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What's New in Windows Server 2012 R2

This is my 75 minutes "highlights" presentation on what's new in WS2012 R2. It's not all encompassing - intended just to get across the key points of the core OS. It followed a "Cloud OS" keynote and preceded a "System Center hybrid cloud" presentation.

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What's New in Windows Server 2012 R2

  1. 1. Windows Server 2012 R2 Aidan Finn
  2. 2. About Aidan Finn • Technical Sales Lead at MicroWarehouse (Dublin) • Working in IT since 1996 • MVP (Virtual Machine) • Experienced with Windows Server/Desktop, System Center, virtualisation, and IT infrastructure • @joe_elway • http://www.aidanfinn.com • http://www.petri.co.il/author/aidan-finn • Published author/contributor of several books
  3. 3. Books System Center 2012 VMM Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V
  4. 4. Agenda • Consumerisation of IT • Networking • Storage • Virtualization • Cloud • Availability
  5. 5. Consumerisation of IT
  6. 6. Active Directory Improvements • None to speak of in the traditional sense • Honestly, most of you are still on W2003 FL AD • There‘s lots of new stuff in WS2012 AD • Microsoft‘s efforts went into enabling BYOD
  7. 7. Today‘s Challenges Users Users expect to be able to work in any location and have access to all their work resources. Devices The explosion of devices is eroding the standardsbased approach to corporate IT. Apps Deploying and managing applications across platforms is difficult. Data Users need to be productive while maintaining compliance and reducing risk.
  8. 8. Empwering People-Centric IT Enable users Allow users to work on the devices of their choice and provide consistent access to corporate resources. Users Devices Apps Management. Access. Protection. Data Unify your environment Deliver a unified application and device management onpremises and in the cloud. Protect your data Help protect corporate information and manage risk.
  9. 9. Self-Registration of Devices Users can enroll devices which configure the device for management with Windows Intune. The user can then use the Company Portal for easy access to corporate applications Users can register BYO devices for single sign-on and access to corporate data with Workplace Join. As part of this, a certificate is installed on the device IT can publish access to corporate resources with the Web Application Proxy based on device awareness and the users identity. Multi-factor authentication can be used through Windows Azure Multi-Factor Authentication integration with Active Directory Federation Services. Data from Windows Intune is sync with Configuration Manager which provides unified management across both on-premises and in the cloud As part of the registration process, a new device record is created in Active Directory, establishing a link between the user and their device
  10. 10. Enabling Application Access Users can enroll devices for access to the Company Portal for easy access to corporate applications IT can publish Desktop Virtualization (VDI) for access to centralized resources Users can work from anywhere on their device with access to their corporate resources. IT can publish access to resources with the Web Application Proxy based on device awareness and the users identity Users can register devices for single signon and access to corporate data with Workplace Join IT can provide seamless corporate access with DirectAccess and automatic VPN connections.
