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Lm household services-grade_9_1st and 2nd quarter

HOUSEHOLD SERVICES HOME ECONOMICS

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Lm household services-grade_9_1st and 2nd quarter

  1. 1. LM-Household Services Grade 9 1 K to 12 Basic Education Program TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS LEARNER’S MATERIAL HOUSEHOLD SERVICES
  2. 2. LM-Household Services Grade 9 2 Executive Summary Have you ever imagined yourself being an excellent housekeeper? Housekeepers who can create an aura of a house spotlessly clean with little or no real help from others. It may seem rude awakening to face the day –to- day task of dusting, sweeping, dishwashing and doing all other operations that demand attention. But your problem is everyone’s problem too. Instead of spending more time thinking about it, worry no more! Here is a learners material that will help you find ways to maintain your home through quick fixes and perform your daily task effectively. It is a learners material that covers Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies, Environment and Market and the core competencies namely Cleaning living room, dining room, bedrooms, toilet and kitchen and; washing and ironing clothes, linen and fabric. Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) section help the learners recognize their own entrepreneurial traits and characteristics that leads or engage them into entrepreneurial world and Environment and Market (E&M) that give learners a good overview on seeking and assessing business opportunities in the area of household services. The core competencies in this book deals with the proper care and maintenance of different parts of the house, doing and performing laundry and ironing with the effective utilization of its cleaning tools and equipment that helps lead in providing quality, efficient and effective household services as prescribed by industry work standards. Lesson in every learning outcome has been prepared with varieties of assessment activities, which both teachers and learners will grasp fully while enjoying learning. Indoor and Outdoor activities are also provided that prepared learners exposed in the industry of work.
  3. 3. LM-Household Services Grade 9 3 It is designed in a collaborative approach that will directly develop both the cognitive and psychomotor skills of students that will prepare them in the world or work and lifelong learning.
  4. 4. LM-Household Services Grade 9 4 Introduction Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the nomenclature in the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) composed of four components; namely, Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and Information and Communication Technology. In this module, the focus is on Home Economics course – Household Services. In this course, varied and relevant activities and opportunities are provided to demonstrate your understanding of concepts and core competencies as prescribed in TESDA Training Regulation in Household Services and provides quality services to target clients. This will also be a venue for you to assess yourself and identify aspects of business that you need to strengthen and safeguard before you become part of the workforce. Today in the world of work, the number of available jobs is scars and the Department of Education is revitalizing its resources to lead the young minds and to prepare them skillfully as future house expert. It is in honing the skills that learners can assure to have an edge of surviving the daily needs of oneself and of others. It seeks to provide students with the knowledge, attitude, values and skills in the field of Household Services. This module is specifically crafted to focus on the different activities that will assess your level in terms of skills and knowledge that you are expected to demonstrate after going through this learner’s materials. Learning procedures are divided into different sections - What to Know, What to Process, What to Reflect and Understand, and What to Transfer. Read and answer the suggested tasks and accomplish them to practice developing a sustainable program, prioritizing needs and building a vision. So, explore and experience the K to 12 TLE Household Services module and be a step closer to be a successful Executive Housekeeper, House Managers, Majordomos, or a Butler. After finishing all the activities in this module, expect job opportunities and experience to set up a business enterprise which will generate jobs for others.
  5. 5. LM-Household Services Grade 9 5 At the start of your journey in learning (Name of Module/ subject matter)____________, the Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies and entrepreneurial mindsets were introduced. In this concept review, you will be reminded of these lessons and you get to assess whether or not you have the competencies found among entrepreneurs. In addition, a brief lesson on the Business Environment and Idea Generation is provided to help contextualize how your skills might be useful for an entrepreneurial venture. Read on to find out! Entrepreneur An entrepreneur is comprehensively defined by Zimmerer & Scarborough (2005) as someone who “creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by identifying significant opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize on them” (p.3). They are the ones who act on their business ideas. Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies There has been many studies to characterize “the entrepreneurial personality”; although there is no isolated set of traits that guarantee success, there were identified behaviors found common to most successful entrepreneurs. There is a well-known research on human behavior done by McClelland and McBer which identified 10 behavioral patterns organized into three general clusters: the achievement, planning, and power clusters (SERDEF, 2007; 1998). It was found out that these behaviors were also typical entrepreneurial behaviors. The entrepreneurial qualities, more known as the Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) are as follows: LEARNING OUTCOME 1: ASSESS PERSONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES CONCEPT REVIEW
  6. 6. LM-Household Services Grade 9 6 Achievement Cluster  Opportunity seeking – Entrepreneurs have a good eye for spotting business opportunities and acts on these opportunities appropriately.  Persistence - Entrepreneurs do not easily give up in the face of obstacles. They will take repeated or different actions to overcome the hurdles of business. This includes making a personal sacrifice or extraordinary effort to complete a job.  Commitment to work contract - Entrepreneur do their best to satisfy customers and to deliver what is promised. They accept full responsibility for problems when completing a job for customers.  Risk-taking - Entrepreneur are known for taking calculated risks and doing tasks that are moderately challenging.  Demand for efficiency and quality - Entrepreneur see to it that the business meets or exceeds existing standards of excellence and exerts efforts to improve past performance and do things better. They set high but realistic standards. Planning Cluster  Goal setting - Entrepreneur knows how to set specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound (SMART) goals. It is easy for them to divide large goals into short-term goals.  Information seeking - Entrepreneur update themselves with new information about their customers, the market, suppliers, and competitors. This is rooted to their innate sense of curiosity.  Systematic planning and monitoring - Entrepreneurs develop and use logical, step-by-step plans to reach their goals. They monitor progress towards goals and to alter strategies when necessary.
  7. 7. LM-Household Services Grade 9 7 Power Cluster  Persuasion and networking - Entrepreneurs know how to use the right strategies to influence or persuade other people. They have naturally established a network of people who they can turn to in order to achieve their objectives.  Self-confidence - Entrepreneurs have a strong belief in themselves and their own abilities. They have self-awareness and belief in their own ability to complete a difficult task or meet a challenge. Assess your Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies by answering the items in the next page.
