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Game Over? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses

Keynote Presentation at SIGGRAPH Asia Symposium on Education
Kobe, Japan November 1st 2015

Abstract: Gamification has been explored recently as a way to promote content delivery in education, yielding promising results. However, little is known regarding how it helps different students experience learning and acquire knowledge.
In this talk I discussed our experiences with gamified engineering courses and the reactions of students to the gamified experience.
By examining student performance and attitude data collected from several years we identified distinct student types.
I described the different student types, according to behavior and explained how gamification can provide for smarter learning by catering to students with different profiles.

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Game Over? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses

  1. 1. Sponsored by Game Over ? New Approaches to Teaching Engineering Courses Joaquim Jorge
  2. 2. Joaquim Jorge Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade de Lisboa Visualization and Multimodal Interfaces @ INESC-ID Lisboa http://web.ist.utl.pt/jorgej Research Interests: Calligraphic Interaction, Multimodal Interfaces, Graphical Modeling
  3. 3. About ACM ACM, the Association for Computing Machinery is the world’s largest educational and scientific computing society, uniting educators, researchers and professionals to inspire dialogue, share resources and address the field’s challenges. ACM strengthens the computing profession’s collective voice through strong leadership, promotion of the highest standards, and recognition of technical excellence. ACM supports the professional growth of its members by providing opportunities for life-long learning, career development, and professional networking. With over 100,000 members from over 100 countries, ACM works to advance computing as a science and a profession. www.acm.org
  4. 4. The Distinguished Speakers Program is made possible by For additional information, please visit http://dsp.acm.org/
  5. 5. ees.elsevier.com/cag 2014: 460 submissions 29 days to respond 17 weeks to accept Ranked 4th CGJ GoogleScholar
  6. 6. BACK TO THE FUTURE? 0
  7. 7. Bologna 1088 Wikimedia commons
  8. 8. XIX Century
  9. 9. Back to the Future ?
  10. 10. Are MOOCs the Answer?
  11. 11. One Size Fits All!
  12. 12. Same content x 1000s
  13. 13. Industrial Revolution
  14. 14. Standardized Experience
  15. 15. From here
  16. 16. To Here
  17. 17. Not About Tools! Strandberg [CC-BY-SA] http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20060513_toolbox.jpg/
  18. 18. Long Journey Ahead safuanstyx.deviantart.com/
  19. 19. Gamification
  20. 20. towards Adaptation
  21. 21. GAMIFICATION I
  22. 22. Games – Students were born into them by William Hook @ Flickr
  23. 23. Education by Izaias Buson @ Flickr
  24. 24. Wavebreak Media Ltd/Bigstock.com Boredom
  25. 25. Hye You | Daily Trojan Demotivating
  26. 26. Can gamification improve learning? by thebarrowboy @ Flickr
  27. 27. Sheldon 2010 the use of game design elements in non-game contexts ga•mi•fi•ca•tion /ˌɡeɪmɪfɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/
  28. 28. NOT Playing games in class That’s just playing a game…
  29. 29. NOT teaching with a game
  30. 30. NOT (just) giving points for activities That’s Points-ification
  31. 31. The course becomes the game
  32. 32. Use game elements, mechanics, dynamics Badges Avatars Votes Leaderboards Achievements Boss Fights Virtual Goods Guilds Quests Rewards Progress Bars Skill Trees Experience Points Stat Points
  33. 33. SDT Competence Relatedness Autonomy Adapted from [Deci and Ryan, 2004] It’s about motivation!
  34. 34. Autonomy
  35. 35. Relatedness
  36. 36. Competence
  37. 37. MULTIMEDIA CONTENT PRODUCTIONII
  38. 38. MSc Course IST/UL
  39. 39. Two Campi
  40. 40. 300+ Students Gamified Experience
  41. 41. Blended Learning
  42. 42. Gamified since 2010/2011
  43. 43. Adding game elements to the mix… by gfpeck @ Flickr
  44. 44. The course is a game!
  45. 45. IMMERSIONIMMERSION
  46. 46. ENGAGEMENT
  47. 47. XP, not grades!
  48. 48. LEVELS (20 … of course)
  49. 49. Grading system Max Min 2003-2010 Gamified 0 20 20000 XP 500 XP
  50. 50. PHAT L00T
  51. 51. Badges Postmaster Participate in the forums Class Annotator Find relevant references Rise to the Challenge Tinkering with class subjects
  52. 52. Competition Proactive Be the first to respond Archivist Archive challenge results Quiz, Lab, Presentation, Exam King Be the best!
  53. 53. Leaderboard
  54. 54. Personal Page
  55. 55. Earn Achievements for more XP!
  56. 56. Three levels for each achievement Up to Three Levels
  57. 57. Unlock a level to get XP Description & Conditions for next lvl
  58. 58. Extra credit available
  59. 59. Cooperation Guild Warrior Everyone in your lab does well Guild Master Your lab is the best there is!
  60. 60. Cooperation: Quest!
  61. 61. Reward Behavior Right on Time Be here when the lecture starts, don’t be late… Amphitheatre Lover Attend theoretical lectures Lab Lover Attend Labs
  62. 62. Dozens of different achievements
  63. 63. Highlights – Participate! Postmaster Participate in the forums Class Annotator Find relevant references Rise to the Challenge Bi-Weekly tinkering with class subjects
  64. 64. Highlights – Participate! Talkative Ask intelligent questions in class
  65. 65. Self-Determination: Skill Tree
  66. 66. Quality Over Quantity by EssG @ Flickr (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  67. 67. Creativity: AvatarWorld
  68. 68. Getting started made easy by bokeh burger @ Flickr
  69. 69. by EssjayNZ @ Flickr A transparent process
  70. 70. moodle
  71. 71. Forum Posts
  72. 72. Scripts Peter van Grieken @ floickr Activities Scores Grades
  73. 73. Manual Grading Chris Lawrence @ flickr
  74. 74. Spreadsheets to collect
  75. 75. Generate Pages
  76. 76. RESULTS III
  77. 77. Participation & Proactivity by woodleywonderworks @ Flickr
  78. 78. Student feedback by albertogp123 @ Flickr
  79. 79. Easier to Learn From
  80. 80. Creativity by theodevil @ Flickr
  81. 81. More Of What They Like
  82. 82. Useful for the Future