  11. 11. Single-Sign On Options User provided devices are “unknown” and IT has no control. Partial access may be provided to corporate information. Browser session single sign-on Seamless 2-Factor Auth for web apps Enterprise apps single sign-on Desktop Single Sign-On Registered devices are “known” and device authentication allows IT to provide conditional access to corporate information Domain joined computers are under the full control of IT and can be provided with complete access to corporate information
  12. 12. NIC Teaming
  13. 13. NIC Teaming in WS2012 • Built-in and supported NIC teaming added in WS2012 • Up to 32 NIC (physical) of different manufacturers in a single team • 2 vNICs in a single team in a guest OS • LBFO • Load balancing: bandwidth aggregation • Failover: automatic NIC fault tolerance • 2 load distribution modes • Address Hashing • Normally used for non-VM networking • Spreads data across physical NICs based on destination address/port hashing • Hyper-V Port • Normally used when connecting a virtual switch • Limits a VM’s NIC to bandwidth of a single physical NIC
  14. 14. Dynamic Load Balancing • New load balancing algorithm in WS2012 R2 • Think of it as the best of: • Hyper-V Port • Address Hashing • Uses “flowlets” to hash outbound data streams across physical NICs in the host’s team • Inbound traffic “affinitized” to a single physical NIC (still can failover) • Default load balancing algorithm • Microsoft STRONGLY recommending that we use this type Virtual adapters Team network adapter Team network adapter
  15. 15. Scaling Up Networking
  16. 16. Dynamic Virtual Machine Queue (dVMQ) 100% utilized Logical Processors { Cores { 0 1 Core 1 2 3 Core 2 4 5 Core 3 Processors (Hyperthreading) { 6 7 8 Core 4 9 10 Core 5 CPU 0 11 Core 6 12 13 Core 7 14 15 Core 8 16 17 Core 9 18 19 Core 10 CPU 1 Management OS Management Live Migration Cluster SMB 3.0 Backup rNIC1 rNIC2 Virtual Machine NIC Team 20 21 Core 11 22 23 Core 12
  17. 17. Receive Side Scaling (RSS) 100% utilized Logical Processors { Cores { 0 1 Core 1 2 3 Core 2 4 5 Core 3 Processors (Hyperthreading) { 6 7 8 Core 4 9 10 Core 5 CPU 0 11 Core 6 12 13 Core 7 14 15 Core 8 16 17 Core 9 18 19 Core 10 CPU 1 Management OS Management Live Migration Cluster SMB 3.0 Backup rNIC1 rNIC2 Virtual Machine NIC Team 20 21 Core 11 22 23 Core 12
  18. 18. Hyper-V VMs Are Enterprise Ready • WS2012 Maximum virtual machine scalability: • • • • 64 virtual processors 1 TB RAM 256 * 64 TB VHDX files VM aware NUMA • We can truly deploy huge services in Hyper-V VMs • But what about the networking? • Can we push huge workloads into those VMs? • Back to basics … before we solve the problem 
  19. 19. Virtual RSS (vRSS) • Added in WS2012 R2 • RSS provides extra processing capacity for inbound traffic to a physical server • Using virtual processors beyond CPU 0 • vRSS does the same thing in the guest OS of a VMM • Allows inbound networking to VMM to scale out • Requires VMs with > 1 virtual processors • DVMQ must be enabled on physical NIC(s) used by virtual switch • Enable RSS in the advanced NIC properties in the VM’s guest OS
  20. 20. Demo: vRSS
  21. 21. Storage Networking
  22. 22. SMB 3.0 • Server Message Block (SMB): • Old protocol • Use for client/server file sharing • Reinvented for WS2012: • Called SMB 2.2 in preview & beta • Renamed to SMB 3.0 in RC & RTM • Designed to rival and beat legacy protocols for applications accessing networked storage: • iSCSI • Fiber Channel • SMB 3.0 is Microsoft’s enterprise data protocol
  23. 23. What Made SMB 3.0 So Good? • SMB Multichannel • • • • Make the most of 1 or more NICs Auto detection, unlike MPIO Used by cluster Redirected IO Use SMB Multichannel Constraints to control NIC selection • SMB Direct • Lots of bandwidth = lots of H/W interrupts = high CPU utilisation • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) capable NICs (rNICs) • Reduce CPU usage, improve performance • Increase scalability of file servers N/W • New SMB workloads: • IIS • SQL Server • Hyper-V over SMB
  24. 24. Changes to SMB 3.0 in WS2012 R2 • Technically it’s SMB 3.02 but still called SMB 3.0 • Improved performance for small I/O workloads • Improved error messages • You can uninstall SMB 1.0 (used by Windows XP and W2003) • New -SmbDelegation PowerShell cmdlets in the AD Module for easier share delegation to hosts (no reboots!) • There is more to WS2012 R2 SMB 3.0 …
  25. 25. Storage Spaces