  8. 8. LM-Household Services Grade 9 8 Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) Self-rating Questionnaire Read each statement carefully and answer honestly based on how well it describes you. There are five choices as follows: Please write the number you have selected on the space before each statement. Some statements may be similar but no two are exactly alike. Please go through each statement and answer all the items. Rating ______1.I look for things that need to be done. ______2.When I am faced with a difficult problem, I spend a lot of time trying to find a solution. ______3.I complete my work on time. ______4.It bothers me when things are not done very well. ______5.I prefer situations in which I can control the outcomes as much as possible. ______6.I like to think about the future. ______7.When starting a new task or project, I gather a great deal of information before going ahead. ______8.I plan a large project by breaking it down into smaller tasks. ______9.I get others to support my recommendations. ______10.I feel confident that I will succeed at whatever I try to do. ______11.No matter whom I’m talking to, I’m a good listener. ______12.I do things that need to be done before being asked to by others. ______13.I try several times to get people to do what I would like them to do. ______14.I keep the promises I make. ______15.My own work is better than that of other people work with. ______16.I don’t try something new without making sure I will succeed. ______17.It’s a waste of time to worry about what to do with your life. ______18.I seek the advice of people who know a lot about the tasks I am working on. ______19.I think about the advantages and disadvantages or different ways of accomplishing things. ______20.I do not spend much time thinking how to influence others. ______21.I change my mind if others disagree strongly with me. ______22.I feel resentful when I don’t get my way. ______23.I like challenges and new opportunities. ______24.When something gets in the way of what I’m trying to do, I keep on trying to accomplish what I want. ______25.I am happy to do someone else’s work if necessary to get the job done on time. ______26.It bothers me when my time is wasted. ______27.I weigh my chances of succeeding or failing before I decide to do something. ______28.The more specific I can be about what I want out of life, the more chances I have to succeed. ______29.I take action without wasting time gathering information. ______30.I try to think of all the problems I may encounter and plan what to do if each problem occurs. ______31.I get important people to help me accomplish my goals. ______32.When trying something challenging, I feel confident that I will succeed. 5 – Always 4 – Usually 3 – Sometimes 2 – Rarely 1 - Never
  9. 9. LM-Household Services Grade 9 9 Please proceed to the next section where you may determine your score. The point system will indicate whether you manifest strong tendencies or weak inclinations towards a particular behavior. Source: Liberal, AE. E. (2007). Appraising and developing yourself for an entrepreneurial career. (Eds.) Maghirnf, T., Librando, P., Esguerra, D., &Recio, D.In Introduction to Entrepreneurship. Quezon City: Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation, Inc. in cooperation with UP-ISSI. pp: 41-43. Rating ______33.In the past, I have had failures. ______34.I prefer activities that I know well and with which I am comfortable. ______35.When faced with major difficulties, I quickly go on to other things. ______36.When I am doing a job for someone, I make a special effort to make sure that person is happy with my work. ______37.I am never entirely happy with the way things are done; I always think there must be a better way. ______38.I do things that are risky. ______39.I have a very clear plan for my life. ______40.When working on a project for someone, I ask many questions to be sure I understand what that person wants. ______41.I deal with problems as they arise, rather than spend time trying to anticipate them. ______42.In order to reach my goals, I think of solutions that benefit. ______43.I do very good work. ______44.There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone. ______45.I try things that are very new and different from what I have done before. ______46.I try several ways to overcome things that get in the way of reaching my goals. ______47.My family and personal life are more important to me than work deadlines I set for myself. ______48.I find ways to complete tasks faster at work and at home. ______49.I do things that others consider risky. ______50.I am as concerned about meeting my weekly goals as I am for my yearly goals. ______51.I go to several different sources to get information for tasks or projects. ______52.If one approach to a problem does not work, I think of another approach. ______53.I am able to get people who have strong opinions or ideas to change their minds. ______54.I stick with my decisions even if others disagree strongly with me. ______55.When I don’t know something, I don’t mind admitting it.
  10. 10. LM-Household Services Grade 9 10 PEC’s Scoring Sheet Please enter your ratings in the PECs scoring sheet. The number in parenthesis corresponds to the questionnaire item number. Notice that the item numbers are listed consecutively for each column. Perform the addition and subtraction as indicated in each row to compute for each PECs. Rating of Statements Score PECs + + - + + 6 = Opportunity (1) (12) (23) (34) (45) Seeking + + - + + 6 = Persistence (2) (13) (24) (35) (46) + + + - + 6 = Commitment to (3) (14) (25) (36) (47) work contract + + + - + 6 = Demand for Efficiency (4) (15) (26) (37) (48) & Quality - + + + + 6 = Risk taking (5) (16) (27) (38) (49) - + + + + 6 = Goal setting (6) (17) (28) (39) (50) + - + + + 6 = Information seeking (7) (18) (29) (40) (51) + + - + + 6 = Systematic planning (8) (19) (30) (41) (52) & monitoring - + + + + 6 = Persuasion & (9) (20) (31) (42) (53) Networking - + + + + 6 = Self-confidence (10) (21) (32) (43) (54) - - - + + 18 = Correction Factor (11) (22) (33) (44) (55) Source: Liberal, AE. E. (2007). Appraising and developing yourself for an entrepreneurial career. (Eds.) Maghirang, T., Librando, P., Esguerra, D., & Recio, D. In Introduction to Entrepreneurship. Quezon City: Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation, Inc. in cooperation with UP-ISSI. pp: 43-44.
  11. 11. LM-Household Services Grade 9 11 The PECs Scoring Sheet with Correction Factor The Correction Factor is used to provide a more accurate assessment of the PECs of each respondent. If the total score of items 11, 22, 33, 44, and 55 is 20 or greater, then the total score on the ten PECs must be corrected. Use the table below to determine the corrected score. If the correction factor is: Subtract the following number from each PECs score: 24 or 25 7 22 or 23 5 20 or 21 3 19 or less 0 Correct each PECs score before using the Profile Sheet Corrected Score Sheet PECs Original Correction Corrected Score Opportunity seeking - = Persistence - = Commitment to work contract - = Demand for quality & efficiency - = Risk taking - = Goal setting - = Information seeking - = Systematic planning & monitoring - = Persuasion & networking - = Self-confidence - = Corrected Total Score: Source: Liberal, AE. E. (2007). Appraising and developing yourself for an entrepreneurial career. (Eds.) Maghirang, T., Librando, P., Esguerra, D., & Recio, D. In Introduction to Entrepreneurship. Quezon City: Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation, Inc. in cooperation with UP-ISSI. pp: 44-45.
  12. 12. LM-Household Services Grade 9 12 Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) Profile Sheet Transfer the corrected PECs score to the profile sheet by marking an “X” at the appropriate point on the horizontal line provided for each PEC category. After plotting your PECs score, connect all the “Xs” with a heavy line. SAMPLE PECs PROFILE Opportunity seeking Persistence Commitment to work contract Demand for quality & efficiency Risk taking Goal setting Information seeking Systematic planning & monitoring Persuasion & networking Self-confidence Interpretation A lower score means a ‘weak’ performance and a higher score translates to a ‘strong’ performance on a particular competency. A ‘weak’ performance should be regarded as a challenge or an opportunity for improvement rather than a cause for worry. Improving a competency entails enough determination, correct practice and strategies, and time for maturation. 0 5 10 15 20 25 X X X X X X X X X X
  13. 13. LM-Household Services Grade 9 13 Source: Liberal, AE. E. (2007). Appraising and developing yourself for an entrepreneurial career. (Eds.) Maghirang, T., Librando, P., Esguerra, D., & Recio, D. In Introduction to Entrepreneurship. Quezon City: Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation, Inc. in cooperation with UP-ISSI. pp: 45-46.
