for assessing students needs and interests His or her ability to provide examples and explanations which result in meaningful learning experience for the students.
  23. 23. Teacher should have imagination, creativity and insight in planning the lessons.
  24. 24. FIRST STEP Content analysis. Knowledge does not respect any boundaries. But time calls one to be in a boundary Organize the content. That means breaking the content into its constituent parts. A sequential division of main topic into sub-topics.
  25. 25. Second step.  Selecting suitable presentation Mode. What all teaching modes you have administered in your carrier of teaching ?
  26. 26. YOU SHOULD SEEK What is the best way to go about teaching each topic? What method should be used? What question should be asked?
  27. 27. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING PRESENTATION MODE 1. instructional objective. Only through a particular mode of presentation the instructional objectives can be achieved.
  28. 28. SUBJECT MATTER. The nature and structure of the subject matter that the teacher intends to handle decides the mode of presentation
  29. 29. STUDENTS BACKGROUND Teacher should be able to understand the characteristics of the students. Abilities Social and economic backgrounds Teachers teaching style. Some teachers may be able to handle 100 together but some not.
  30. 30. 3ED STEP Selection of media Any thing any everything which is suitable for the transaction of the content.
  31. 31. DECISION ABOUT THE MEDIA  1. what is to be taught  2.how it is to be taught  3.how its effectiveness can be tested  4.how much teacher knows to operate the hardware used with the selected media.
  32. 32. 4TH STEP Coordinating the media with teaching methods. For example. CD is more effective for a verbal information while live demonstration are more effective for developing psychomotor skill.
  33. 33. 5TH STEP IS  Detailing the task. That means all the above 4 aspects taken together and write it in detail for the presentation within the allotted time.
  34. 34. TEACHER AS A PLANNER. He or she is the provider of curriculum Five aspects they have to take care.
  35. 35. AS TEACHER OF YOUR DISCIPLINE How is your planning for teaching the content.
  36. 36. FIRST STEP Emphasizing particular parts of the curriculum. Which area should be given importance to full fill the objectives
  37. 37. SECOND STEP. Choice of teaching method. Lecturing can convey information's and debate can encourage the sharing of ideas or concepts. According to the diverse needs interests and aspiration of the student teacher should cater.
  38. 38. THE TEACHING METHOD CAN BE CLASSIFIED Interactive Self- directed Computer assisted. All the methods should foster the natural capacities of the student. The methods are best suited in shaping raw human talent into definite assets and abilities.
  39. 39. IN INTERACTIVE METHOD. Both teacher and student plays equal role. Here the teacher checks the learning mastery
  40. 40. SELF DIRECTED. Minimum of teacher direction and control.
  41. 41. CAI  finish one step then go to another.
  42. 42. CHOICE OF INTERACTIONAL PATTERN. Socio- cognitive interaction between the teacher and student happens here.
  43. 43. CHOICE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA What all instructional media you are using. Chalk and blackboard. Electronic devices such as computer tv etc.,
  44. 44. CHOICE OF EVALUATION MODE Administration of the test to check how effective your teaching is.
  45. 45. THE BOOKS FOR FURTHER HELP Taba hilda. Curriculum development theory and practice. John wiles the essentials of teaching.
  46. 46. ANOTHER DIMENSION OF PLANNING  Boozing defines, an organized statement of general and specific goal together with the specific means by which these goals are to be attained by the learner under the guidance of a teacher on a given day.
  47. 47. IN IT 1. the effective organization of the subject matter and activities in the limited time. 2.realization of the goals and objectives in the preparation of the subject matter, procedures and activities and the preparation of the test to evaluate the progress.
  48. 48. 3. development of insights, interest, special activities and desirable habit among the students. 4. Co- ordination in teaching learning process. 5. increase in teacher confidence and competence.
  49. 49. NEED FOR PLANNING  1.planning keeps both the teacher and student on the right path  2. planning makes the teaching activity more meaningful  3. it is a yardstick to measure success or failure  4.planning is a time saving device  5. it is helpful to the teacher to illustrate teaching material effectively  6. it help the teacher to avoid unnecessary repetitions
  50. 50. PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING 1.planning should be flexible 2. the teacher should have proper content knowledge 3.teacher should have sufficient training on the method and teaching of the subject.
  51. 51. 4.planning should be done in advance 5. teacher should provide opportunity to the student for the practical use of their knowledge.
  52. 52. YEAR PLAN Year plan is a plan for an academic year. Planning first starts at national level then state level before the starting of an academic year. School will make a year plan All the teachers will make a year plan.