  26. 26. Reminder: Storage Spaces • An alternative to hardware RAID • This is not Windows RAID of the past • All that was good for was head wrecking exam questions • Storage Spaces added in WS2012 • Does what SANs do but with JBODs • SAS attached “dumb” just-a-bunch-of-disks trays • Special category in the Window Server HCL • Aggregate disks into Storage Pools • Can be used as shared storage for a cluster • Create fault tolerant virtual disks that span the pool’s disks • Simple, 2-way mirror, 3-way mirror, parity • Storage pools can span more than one JBOD
  27. 27. Visualising Storage Spaces Striping Striping Striping Striping Striping Striping Parity Parity1 Parity 2 Parity 3 Parity 4 Parity 5 Parity 6 Simple Simple 1 Simple 2 Simple 3 Simple 4 Simple 5 Simple 6 3-Way Mirror Mirror 1 Mirror 2 Mirror 3 Mirror 1 Mirror 2 Mirror 3 2-Way Mirror Mirror 1 Mirror 2 Mirror 1 Mirror 2 Mirror 1 Mirror 2 Storage Pool Not strictly accurate – purely for indicative purposes
  28. 28. Storage Spaces Hardware • A “dumb” JBOD tray • Trays can be daisy chained - adds: • Disk capacity • Tray fault tolerance (min 3 trays) • Requires: • Dual channel SAS • SCSI Enclosure Services (SES) 1.2 or later • There is a WHQL (HCL) category for supported hardware: • http://tinyurl.com/StorageSpacesHCL
  29. 29. Storage Spaces Improvements • Tiered Storage Spaces • Mix 1 tier of SSD with 1 tier of HDD • Create virtual disks with X GB in SSD tier and Y GB in HDD tier • Pin entire files to SSD tier, e.g. VDI template • Auto scheduled (1am by default) re-tiering of 1 MB slices • Write-Back Cache • Leverage SSD tier as persistent write cache to absorb activity spikes • Just 1 GB of SSD required per virtual disk (LUN) • Improves peak performance of Hyper-V and SQL Server (write-through)
  30. 30. Demo: Write-Back Cache
  31. 31. Scale-Out File Server
  32. 32. Reminder: Scale-Out File Server (SOFS) • Software-defined storage • Place 2-8 cluster nodes in front of cluster supported storage • SAS/iSCSI/FC/FCoE SANs, PCI RAID, JBOD + clustered Storage Spaces • Create Cluster Shared Volumes (CSVs) on storage • Active/active cluster file system • Create File Server for Application Data role on cluster (the SOFS) • Active/active • Create file shares on SOFS, stored on CSVs • Permission to servers (Hyper-V) and administrators • Store data (virtual machines on file shares) • Share physical storage via shared folders and SMB 3.0 • Less LUN management • Easier provisioning • Faster performance via SMB 3.0
  33. 33. Possible Hyper-V Over SMB 3.0 Design Host VM vNIC SOFS Node VM vNIC SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) Mangement OS Cluster Cluster Live Migration SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) vSwitch QoS (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.10 NIC Team DCB QoS rNIC 172.16.1.52 (RSS, DCB) pNIC pNIC (dVMQ) (dVMQ) rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS NIC Team pNIC pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Server/VM Networks Storage Network 1 (DCB) (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 DCB QoS rNIC 172.16.1.51 (RSS, DCB) Mangement Server Network Storage Network 1 (DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB)
  34. 34. Simple SOFS + SAN Design Controller 1 HBA1 HBA2 Controller 2 HBA1 MPIO HBA2 MPIO NIC Team SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS Cluster Cluster SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 DCB QoS rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) pNIC rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) NIC Team pNIC pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Server Network Storage Network 2 (DCB) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS DCB QoS pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Storage Network 1 (DCB) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 Server Network Storage Network 1 (DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB)
  35. 35. Simple SOFS + Storage Spaces Design Controller 1 SAS1 Controller 2 SAS2 SAS1 MPIO SAS2 MPIO NIC Team SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS Cluster Cluster SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 DCB QoS rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) pNIC pNIC rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) NIC Team pNIC pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Server Network Storage Network 2 (DCB) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS DCB QoS 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Storage Network 1 (DCB) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 Server Network Storage Network 1 (DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB)