  14. 14. LM-Household Services Grade 9 14 Business Environment and Market The study of the business environment in a particular location has far-reaching and long-term effects on a small or micro enterprise’s viability. In fact, business ideas and opportunities are partly shaped or determined by the business location. Unless it is possible to migrate to more favorable locations, the ideas and opportunities for business will oftentimes be delimited to the surrounding areas. The business environment consists of both the tangible and intangible factors that affect either the external or internal business operations. They may include the land area available for economic zones, the physical layout and barriers such as rivers, parks or lakes, and building obstructions as well as the transportation network; all of which are considered tangible factors. They also include the demography of clients and suppliers, the competitors in the locale/area and the available technology for production. The intangible factors, on the other hand, include the sub-culture, industry trends, economic and government activity or the political situations in the area. LEARNING OUTCOME 2: UNDERSTAND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT & BUSINESS IDEAS
  15. 15. LM-Household Services Grade 9 15 Natural and Physical Environment. This concerns the physical location of a business’ store. The natural environment also pertains to the natural and man-made structures that may enhance the beauty of the location, such as a park or a sea front view, or serve as barrier to the location, such as a dump site or high rise structures that obstruct a view. The living condition in an area also serves as a standard for the ambience you want to create for your store. There is also a phenomenon referred to as clustering, where a particular type of product is offered within the same area. For instance, most guitar shops are clustered along the intersection of V. Mapa and Aurora Avenue in Metro Manila; Filipino craft stores crowd the area under the Quiapo bridge; or car accessories are found in Banawe area. The key word to have in mind when scanning the physical environment is the visibility of your intended store to the potential clients. YOUR BUSINESS Culture Sub-culture, Race, Emotional environment Economy National International - Competitors Technology Trend Production Demography Potentialtarget client,migration pattern Natural & Physical Environment Livingconditions, Facilities,Barriers Government Regulations Policies
  16. 16. LM-Household Services Grade 9 16 Demography. This pertains to the number of people living in the area, their age, gender, socio-economic status, family size, religion and even growth trends. These are invaluable information that can help entrepreneurs in matching their product to the target market, in deciding for the marketing strategy, pricing and product packaging among others. Culture. Culture or sub-culture, being the totality of the way of life, ideas and customs of a set of people or society, primarily influence the types of products that are acceptable to a particular locality. For example, the influence of the Japanese culture gave rise to minimalist designs. A sub-culture also shapes the ‘emotional’ environment of an area. For instance, the feeling of ‘fear’ for a specific location may serve as a barrier for a business; a place where one does not feel safe because of the prevalence of crime will discourage entrepreneurs. Changes in the lifestyle, which is brought about by changes in the population demography and the economy, also affect a business. These lifestyle changes may be the increase of women’s participation in the world of work, change in buying patterns and shift in tastes. Government Regulations. The laws and policies of the national and local government units also influence the business operations. Some examples of policies that directly affect entrepreneurs are the imposition or removal of taxes for products, the establishment of economic zones and assistance in product labeling and packaging of products. In addition, improvement of facilities and roads improve transportation network that facilitates transfer of products from one area to another or promotes accessibility for consumers. Economy. This pertains to the management of resources and study of the system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. A country’s economy influences both the entrepreneurs and consumers as it relates to the financial matters of business like taxes and interest rates and to the quality of life, cost of utilities and services, among others. Even small scale entrepreneurs must learn to study economic indicators to improve business forecasts, such as when to buy certain materials and supplies, when to open a store or introduce new products based on consumer spending, or when to hire employees. Some examples of economic indicators include the (a) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which increases when a country’s economy is doing good; (b) Unemployment rate which
  17. 17. LM-Household Services Grade 9 17 indicates that more unemployed people usually signal an economy getting worse; and (c) Price Indexes and Inflation rates which determine the buying power of consumers. The existing enterprises, who are either direct or indirect competitors, are also part of the business environment. It is important to scout for products or services that answer a similar need to what you intend to provide. Think of how you can create a niche that will differentiate your product from the other businesses – either in specifying a target market or in differentiating your product quality or price. The key concept to think about is acquiring a reasonable market share despite of the competition. Technology. Technological changes are inventions based on the application of science that create new product or process improvements. Some examples of technological changes are mobile tools that enable online connection, new business tools for analysis and database, social networks and modern, digital equipment. These advances in technology result to efficiency and productivity at a lesser cost. It can be observed that sending message through e-mail provides a cheaper and faster means compared to hand-delivered mails (snail mails). An entrepreneur can benefit from technological changes by identifying the appropriate technological solution available in the area or locale. At this point, it must be quite clear why an environment scanning of an area considered as business site is helpful for the entrepreneur. In effect, the impact of the factors in the business environment does not only include the business operation but is even relevant at the start of the venture – during the business idea generation and opportunity identification stage. A concise guide on how to spot and identify business opportunities are provided in the following section. Keep reading! Spotting and Identifying Business Opportunities Spotting business opportunities is one of the most essential aspects of entrepreneurship. An entrepreneur must have a keen eye for identifying opportunities that can potentially turn into a good product or business venture. At the same time, an entrepreneur should also know which opportunities to drop and which ones to develop.
  18. 18. LM-Household Services Grade 9 18 Idea Generation The first step in identifying a good business opportunity is to look for many opportunities. This is called the idea generation phase (SERDEF, 2007). The following are good sources of business ideas (Hisrich, Peters, & Shepherd, 2008; Looser & Schlapfer, 2001). 1. Personal hobbies and interests 2. Everyday experiences, travel, and adventures 3. Suggestions from family members and friends 4. Problems that need solutions 5. Problems with existing products 6. Books, magazines, news 7. Observing, listening around you Screening Business Ideas Once you have generated a number of business opportunities and ideas, the next step is to select and screen these. Though there can be many ways to do this, a good way to proceed is to screen your ideas based on the following criteria: 1) your personality and personal preferences and 2) the characteristics of a good business (SERDEF, 2007). 1. Personality and Personal Preferences a. Personal Preference b. Education, Skills, and Experience c. Work Experience d. Support from family and friends 2. Characteristics of a good business a. Demand for Product b. Availability of skills, raw materials, technology, and capital c. Profitability SWOT Analysis Once you have chosen your business idea, the next step is to conduct a SWOT analysis in order to determine the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of your potential business. This step will help you improve your business of choice and prepare for challenges. The table below will help you differentiate among these four features.
  19. 19. LM-Household Services Grade 9 19 Remember to refer back to these guidelines and tools when you are ready to think of your next business ideas! Positive Negative Controllable Factors Strengths positive factors that contribute to the favorability of a business opportunity Examples: Cheap raw materials Skilled employees Ease of management Small capital outlay Weaknesses set of problems, difficulties or shortcomings encountered by the business Examples: Inexperienced owner Lack of working capital Poor location Uncontrollable Factors Opportunities positive factors that are not within the control of the business. Examples: Absence of similar products in the market New markets being developed Growing demand for similar products Favorable government policy Threats negative factors that are beyond the control of the business Examples: Rising costs Raw material shortages Too many competitors
  20. 20. LM-Household Services Grade 9 20 REFERENCES: Histrich, R., Peters, M., & Shepherd, D. (2008). Entrepreneurship. New York: McGraw-Hill. Liberal, A.E. (2007). Appraising and developing yourself for an entrepreneurial career. In T. Maghirang, P. Librando, D. Esguerra, & D. Recio (eds.), Introduction to entrepreneurship (2nd ed.). Quezon City: Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation, Inc. Looser, U. & Schläpfer, B. (2001). The new venture adventure. New York: McKinsen and Company. Zimmerer, T. and Scarborough, N. (2005). Essentials of entrepreneurship and small business management. 4th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. CREDITS FOR IMAGE USED: Fat Pencil courtesy of OpenClipArt.org Free font “KGWays to Say Goodbye” by Kimberly Geswein at www.dafont.com Good start! After learning PECs and Environment and Market, you’re qualified to move on to our first lesson of Quarter 1, which is cleaning different parts of the house. But answer first Diagnostic Test prepared for you. Time to explore and enjoy! Good luck!