  53. 53.  Planning will give a design of the work to be executed during the year as whole.  In it the total material is divided into units and units into daily lessons  Year plan suggests what to do with the subject within the time limit. Here various units, content should be taught, number of periods required to finish the portions.
  54. 54. It suggests the method of teaching, provides the details of the aids and equipments, their source etc., Examination days, holidays are also prepared.
  55. 55. ADVANTAGES OF YEAR PLAN 1. it gives an idea on the syllabus to be covered in the whole year. 2.the year plan helps for better timing 3. it enable us to check the proper coverage of the portion within the time limit. 4. promote professional co-operation and mutual exchange of ideas.
  56. 56. 5.it may give suggestions to make teaching interesting effective and purposeful
  57. 57. UNIT PLAN A unit plan is a mutually related content or it is a large segment of subject matter having a common fabric of knowledge. In a unit there will be sub- units called topics. A unit is in fact a compound of lesson and moderates mixture of lessons that it is just long cut-out of the total subject matter.
  58. 58. UNIT PLAN. It is the meaningful whole taken from the curriculum which can be effectively dealt with the realization of a set of anticipated objectives The unit plan includes -the importance of the unit -general information such as subjects -standard.
  59. 59. UNIT PLAN Time Pre-requisits  learning experience etc. After teaching each unit test may be administered.
  60. 60. FORMAT OF A UNIT PLAN Name of the teacher Name of the school Standard subject Unit which periods Time for each period Date
  61. 61. THE CONTENT IN A UNIT PLAN. I. Is content analysis 1. Terms 2. Facts 3. Concepts 4. Principle 5. Instructional objectives 6. Pre-requisites
  62. 62. STEPS IN PLANNING A UNIT The following are the main steps in preparation of a unit plan. 1. content analysis It is the analysis of the subject matter in the unit. It is advised to split the subject matter in a unit into sub-units or topics.
  63. 63.  Content analysis is done by the teacher fro the following purpose.  1 .to determine the scope of the unit  2.To know the number of teaching lessons in that unit  3. to develop mastery over the subject  4. to know the recent trend in that subject area.  5. to plan for teaching and testing.
  64. 64. VARIOUS ASPECTS INCLUDED IN CONTENT ANALYSIS. 1. terms A term is a new definable word having specific meaning to the pupil For eg. Norms of anthropology, French revolution
  65. 65. 2. FACTS It is an event or a phenomena that has occurred and being recorded with out disagreement among the observers.
  66. 66. 3. CONCEPT. Concept is a generalized statement built upon several facts.
  67. 67. PRINCIPLES (RULES) It is a statement predicting the inter relationship among two or more complex ideas based on several concepts
  68. 68. PROCESS. It is a serious of tasks or works in a sequential order done by the teacher- or teaching.
  69. 69. II. SELECTION OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES It is the observable or measurable behavioral change in the learner.
  70. 70. III THE LEARNING ACTIVITIES The learning experience provided to the children.
  71. 71. IV. LEARNING AIDS Map, chart, globe, audio- visual aids etc.,
  72. 72. PLANNING EVALUATION Every evaluation should be completed by evaluation. Teaching and testing should go hand
  73. 73. ADVANTAGE OF UNIT PLAN  1. the unit plan makes school work meaningful  2. unit plan provides for individual difference directed study and remedial teaching  3.Aims are clear and well defined  4. it should provide activities for the student  5. it should cater the needs, interests, and capabilities of the student.
  74. 74. LESSON PLAN A proper planning of the lesson is the key to effective teaching. This planning will give an idea that how to teach in the class room. How to correlates the concepts in real life situation. According to the L.V. Stand lesson plan is a plan of action implemented by the teacher in the class room.
  75. 75. LESSON PLAN What a teacher should do in a period is determined by the lesson plan.
  76. 76. VALUES AND IMPORTANCE OF LESSON PLAN 1. achievement of definite goals and objectives 2. prevention of wastage 3.self confidence of the task of the teacher. 4. effectiveness in the learning process 5. evaluation is possible
  77. 77. AIMS OF THE LESSON PLAN 1. the knowledge that the student have acquired 2. the direction towards which the students have to be carried 3. systematic knowledge of the subject to the student is possible. 
  78. 78. FUNCTIONS OF LESSON PLAN  1. it limit with the field of work of the teacher and also students and provide a definite objects for each day work  2. since the goal is fixed so teacher gets a sprit to achieve the goal  3. it prevent the teacher going out of the track  4. it helps the teacher to organize and systematize the learning process. 5. avoids unnecessary repetition.
  79. 79. THANKS Lesson plan you may prepare from your subject.

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