  36. 36. Added JBOD Capacity & Fault Tolerance Controller 1 SAS1 SAS2 Controller 2 SAS1 MPIO SAS2 MPIO NIC Team SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS Cluster Cluster SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 DCB QoS rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) pNIC rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) NIC Team pNIC pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Server Network Storage Network 2 (DCB) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS DCB QoS pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Storage Network 1 (DCB) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 Server Network Storage Network 1 (DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB)
  37. 37. Added Scalability Via Storage Bricks Single Cluster & SOFS Namespace Controller 1 SAS1 SAS2 Controller 2 SAS1 MPIO Controller 1 SAS2 SAS1 MPIO DCB QoS pNIC pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) Storage Network 1 (DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB) pNIC rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB) pNIC rNIC rNIC 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS NIC Team pNIC pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Server Network Storage Network 1 (DCB) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 DCB QoS pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Server Network Storage Network 1 (DCB) NIC Team DCB QoS pNIC 172.16.1.12 (RSS, DCB) Server Network DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) 172.16.1.11 (RSS, DCB) NIC Team Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 Cluster rNIC DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS SAS2 MPIO SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) DCB QoS rNIC Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 Cluster NIC Team SAS1 MPIO SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) DCB / OS Packet Schedule QoS Cluster Cluster SMB 3.0 Storage (Constrained) Mangement (VLAN 10) 10.0.10.1 SAS2 Controller 2 Server Network Storage Network 1 (DCB) Storage Network 2 (DCB)
  38. 38. SOFS Improvements • Larger CSV Cache Percentage: • Up from max of 20% of RAM on WS2012 to 80% • CSV Load Balancing: • Automatic for best load distribution • SMB Client redirected to SMB Server that also owns the CSV (less cluster Redirected IO) • Dedicated SMB Server for: • CSV operations • SMB client connections
  39. 39. Improving Virtualisation
  40. 40. Generation 2 Virtual Machines • Legacy free • UEFI based • • • • Many emulated devices removed Boots from virtual SCSI or synthetic network adapters Enables UEFI secure boot standard PXE boot from synthetic NIC • Supported guest operating systems: • 64-bit versions of Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 • 64-bit versions of Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 • And yes, System Center 2012 R2 (GA) can manage Generation 2 VMs • Learn much more at http://tinyurl.com/Gen2VM
  41. 41. Enhanced Session Mode • RemoteFX (Remote Desktop) via VMBus • Full remote desktop capabilities • Shared clipboard • Audio redirection • Enhanced login • and more…. • Works even when the VM’s network is down • Integrated into Hyper-V Management experience • Disabled by default in WS2012 R2 Hyper-V host settings • Requires Windows 8.1/WS2012 R2 guest OS
  42. 42. Demo: Enhanced Session Mode & Generation 2 VM
  43. 43. Automatic VM Activation (AVMA) • Zero touch activation of virtual machines • Virtual machines automatically activated according to the hosting environment • Reduces configuration for hosters / enterprises • Install AVMA product key when creating template VM using SLMGR • Create VM template • Deploy VMs from that template • Requires: • Host: Activated WS2012 R2 Datacenter edition • Guest OS: WS2012 R2 Datacenter/Standard/Essentials
  44. 44. Private Cloud
  45. 45. Faster Live Migration • Compression • Makes the most of existing network/hardware investment • Uses spare CPU cycles – CPU monitored by Hyper-V • Over 2x improvement in live migration time • Enabled by default • SMB • For 10 GbE or faster networks • Make the most of network investment for SMB 3.0 • Converged networks • Enables high-speed & low impact live migrations • Uses SMB Multichannel to leverage multiple interfaces • Uses SMB Direct to minimise impact on hosts’ CPUs