  21. 21. LM-Household Services Grade 9 21 Diagnostic Assessment A. MATCHING TYPE Direction. Match the item in Column A with those in Column B. Write the correct letter in your answer sheet. A B ______1. Resilient floors which is commonly used in household ______2. A collectible piece of furniture that is very expensive because of its considerable age ______3. Removing stains through friction ______4. A type of linen that protects the bed mattress against blood stains and urine. ______5. Solid waste materials that are non compostable and non- recyclable ______6. It is repairing a hole by weaving in new threads. It is usually done on sock heels or sweater elbows of cotton and wool fabrics. ______7. This is basic stitching lines where parts are joined together. This is where the seams are not stitched correctly. ______8. This soil remover is milder than detergents because they are made of mild and natural materials. ______9.This soil remover is a strong, fast acting and very effective for cotton, linen, and synthetic fabrics. ______10. It is the process of removing mark or spot eradicate by one substance on a specific surface like fabric a. antique b. bed pad c. bedcover d. chemical method e. residual waste f. special waste g. soft floor h. physical method i. torn seam j. darning k. soap l. chlorine m. stain
  22. 22. LM-Household Services Grade 9 22 IDENTIFICATION Direction. Identify the following term that is being asked. Write the correct word/term in your answer sheet. _______1. Type of floors that is durable, versatile and not easily pierced floor. _______2. The application of coats of wax to the floor to make it appear glossy and appealing _______3. Spots and stains removal process with the use and application of chemical solutions _______4. A thick bed covering that is filled with soft light material. _______ 5. Hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of waste. _______ 6.This is a long, narrow padded board, often with collapsible supporting legs, used as a working surface for ironing. _______ 7. A home appliance consisting of a flat metal base that is heated and used to smooth cloth. ________8. Cutting a piece of cloth of the same material to cover a hole or tear. ________9. It is a device in the shape of human shoulders designed to facilitate the hanging of coat, jacket, sweater, shirt, blouse, or dress in a manner that prevents wrinkles, with a lower bar for the hanging of trouses or skirts. ______10. This is a kind of stain that can be treated by brushing spot with a soft brush. You can also scratch ring around with fingernail. For remaining spots, rotate that part of garment above streaming spout of tea kettle-first covering spout with cheesecloth.
  23. 23. LM-Household Services Grade 9 23 B. MODIFIED TRUE OR FALSE Direction. Read and analyze the statements below. Write the word true if the statement is correct, if not change the underline word/s that will make the statement correct. 1. Granite is the most expensive and very attractive type of floor. 2. Clearing is the final step in floor cleaning, which involves removal of tucked in dirt through the use of cleaners. 3. Armchair, bed, coffee table and cabinets are some examples of fixture and fittings 4. Placemat is a protective table pad that is usually made of paper, plastic, or cloth for restaurants and household used which is otherwise known as tablecloth 5. Papers, plastics and metals are classified as compostable waste. 6. Pressing is just the same with ironing. 7. There is no prescribed place for ironing clothes. 8. Iron has its prescribed heat setting for a particular type of fabric. 9. To save time money and effort it is not important to keep in mind the safety work habits. 10. Use bleaches directly on the fabric. This will remove stain immediately.
  24. 24. LM-Household Services Grade 9 24 C. CASE STUDY Direction. Read the situations below and choose the letter that corresponds to your answer. Justify your answer by completing the statement below. 1. One Saturday morning your mother asked you to clean your house especially the floor. Since you have vinyl type floor, what will be the best cleaning procedures you will do to perform your task effectively? a. Use mild detergent, rinse and dry it with vacuum. b. Use strong detergent, rinse and remove water promptly. c. Use neutral detergent solution, rinse and dry it with vacuum. d. Use neutral detergent; damp it with mop and air dry. My answer is _____ because_______________________ 2. After class hours your teacher asked you and your friend to clean the floor of the corridor using floor mop. What other cleaning tool you will get with your partner to make your work easier and faster. a. cleaning cloth b. mop wringer c. scrubbing pads d. vacuum cleaner My answer is _____ because________________________ 3. While doing your school homework the candle you used for your experiment drip and mark in your dining table. What will be the best way to remove the stains and spots caused by the candle? a. Table surface will be wiped immediately b. Use clean cloth to wipe the affected area immediately then put clean cloth and press it with an iron c. Place a white blotter soaked in lighter fluid over the spot and let it dry.
  25. 25. LM-Household Services Grade 9 25 d. Use spatula, cloth with liquid wax and wipe it with a clean cloth My answer is _____ because________________________ 4. Barangay North Fairview strictly implemented Clean and Green project where every neighbor will clean their area and follow proper waste segregation. With these activity barangay North Fairview greatly supports to; a. Beautification project b. Global warming c. Recycling d. Waste Management My answer is _____ because________________________ 5. In HE class, your group is task to prepare and cook pasta following the correct procedures. All members are assigned different responsibility for the cooking activity. You are assigned to bring tools that will strain the pasta after boiling. What will you bring? a. colander b. peller c. spatula d. steamer My answer is _____ because_______________________ 6. Jessica will be attending a Junior-Senior high school prom and she will sew her own gown. What particular type of fabric she will be using? a. Velvet b. Wool c. Curdoroy d. Satin My answer is _____ because________________________
  26. 26. LM-Household Services Grade 9 26 7. Enzo was given an assignment by his teacher in TLE. He was told to sew a long-sleeve polo shirt to be worn for the upcoming Annual Fashion Show. What type of fabric will he buy to sew a long sleeve? a. Cotton b. Velvet c. Silk d. Satin My answer is _____ because________________________ 8. Grandmother went to the parlor for manicure, she accidentally touch her shirt by her new apply nail polish. How will she remove it. a. Damped stain with carbon tetrachloride. b. Put the stain area of a top blotter or absorbent paper towels. c. Wash out stain immediately after it has been spilled with clear water. d. Rub lard or white Vaseline or glycerin? My answer is _____ because________________________ 9. Father is cooking dinner for the family, while cutting vegetable he accidentally hit his index finger. He presses his finger with his towel, so, bloodstain left in his towel. How will he remove the bloodstain in the towel? a. Allow the stain to dry. Brush of any hard residue, then launder to remove any marks b. Soak entire garment in cool water. Then soak in an enzyme – based detergent c. Brush spot with a soft brush. d. Scrape off as much as wax as possible. My answer is _____ because________________________
  27. 27. LM-Household Services Grade 9 27 10. Jason came late after the class due to heavy rain. He was walking on the muddy road way home. His pants smudge with plenty of mud stain. How will he remove the mud stain? a. Allow stain to dry. Brush of any hard residue, then launder to remove any remaining marks. b. Flush with cool water, then sponge stain with a dry- cleaning solvent. c. Soak the stained garment for 15 minutes in a bucket of cold water mixed with handful of salt. d. Brush spot with a soft brush. You can also scratch ring spots, rotate that part of garment above streaming. My answer is _____ because_______________________
  28. 28. LM-Household Services Grade 9 28 QUARTER I Lesson1: CLEAN LIVING ROOM, DINING ROOM, BEDROOMS, BATHROOM AND KITCHEN Learning Outcome 1: Clean surfaces and floors Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the learner is expected to: 1. Explain the types of floor and surface texture 2. Perform cleaning, sweeping and polishing techniques of different household areas as per standard operating procedures. 3. Demonstrate proper maintenance of floor in accordance with relevant safety procedures and manufacturer’s instructions. This lesson with the learning competencies clean surfaces and floors discusses and explain the types of floors and surface texture. Techniques in cleaning, sweeping and polishing following the standard procedures are also demonstrated which will guide you in developing the skills and knowledge to work effectively in industry and with your daily tasks.
