What is “inquiry”?
• “. . . is a puzzlement!”
What is “information inquiry”?
What is the function of an information inquiry model?
• Ken Haycock:
– An information process model, as a support structure,
fosters the development of research, problem-solving
and metacognitive skills through the collaboration of
the classroom teacher and teacher-librarian. These
concise models inform students of the problem-solving
process and provide context for the assignment.
When young researchers understand an information
process model, they can comprehend the extent of the
task facing them and the necessary strategies to
• Information Process Models
Teacher Librarian 32 no1 34 Oct. 2004
Advantages of a school-wide model
– When teachers and students understand
an information process model, they use
common vocabulary to clarify terminology
and label behaviors, each necessary to
A school-wide information process
model allows students to gradually develop
expert use patterns that enable them to
reduce reliance on the scaffold and to use
model in different contexts, both in
and out of school.
• Information Process Models
A selection of Different Inquiry
• Sorting & Sifting
• Reporting *
(after several repetitions of the cycle)
1. Choose a broad topic
2. Get an overview
3. Narrow the topic
4. Develop thesis statement
5. Formulate questions
6. Plan for research
7. Find, analyze, evaluate
8. Evaluate evidence
9. Establish conclusions
10. Create and present final product
– Barbara Stripling and Judy Pitts
Stripling and Pitts Research Process Model
Judy M. Pitts was an assistant professor in school media
at Emporia State University, an editor of the School
Library Media Quarterly, and a former school media
specialist. Before her death at age 47 on September 26,
1994, Judy completed her doctoral dissertation and
presented her research findings to the AASL Research
Forum at the ALAAnnual Conference on June 26, 1994.
Barbara Stripling, president of
the American Library
5-As by Jukes
• Ian Jukes focuses on the 5 As of information
– Asking - key questions to be answered
– Accessing - relevant information
– Analyzing - the acquired information
– Applying - connect the information to a task
– Assessing - the end result and the process
8Ws of Information Inquiry
• Children don't just “do” information, technology, and
Internet. An inquiry or project-based learning
environment involves wondering about a topic,
wiggling through information, and weaving elements
together. Each student learns and expresses themselves
in a unique way.
• This model was developed by Annette Lamb in the
early 1990s. It was published in the book Surfin’ the
Web: Project Ideas from A to Z by Annette Lamb, Larry
Johnson, and Nancy Smith in 1997 and in an article
called Wondering, Wiggling, and Weaving: A New
Model for Project and Community Based Learning on
See Beginning My
Using the 8W's
February 16, 2015 ~
Carol Kuhlthau’s ISP
• Information Search Process
– The Information Search Process (ISP) is a six
stage model of the users’ holistic experience
in the process of information seeking. The
ISP model, based on two decades of empirical
research, identifies three realms of
experience: the affective (feelings), the
cognitive (thoughts) and the physical
(actions) common to each stage.
PowerPoint presentation of the Information Search Process
Guided Inquiry, based on ISP
• Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century
by Carol C. Kuhlthau, Leslie K. Maniotes, and
Ann K. Caspari. Libraries Unlimited, 2007
Need for inventory of expertise
• Building Guided InquiryTeams for
– Teachers and school librarians experienced in
collaborative team teaching have a good basis for
implementing this flexible team approach. They can
effectively build on what is already in place. The first
step is for participants to take inventory of the expertise
at the school—where are the strengths? What areas
need to be developed? How will gaps be filled?
• Carol C. Kuhlthau and Leslie K. Maniotes
School Library Monthly/Volume XXVI, Number 5/January
What is the Big6?
– Developed by educators
Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz, the Big6
is the most widely-known and widely-used
approach to teaching information and
technology skills in the world.
– Some people call the Big6 an information
problem-solving strategy because with the
Big6, students are able to handle any problem,
assignment, decision or task. Here are the six
stages we call the BIG6.
K-2: The Super3
Game: Match the Super3! (grades K – 2)
The Big6 for Grades 3-6
Game: Match the Big6™ (grades 3 – 6)
An adaptation of the Big 6
• What am I supposed to do?
2. Plan of Action
• How do I get the job done?
3. Doing the Job
• Let’s do it!
4. Product Evaluation
• What do I have to show for it?
5. Process Evaluation
• How well did I do?
The Savvy Seven Research Model
• Developed by Nancy Miller and Connie Champlin
1. What is the Question?
2. What Resources Should I Use?
3. How Do I Find the Information?
4. How Do I Gather the Information?
5. Which Information Do I Use?
6. How Do I Share What I Learned?
7. How Do I Evaluate My Work?
Reminder about any search model!
• They don’t have to be followed in order!
– Often, when you do real research, something comes up that doesn’t fit,
that gives you more questions, conflicts with what another source says, or
that you don’t understand. You will have to go back a step or two and try
again. You are not just aiming for that final product.
– When I work with students on their research in the library, I need to give
them time and permission to be recursive, to go back and find more
information, to make sure things make sense to them. When I begin
instruction, I need to point out ahead of time, that this is likely to happen.
It doesn’t mean that they aren’t doing a good job, in fact, it means the
opposite. Good researchers and thinkers are analyzing their work and
checking for understanding.
• Pam Meiser, Bottom of the Pile, Monday, July 20, 2009
Chapter 7: Modeling Recursion in Research Process Instruction