  46. 46. Converging SMB 3.0 Cluster (W=10) iWARP rNIC (RSS, DCB) Backup (W=20) • VirtualMachine: Hyper-V over SMB storage traffic • LiveMigration: Live Migration over SMB traffic • Default: All other types of SMB traffic • Set-SmbBandwidthLimit -Category LiveMigration -BytesPerSecond 4GB Management OS SMB Direct (W=70) • A few will install dedicated 10 Gbps or faster networks for Live Migration • Most will converge Live Migration & storage • Traditional QoS just sees SMB 3.0 so how do you guarantee bandwidth to storage AND Live Migration • Add-WindowsFeature FS-SMBBW • Set-SmbBandwidthLimit SMB Multichannel Constraint 10 Gbps Switch1 (VLAN 201, DCB) Management (VLAN 101, W=50) NIC Team (Dynamic) iWARP rNIC (RSS, DCB) 10 Gbps Switch1 (VLAN 202, DCB) 1 Gbps NIC 1 Gbps Switch1 (Trunk Port) 1 Gbps NIC 1 Gbps Switch2 (Trunk Port)
  47. 47. Demo: Live Migration
  48. 48. Online VHDX Resize • Increase and decrease the size of virtual hard disks • While the virtual machine is running!!! • Requires: • VHDX • Attached to VM’s SCSI controller • Tips: • Always put data into dedicated VHDX, e.g. D: drive • When using Hyper-V Replica, place VM’s paging file into dedicated VHDX for selective replication
  49. 49. Storage QoS • Control IOPS of individual virtual hard disks • Enables constant SLA delivery • Dynamically configurable while the virtual machine is running • Can restrict disk throughput for overactive / disruptive virtual machines
  50. 50. Shared VHDX Guest Clustering Guest Clustering with commodity storage Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) on block storage Scale-Out File Server for file based storage Sharing VHDX files provides shared storage for Hyper-V Failover Clustering Guest Clustering Maintains separation between infrastructure and tenants VM presented a shared virtual SAS disk Appears as shared SAS disk to VM Virtual SAS VHDX Block Storage VHDX File Based Storage
  51. 51. Live Virtual Machine Export/Clone • While the virtual machine is running: • Export a complete copy – including memory state • Export any snapshot of a virtual machine • Useful for diagnostics, pre-testing upgrades, etc • Without impacting production services
  52. 52. Improved Features For Linux Guest OS • Continued investment in Hyper-V Linux Integration Services • Built into the Linux distributions • Dynamic Memory • Same features as Windows guests • Live VM Backup • File system consistent • • • • • • Linux video driver Online VHDX resize Kdump/kexec Linux Specification of Memory Mapped I/O (MMIO) gap Linux Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI) Note: Oracle Linux & software now supported on Hyper-V & Azure • Not true of certain other “enterprise” virtualization products!
  53. 53. Availability
  54. 54. Hyper-V Replica • Most popular feature of WS2012 Hyper-V • Lots of feedback • Finer Grained Interval controls: • Choose between asynchronous replication intervals • 30 seconds (“near synchronous”) • 5 minutes (as in WS2012) • 15 minutes • Extended Replication • Replicate from Site A to Site B • Extend replication from Site B to Site C • It is not A-B & A-C • Improved historical copy maintenance in replica site • Up to 24 copies/hours • More IO efficient • Support for injecting alternative IP into Linux guests
  55. 55. Failover Clustering • Always add a witness disk/file share • Dynamic Witness • Vote manipulated to get quorum if witness fails • Configurable GUM Mode: • All nodes must receive and process an update before it is committed to avoid inconsistencies on Hyper-V enabled clusters • Hyper-V Cluster Heartbeat • Increased to avoid needless VM failover due to brief cluster network glitch • Protected Networks • Live migrate VMs if physical LAN connection fails • CSV • Auto-rebalancing across cluster nodes • ReFS support (for archive data) - Up to 64 TB volumes with no CHKDSK
  56. 56. Summary • Listening to customers and refining features • Finally we have a path forward for BYOD that isn’t based on remote desktops • Networking is improving capacities and fault tolerance • See Damian’s session for Software Defined Networking & Hybrid Cloud • Cost/TB of storage has been reduced without sacrificing performance or availability • Maintaining/increasing virtual machine up-time is always a priority • Innovating in virtualization
  57. 57. Thank You! Aidan Finn @joe_elway www.aidanfinn.com Petri IT Knowledgebase
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This is my 75 minutes "highlights" presentation on what's new in WS2012 R2. It's not all encompassing - intended just to get across the key points of the core OS. It followed a "Cloud OS" keynote and preceded a "System Center hybrid cloud" presentation.

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