  29. 29. LM-Household Services Grade 9 29 Pre - test: Let’s See What You Know A. MULTIPLE CHOICE Direction. Read the statement carefully and write the letter that best describes the statement. Put your answer in your answer sheet. 1. Type of floor that is durable, versatile and not easily pierced. a. hard floor c. vinyl b. soft floor d. terra cotta 2. Type of floor which is durable, light weight, easy to clean and has anti bacterial properties. a. bamboo floor c. linoleum b. concrete d. marble 3. Mixture of sand and cement with gravel, broken stone and other elements. a. ceramic c. linoleum b. concrete d. terra cotta 4. Similar to linoleum but it is more durable and highly resistant to moisture. a. rubber flooring c. wood floors b. pebble washout d. vinyl 5. Floor surface texture developed through intense heat treated with sealer and very porous. a. bush hammered c. sawn b. flamed d. tumbled 6. Major consideration for successful flooring. a. spacing c. surface texture b. styles d. versatility 7. The function of white scouring pads in cleaning. a. cleaning painted surfaces b. cleaning glass mirrors c. cleaning marble and porcelain
  30. 30. LM-Household Services Grade 9 30 d. all of the above 8. The process which includes clearing, stripping, sealing and finishing surfaces a. bed making c. washing b. floor cleaning d. sweeping 9. The process that uses a lightly wet mop to clear the floor with dirt and soil. a. damp mopping c. floor stripping b. dust mopping d. plain polishing 10.Floor cleaning process which involves elimination of embedded dirt, oil and old layers in the floors. a. finishing c. sealing b. maintaining d. stripping 11.The process that removes dirt and trash from the floor a. Shampooing c. spray buffing b. Sweeping d. vacuuming 12.The process of eliminating embedded dirt on floors using a vacuum cleaner a. extraction c. spray buffing b. plain polishing d. vacuuming 13.Cleaning equipment used for dry foam shampooing of carpets. a. carpet extractor c. floor polisher b. carpet sweeper d. vacuum cleaner 14.Equipment for cleaning and dusting the floor. a. cleaning cloth c. mop b. dustpan d. scrubbing pads 15.The removable furniture that can be moved from one area to another. a. antique c. cantilevered b. built – in d. upholstered
  31. 31. LM-Household Services Grade 9 31 16.Classification of sofas and chairs in furniture selection. a. cantilevered c. free standing b. fitted d. upholstered 17.Below are examples of fixtures and fittings except one: a. air condition c. wardrobe b. doors d. telephone 18.One of the principles to follow when arranging furniture a. budget c. time b. color d. unity 19.Easiest stain to remove by just completely rinsing in cold water with cool biological soak. a. Greasy stains c. Protein stains b. Organic stains d. Tannin stains 20.These are stains that do not fall into any specific grouping such as scorch and chewing gum. a. Combination stains c. Organic stains b. Dye stains d. Special stains
  32. 32. LM-Household Services Grade 9 32 Lesson 1.1 TYPES OF FLOOR AND SURFACE TEXTURE Floors are important aspect of house interiors as they are both functional and decorative. It can make a good aura in the over - all appearance which enhances the uniqueness and ambiance of one’s residence. Floors come in a wide variety of colors, shapes, sizes, and styles, which adds to its versatility. The type of floor used can give a great impression when used at home, hotels or other establishments. Types of Floor 1. Hard floors These are durable, versatile and not easily pierced which comes in different sizes and colors. They are usually used in the living and dining rooms, terraces and sometimes in the utility area. Hard floors include the following: a. Bamboo floors - a form of flooring that is made from bamboo grass which is attractive alternative for flooring because of its physical similarities to hardwoods. It is durable, elegant, versatile, and insects and moisture resistance. b. Ceramic Tiles - it emulates the look of natural stone products, which are an excellent alternative for the value-oriented buyer since it is less expensive than other type of floors. These are hard, brittle, heat resistant products which comes unglazed or with high glaze.
  33. 33. LM-Household Services Grade 9 33 c. Concrete - a mixture of sand and cement with gravel, broken stone and other elements, which could be formed into a desired form. d. Granite - are expensive and more attractive types of floor e. Marble - are products that are processed from blocks that are quarried everywhere in the world. It comes in variety of sizes and colors, which primarily comprised of calcium carbonate and other minerals. f. Pebble washout - a mixture of cements and river stones, where color depends on the stones used in the mixture and the cement. g. Laminate flooring - are cheaper and they are easy to maintain. Is virtually resistant to burns, scratches, chipping and is great for high traffic areas. h. Terra Cotta - are hard baked clay tile reddish or red – yellow colors. i. Wood floors - a hard floor type that manufactured from timber which is either structural or aesthetic. A common choice due to its durability, restorability and environmental benefits.
  34. 34. LM-Household Services Grade 9 34 2. Soft floors Otherwise known as resilient floors which is one of the commonly used in household. Soft floors are classified as follows: a. Rubber flooring - an environmentally friendly natural product, which can be textured or profiled, it has an anti slip inclusions which require a more aggressive cleaning regime than smooth rubber floors. Is a durable, lightweight and easy to clean, but often has a smooth finish, which is likely to be slippery when wet. b. Vinyl - one of the finest choices for its long lasting quality and affordability among other types of floors. Similar to linoleum but it is more durable and highly resistant to moisture. Mainly used in offices, malls and residential areas for it’s easy to maintain and with a cheaper cost. c. Linoleum - an environmentally friendly type with natural antibacterial properties, which is durable, lightweight and easy to clean, but usually, has a smooth finish. Usually comes rolled and ready to install d. Carpet - a floor or stair covering made from thick woven fabric, typically shaped to fit a particular room. Surface texture of floors is also considered in the choice of floors to be used. Below are the different types of surface texture of floors. Bush Hammered develops a textured surface where degree of roughness can be selected
  35. 35. LM-Household Services Grade 9 35 Flamed a rough surface that developed through intense heat. It is very porous and must be treated with sealers. Honed this surface is very smooth, but often very porous. This texture is common in high traffic buildings which is always be protected with penetrating sealer because of it has wide – open pores. Polished very smooth and not very porous. It is a glossy surface that brings out brilliant colors and grains of the natural stone. Sand Blasted a surface type that is the result of a pressurized flow of sand and water that provides a textured surface with a matte gloss. Sawn a process performed by using a gang saw Tumbled a slightly rough texture that is achieved by tumbling small pieces of marble, limestone, and sometimes granite to achieve an archaic / worn appearance.
  36. 36. LM-Household Services Grade 9 36 Review of Lesson 1.1 A. DISCUSS THE TYPES OF FLOOR Direction. Write inside the box the appropriate characteristics of the type of floor. Ceramic tiles Marble Concrete Vinyl Linoleum Rubber
  37. 37. LM-Household Services Grade 9 37 A. CLASSIFICATION OF THE TYPES OF FLOOR Direction. Classify the following floor types accordingly. Write the initial HF for hard floor and SF for soft floor. Put your answer on your notebook. _______1. Ceramic tiles ________6. Concrete _______2. Terra Cotta ________7. Vinyl _______3. Rubber flooring ________ 8. Linoleum _______4. Bamboo floors ________9. Pebble _______5. Wood floors ________10. Marble B. DEMONSTRATION ON CLEANING THE FLOOR Direction. The whole class will be divided based on the number of students. The activity is to clean the floor applying its proper procedures. After the activity the group will assess their performance using the rubrics provided below.