  83. 83. More Interesting and Motivating by johnwiechecki @ Flickr (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  84. 84. TOWARDS PERSONALIZATIONIV
  85. 85. Student Model by velkr0 @ Flickr (CC BY 2.0)
  86. 86. Cluster Students
  87. 87. Leaderboard Rank 16 30 44 58 72 86 100 114 128 142 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
  88. 88. Students by Cluster 11 29 23 13 Achievers Regular Half-Hearted Underachievers
  89. 89. Performance
  90. 90. Performance Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Achievers Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Regular Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Underachievers Labs Presentation Exam Challenges AchievementsSkill Tree AvatarWorld MCP Quest Quizzes Halfhearted
  91. 91. Participation
  92. 92. Participation Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Achievers Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Underachievers Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Regular Posts Skill Tree Posts Explored Skill Tree Nodes AvatarWorld Posts Badges Completed Achievements Explored Achievements Artist Badges (quality) Halfhearted
  93. 93. Engagement 1 2 3 4 5 Engagement Achievers Regular Halfhearted Underachievers
  94. 94. Predicting Student Profile
  95. 95. Automatic Early-on Classification 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 25% 33% 50% 100% Accuracy Time through the semester Performance data Gaming data
  96. 96. Grade accumulation over 2 yrs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 17 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122 129 136 143 150 Achievers Regular Halfhearted Underachievers Average 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122 129 136 Achievers Regular Halfhearted Underachievers Average
  97. 97. Self-Reported Satisfaction
  98. 98. 98 3 4 5 6 Ratingscale Technology-driven Organization-driven Resource-driven Usefulness Easy2Use Quality Satisfaction w content
  99. 99. 99
  100. 100. Focus per cluster 10 0 Technology- driven System Organization- driven Content Resource- driven Pedagogy
  101. 101. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Posting in fora Uploading Downloading Participating in chat Consulting grades Searching archived contents Consulting news Consulting videos Ratingscale Technology-driven students 05 / 06 06 / 07 Satisfaction
  102. 102. DESIGN ISSUES V
  103. 103. Meaning
  104. 104. Mastery
  105. 105. Autonomy
  106. 106. Diversity
  107. 107. Social Recognition
  108. 108. Manage the Workload / Rythm
  109. 109. Competition vs Cooperation
  110. 110. (Mass)Customize the Experience
  111. 111. Adaptive Gamified Learning by SMBCollege @ Flickr (CC BY 2.0)
  112. 112. The Team
  113. 113. Joaquim.Jorge@acm.org daniel.goncalves@inesc-id.pt daniel.goncalves@inesc-id.pt
  114. 114. International Conference Papers 1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J. A., and Gonçalves, D. J. (2014b). Relating gaming habits with student performance in a gamified learning experience. In Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computer-human Interaction in Play, CHI PLAY ’14, pages 17–25, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 2. Barata, G., Gama, S., Fonseca, M. J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013a). Improving student creativity with gamification and virtual worlds. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 95–98, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 3. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013e). Improving participation and learning with gamification. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 10–17, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 4. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013d). So fun it hurts - gamifying an engineering course. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human- Computer Interaction, HCII 2013, pages 639–648, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 5. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013b). Engaging engineering students with gamification. In Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), 2013, pages 1–8.
  115. 115. International Conference Papers 1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J. A., and Gonçalves, D. J. (2014b). Relating gaming habits with student performance in a gamified learning experience. In Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computer-human Interaction in Play, CHI PLAY ’14, pages 17–25, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 2. Barata, G., Gama, S., Fonseca, M. J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013a). Improving student creativity with gamification and virtual worlds. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 95–98, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 3. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013e). Improving participation and learning with gamification. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, Gamification ’13, pages 10–17, New York, NY, USA. ACM. 4. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013d). So fun it hurts - gamifying an engineering course. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human- Computer Interaction, HCII 2013, pages 639–648, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 5. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2013b). Engaging engineering students with gamification. In Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), 2013, pages 1–8.
  116. 116. Journal Papers 1. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2015b). Predicting student profile with performance and gaming preferences. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, (submitted) . 2. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2015c). Studying student differentiation in gamified education: A long-term study. Computers in Human Behavior, (accepted). 3. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2015a). Gamification for smarter learning: tales from the trenches. Smart Learning Environments, 2(1):10. 4. Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., and Gonçalves, D. (2014a). Identifying student types in a gamified learning experience. International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL), 4(4):19–36.

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