  38. 38. LM-Household Services Grade 9 38 SCORING RUBRICS ON CLEANING THE FLOOR 30% Highly Skilled (30-29) Skilled (28-27) Moderately Skilled (26-25) Unskilled (24-23) No attempt (22-21) Proper and effective use of tools, equipment, and materials Appropriate and effective selection, preparation and use of materials and tools /equipment all the time. Appropriate and effective selection, preparation and use of materials and tools/ equipment most of the time. Appropriate and effective selection, preparation and use of materials and tools/equipment some of the time. Never selects, prepares and use appropriate materials and tools/ equipment No attempt to use tools/ equipment to task given 30% (30-29) (28-27) (26-25) (24-23) (22-21) Work Application Procedure Systematic application of all work procedure all the time even without proper supervision Systematic application of work procedure most of the time with minimum supervision Systematic application of work procedure some of the time with constant supervision Never follows systematic application of procedure and highly development on supervision No attempt to apply procedure to the task given 25% (25-24) (23-22) (21-20) (19-18) (17-16) Safety and security work habits Highly self- motivated and observes all safety and security precautions all the time Self- motivated and observes most safety and security precautions most of the time in work Self- motivated and observes sometimes some of the safety and security precautions in work Needs to be motivated and does not observe safety and security precaution in work Not motivated and totally disregards safety and security precautions in work 15% (15-14) (13-12) (11-10) (9-8) (7-6) Speed/Time Finished the work ahead of time Finished the work on time Finished the work close to given time Finished the work beyond the given time. No work at all
  39. 39. LM-Household Services Grade 9 39 Lesson 1.2 PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES ON FLOOR AND SURFACE CLEANING The type of floor and surface texture affects the aura of one’s home. It adds elegance and quality, which needs care and maintenance for its purpose. Floors should not only look shiny and clean, but should be maintained properly. Damages such as crack, broken or torn should be repaired or replaced immediately to avoid any form of accidents. Cleaning and polishing are the two main activities that household workers should consider for floor and surface maintenance. The diagram below shows the floors cleaning processes that make floor cleaning successful. Step 1: Clearing First step in floor cleaning where the area will be clear so it will be free from any distraction and do the task effectively. Step 2: Stripping Second process in floor cleaning where embedded dirt; oil and old layers of floor finish and sealer are eliminated. Apply the stripping chemicals with the use of mop head; allow chemical to stay on the floor for five minutes then scrub the area using the stripping pad. Rinse the area with the use of water with soap and dry it with mop head. Mop, stripping pad, hand gloves, polisher, mop wringer, warming device, ropes, cord, floor stripper or wax remover are the supplies and materials needed in these process. Sealing Finishing MaintainingStrippingClearing
  40. 40. LM-Household Services Grade 9 40  The following are the specific procedures in daily cleaning of floors Damp mopping – mopping the floor with lightly wet mop to clear the floor of dirt and soil. Dust mopping – dusting of dirt using mops with handle. Step 3: Sealing Smoothing process to rough surfaces, scratches and other types of floor damages to enhance it’s over all appearance comprises this step. It requires an application of a sealing solution, which protect the glaze of the tiles, makes the floor look better, cling together and last longer Step 4: Finishing Application of coats of wax to make it appear glossy and appealing to the eyes deals with this process. A proper step to makes floor better protected from damages and stains that will also prolongs the life of the floors. Mops, mop wringer, finishing solution are the materials needed in this process. Step 5: Maintaining Final step, which involves removal of tucked – in dirt through the use of cleaners. Repeated buffing keeps shine until the next stripping and finishing job becomes absolutely necessary Sweep the floor thoroughly until dusts are removed then mop the area using open eight figure motion or over lapping motion to remove dirt on the floor then buff it thoroughly.
  41. 41. LM-Household Services Grade 9 41 Extraction– cleaning process that is extracting deeply embedded dirt and soil in carpets especially those in inner layers that cannot be removed by shampooing. Finishing floors – performed on floors that are stripped of old wax and dirt and sealed for protection. The finishing is accomplished through the application of wax or floor shine and polishing thereafter using a floor polisher. Floor stripping – requires application of stripping solution. Plain polishing – retouching the shine of floors by using a polisher. Shampooing–a process that apply to carpet which is the removal of embedded dirt and stains using carpet shampoo either manually of by use of a machine. Spray buffing– spraying the floor with a buff finish to retouch it and to keep the gloss Sweeping – removing dirt and trash from floors using sweepers and dustpan. Vacuuming – the process of elimination of dirt on carpeted floors using a vacuum cleaner.
  42. 42. LM-Household Services Grade 9 42 Here are some tips in cleaning and polishing types of floors, so beauty and elegance will be maintained. (Excerpts from Managing a Household by Dismore) 1. Ceramic tile, glazed To clean: vacuum and damp mop with an all purpose cleaner; dry with a soft cloth To polish: No need for polishing Don’ts: Avoid using abrasive cleaners 2. Ceramic tile, unglazed To clean: vacuum and damp-mop with an all purpose cleaner To polish: Once a year, strip the finish and reseal with a commercial sealer and water-based wax or acrylic self-polishing wax. Don’ts: Avoid abrasive cleaners, strong soaps, or acids. 3. Linoleum To clean: Vacuum and damp – mop with a mild all-purpose cleaner. To polish: Apply two thin coats of self-polishing, water based floor wax; let dry between coats. Don’ts: Avoid solvent-based products, hot water and strong soaps. 4. Vinyl To clean: Vacuum and damp-mop with all-purpose cleaner dissolved in water. To polish: Apply two thin coats of self-polishing, water-based floor wax; let dry between coats. Don’ts: Avoid abrasive cleaners. 5. Vinyl, no wax To clean: Vacuum and damp-mop with an all-purpose cleaner recommended for no wax floors. To polish: Surface should have a permanent shine, but if it becomes dull in high-traffic areas, apply a commercial gloss-renewing product. Don’ts: Avoid solvent-based products or cleaners with pine oil, strong soap, hot water or abrasives.
  43. 43. LM-Household Services Grade 9 43 ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _____ Review of Lesson 1.2 A. IDENTIFIED TRUE OR FALSE Direction. Write the word TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if it is not correct. Write your answer in your notebook. 1. Damages such as crack, broken or torn should be repaired or replaced immediately to avoid any form of accidents 2. Sealing is an application of a solution which protect the glaze of the tiles, makes the floor look better, cling together and last longer. 3. Finishing of floors is accomplished through the application of wax or floor shine and polishing thereafter using a floor polisher. 4. Used abrasive cleaners when cleaning glazed ceramic tiles. 5. Solvent based products, strong soap and hot water should be used in cleaning linoleum. ESSAY Direction. Identify the pictures below describing what type of cleaning procedure is demonstrated. Explain briefly using the scoring rubrics below.
  44. 44. LM-Household Services Grade 9 44 Scoring Rubrics for Essay C. FIELD WORK Direction. Visit at least two households in your community and request to interview housekeeper in relation to proper procedures and techniques in cleaning the floor. Document the interview and make a report to be presented in class. Criteria Percentage Content 5 % Delivery 2.5 % Creativity 2.5 % TOTAL 10 %
  45. 45. LM-Household Services Grade 9 45 Lesson 1.3 FLOOR CARE AND MAINTENANCE Each area of the house needs proper care, maintenance and supervision to enable household tasks done properly and effectively. Floor surfaces require as much as other parts of the house daily cleaning. It is not enough if we do not utilize the proper materials and equipment used in cleaning different types of floors. The idea is to identify the type of cleaning tools, materials and other implements to use in keeping and preserving the beauty and quality of the floors. The process of vacuuming, sweeping, dusting and mopping is applied to maintain the good condition of the floors. Below are the cleaning equipment, tools, and supplies needed for floor maintenance Cleaning Equipment Carpet sweeper Used to pick-up dirt and particles from the carpet. Carpet Extractor It is a designated for dry foam shampooing of carpets. It removes dirt that sticks to or penetrates into the carpet layers.
  46. 46. LM-Household Services Grade 9 46 Dustpan It is used to collect dust and any type of dirt with soft broom Cleaning cloth It is used for cleaning and dusting the floor It is used for sweeping Broom It is used for sweeping the floor. It can be plastic or stick broom. It is used for Cleaning tools and materials Vacuum cleaner It is used to eliminate dust particles from carpet surfaces, upholstered furniture and even hard surfaces. Hydro-Vacuum or Wet and dry vacuum It is an all-purpose vacuum for dry and wet surfaces. It is also used for absorbing water in flooded or wet surface. Floor polisher It is used in scrubbing, stripping and polishing hard floor surfaces and also vinyl, wood parquet, etc.
  47. 47. LM-Household Services Grade 9 47 Floor Scraper It is used for scraping hardened dirt Mop Wringer It is used for wringing / squeezing mops Scrubbing pads It is used for floor scrubbing and polishing Mop with mop handle It is used for manual floor mopping For mopping the floor Mop head It is used to remove embedded dirt on the sides and corners. Hand brush It is used to remove embedded dirt on top of hard floor and stubborn dirt on top of the carpet. Push brush It is used to maintain the cleanliness of the finish floor or some of the hard floor. Stripping Pad It is used to remove stubborn dirt on top of hard floors
  48. 48. LM-Household Services Grade 9 48 Wax It is used for polishing the floor Stripping Chemicals It is used for stripping the floor Polish Used to polish smooth surfaces made of wood, leather or metal. Cleaning chemicals Cleaning and maintenance of the floor should be a daily routine. Vacuuming is a cleaning process that uses an air pump (vacuum cleaner) to remove loose dirt and dust, usually from floors, and optionally from other surfaces as well. The dirt is collected by either a dust bag or filter for later disposal Here are the steps in maintaining the floor: 1. Sweep the floor with clean broom, dust mop, or cleaning cloth to remove dirt and litter. 2. Mix 1 part of cleaning solution with about 4 parts water. Use higher dilution if the area will be disinfected. 3. Apply the cleaning solution on the floor with a wet mop. Let the solution penetrate on floor for 2 minutes. Use warm water for its best cleaning results. 4. Spray buff regularly with buffing chemicals. Spray 2 – 3 squirts on the floor, then buff immediately to restore the shine. Damp – mop the floor regularly with the help of a cleaning agent.
  49. 49. LM-Household Services Grade 9 49 Floor type Cleaning Procedure Precautions 1. Asphalt  Use mild detergent or soap  Rinse with clear water  Dry immediately with mop or wet/dry vacuum Avoid use of oils or solvents to prevent discoloration and excessive wetting to prevent tile warping. 2. Linoleum  Use a mild detergent solution: avoid alkaline solutions  Rinse with clear water  Remove water immediately with wet/dry vacuum Avoid excess wetting; use adequate furniture rests to avoid indentations of the floor. 3. Rubber  Use a mild detergent solution  Rinse  Remove water promptly Avoid direct sunlight and lubricating oils because the tile will crack, dull and chalky. 4. Vinyl  Use a neutral detergent solution.  Rinse.  Dry with a wet/dry vacuum Avoid excessive wetting to prevent tile warping; extreme brightness and scratches. 5. Ceramic/ Quarry  Use neutral cleaner to avoid warping of the tile; apply with mop.  Remove cleaning solution; rinse thoroughly. Ceramic tile is very durable but the grout base is susceptible to crystalline salt damage. Avoid crystalline salt solution to avoid damage to ceramic tiles. 6. Concrete  Use a neutral cleaner  For stubborn soil accumulations, use a slightly alkaline solution.  Never use an acid solution to concrete tiles Avoid colored coating in moisture or high traffic areas; Neutralize excess alkalinity before painting or sealing; Very porous; should be scaled immediately to avoid dusting and deep penetration of oil and dirt
  50. 50. LM-Household Services Grade 9 50 7. Marble  Use a neutral cleaner  Rinse thoroughly  Dry with soft cloth to avoid streaking. Seal with penetrating sealer. 8. Terrazzo  Use a neutral detergent and air dry. Very porous; coating advisable. 9. Wood types Floor must be sealed before any maintenance program can be used:  Sweep, dust mop (water treated) or damp mop in commercial settings,  Wood block for flooring; use a neutral cleaner,  Never clean wood floor with soap and water. 10. Granite  Use water with very mild detergent.
  51. 51. LM-Household Services Grade 9 51 Review of Lesson 1.3 A. MATCHING TYPE Direction. Match the item in Column A with those in Column B. Write the correct letter in your answer sheet. Cleaning Equipment A B ____1. Used to eliminate dust particles from carpet surfaces, upholstered furniture and even hard surfaces. ____2. An all purpose vacuum for dry and wet surfaces. ____3. Used in scrubbing stripping and polishing hard floor surfaces and also vinyl, wood parquet, etc. ____4. Used to pick-up dirt and particles from the carpet. ____5. It is designated for dry foam shampooing of carpets. a. Floor polisher b. Vacuum cleaner c. Carpet extractor d. Room boy’s cart /trolley e. Hydro vacuum f. Carpet sweeper
  52. 52. LM-Household Services Grade 9 52 Cleaning Supplies and Materials A B ____1. Used for scrubbing and polishing purposes. ____2. Used for scraping hardened dirt ____3. It is used for wringing/ squeezing mops ____4. Used for manual floor mopping ____5. Used for cleaning and dusting the floor a. Cleaning cloth b. Scrubbing pads c. Mop with mop handle d. Wax e. Floor scraper f. Mop wringer B. GROUP DISCUSSSION Direction. The class will be divided equally with three members in each group. Then each group will explain the use, care and safety precautions to consider in the following floor types given. Put your answer in your notebook. Scoring rubrics below will be basis how familiar you are in doing safety precautions Linoleum Vinyl Asphalt
  53. 53. LM-Household Services Grade 9 53 . Criteria Percentage Content 5 % Delivery 2.5 % Creativity 2.5 % TOTAL 10 % Congratulations! You finish learning the basic principles of flooring and its safety precautions. Now let’s see how skilled you are in doing furniture and fixtures cleaning and maintenance. Are you ready? Let’s begin…
  54. 54. LM-Household Services Grade 9 54 Learning Outcome 2: Clean furniture Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the learner is expected to: 1. Give the different types of furniture 2. List down proper care and maintenance of furniture 3. Identify the different types of stain 4. Perform safety procedures and techniques in removing stains on furniture as per standard operating procedures. This foregoing lesson on proper procedure in cleaning and maintenance of furniture gives you on the classification of different furniture together with its types and functions and how one can be perform with standard operating procedures. Different types of stains problem with its corresponding remedies is also presented, which will systematically guide and help you in doing your task correctly.
  55. 55. LM-Household Services Grade 9 55 Lesson 2.1 TYPES OF FURNITURE Furniture makes ones place lively and attractive. Chairs, sofas, tables, beds, curtains, pictures, telephone and other home décor makes our home and even offices more suitable for living and working. The kind and types of texture, form and color of furniture and fixtures depend upon the personality of the person. Types of Furniture 1. Free standing  can be moved or arranged relatively. Accumulates dust, dirt, behind, above and beneath it. 2. Built – in  It is removable which can be moved from one area into another. Wardrobes and kitchen includes in these type 3. Fitted  Includes items like shelves and headboards. Use of alcoves and recesses ensures good use of space. 4. Cantilevered  supported or only one end can be quite effective from a design perspective. 5. Upholstered  Sofas, armchairs are in this type. Suitability of fabric needs to be considered, as does ease of cleaning and maintenance. 6. Antique  Usually very expensive, can be impractical, risky and difficult to replace and repairs often need to be carried out by a specialist
  56. 56. LM-Household Services Grade 9 56 Below are some of the common examples of furniture, fixtures and fittings Furniture Fixtures and Fittings Principles to follow when arranging furniture Furniture should be arranged for convenience, comfort and attractiveness. The economy of space, beauty, unity, use, variety, balance and individuality are some of the essential rules that everyone should consider for proper arrangement. a. Spacing – Avoid using too large and heavy furniture across a corner and in small room instead small pieces like chair and table may be placed in a corner for interest and good design. b. Beauty – Arrange the furniture in a more interesting style where there is a center of interest. Television, radioand eye – catching display could be put into center to attract family members and even visitors. - Armchair - coffee table - easy chair - dining chair - bed - dining table - television cabinet - bedside table - dressing table - wardrobe - Air conditioning - pictures - bathtub - carpets - locks - lavatory - CCTV - signs - fire alarms - doors - taps and faucets - towel racks - lightening fixtures - telephone - toilet roll holder
  57. 57. LM-Household Services Grade 9 57 c. Unity – Furniture of the same kind should be grouped together and furniture used for certain activity should be grouped together. In bedroom, the clothes, closets and the dresser should be near each other. Group furniture of similar heights together. d. Variety – Different kinds of furniture may be grouped together according to its function. If they will be used together. A small piece of furniture may be placed across a corner. Large pieces should be parallel to the wall. e. Balance or restfulness- Two sides of a center of interest in an arrangement should be equal and interesting. Three small pieces can balance one large piece. f. Individuality- Furniture arrangements reflect the personality of the one living in the home and style it according to our taste.
  58. 58. LM-Household Services Grade 9 58 Review of Lesson 2.1 A. CLASSIFICATION Direction: Below are furniture, fixtures and furnishings which are found in a house. Write letter A if it is furniture, B for fixtures and C for fittings. Write answer in your notebook. B. HOME VISITATION Direction: Visit the house of your relatives or friends and request to see the different areas of the house. Then be able to list down different types of furniture, fixtures and fittings found in the house. Also observe which principle in furniture arrangement has been applied. Write your observation in an index card (5 x 8) and request the signatures of the owner. _________ _1. Armchair _________ 6. Beds __________ 2. Carpets __________ 7. Doors ___________3. Bathtub __________ 8. Coffee table ___________4. Dining table __________ 9. Telephone ___________5. Fire alarms __________10. Television cabinet
  59. 59. LM-Household Services Grade 9 59 Lesson 2.2 FURNITURE CARE AND MAINTENANCE Furniture’s and fixtures are important part of the interior decoration of the home. Knowledge of care and maintenance of the furnishings will help dealing its value, form and texture. One needs to learn the techniques and procedures in handling furniture and fixtures so we can maintain and store it’s quality and beauty. One should purchase materials and supplies such as vacuum cleaner, brushes, buckets, rags, and cleaning solutions that will help daily cleaning activity. Below are some guides for successful care and maintenance for furniture and fixtures: 1. Use cleaning solution for a better and shiner results to furniture’s. 2. Wipe and dust all corners, inner and outer parts of the furniture using a clean cloth such us old diapers, terry towels, cotton knitwear or flannel. 3. Apply glass cleaner in cleaning glass furniture for shinier results. 4. Use a clean cloth to wipe different types of fixtures but may use a cleaning solution to selected fixtures for a better results. For upholstered furniture:  Use a vacuum cleaner to remove any loose dirt from the upholstered furniture. Vacuum it regularly.  Use a detergent mixture in cleaning but test in inconspicuous spot to avoid discoloration. Scrub the upholstery with the detergent mixture carefully. For Wood furniture:  Use cleaning cloth to remove dust and loose dirt.  Use a wood cleaning solution to remove stains from the surface of the furniture.
  60. 60. LM-Household Services Grade 9 60 In general, the care and maintenance of the furnishings involve shampooing every six months or as needed and vacuuming daily or once a week. Review of Lesson 2.2 A. IDENTIFICATION Direction: Below is a table with a given list of furnishings. Write correspondingly in Column B the cleaning technique and in column C the materials needed for each furniture and fixtures given. No. A Furniture and fixtures B Cleaning technique C Materials needed 1 Sofa 2 Cabinets 3 Tables and chairs 4 Telephones 5 Computer
  61. 61. LM-Household Services Grade 9 61 B. CLASS DEMONSTRATION Direction: Group the class into five. Each group is provided with a type of furniture’s and fixtures. Each member of the group will demonstrate the cleaning procedures and techniques. After the activity, the group will assess their performance using the scoring rubrics below. SCORING RUBRICS FOR CLASS DEMONSTRATION Criteria Percentage Proper application of the procedure in cleaning the furniture and fixtures. 50 % Proper application of the use of cleaning solutions and materials 30 % Appropriate and effective selection of cleaning tools and materials 20 % TOTAL 100 %
  62. 62. LM-Household Services Grade 9 62 Lesson 2.3 TYPES OF STAIN Stains are colored patch or dirty marks that is difficult to remove. It is a normal problem that every household always encountered. Accumulated dirt and neglect in care and maintenance are some major factors that contribute to this major household problem. Restoring the beauty and elegance takes time and patience, but the results can be enjoyed for years even for generations. Today there are lots of cleaning aids to restore the shine, texture, and form of the furnishings at home. Below are three main types of stains with its degree and sources. Types Degree Background Sources 1. Protein stains Easy These are the easiest stain to remove by just completely rinsing in cold water with cool biological soak. Food stains such as egg, milk, yogurt, and cheese sauce 2. Tannin (wet) stains Moderate These are direct liquid spills that respond well to hot water, but will set permanently if you use any kind of soap. Alcohol, perfume, inks, melted ice, lollies, fruit juices, tea and coffee. 3. Greasy (dry) stains Moderate These are stains that are result from product with fats and oil that can be removed with hot water and detergent. Adhesive, automotive oil, baby oil, candle wax, carpet glue
  63. 63. LM-Household Services Grade 9 63 4.Other stains a. Combination stains Difficult Combination of two or more of types of stain. It can be group to Type A and Type B. Type A stains have protein, grease/ wax and dye elements; while Type B have grease, wax and dye elements. Ballpoint ink, barbecue sauce, calamine lotion, b. Dye stains Difficult These are stains found naturally in cherries and blueberries, and is added to other foodstuffs like mustard and blue ice-lollies. c. Special stains These are stains that do not fall any specific grouping such as scorch and chewing gum. d. Organic stains These are stains resulting from natural atmospheric conditions such as alkaline stains, mildew and tarnish. e. Industrial stains These are stains resulting from building or Do It Yourself work. f. Chemical stains These are stains result from chemical spills. g. Lacquer stains Difficult These are stains that easily dry rapidly, so do not allow it to dry out to treat it easily. h. Unknown stains These are stains whose source cannot easily identified but can be recognized using sense of smell
  64. 64. LM-Household Services Grade 9 64 Review of Lesson 2.3 A.WORD HUNT Directions: Puzzle below contains different types and sources of stains. Look for the five sources and be able to give its remedial methods. Put your answer on your notebook. E K C A N D I E S L I S H E R A N G R I N D E R N D I C B M I I C B C X I T B G R A T U R N F P O T S C U S P O N G T S K E W B H V E L Y L A R D T S U T U R N E R B O S T E R E U U R T O Q M I L K T E E I R R M S L I C M T O N G H G H M I C B R O O M T E D S P O O J N U K M E C O N O P E N E R Y G P O B R P J E F F R E Y O O N T I R T O M B L O O D O M N R
  65. 65. LM-Household Services Grade 9 65 Lesson 2.4 PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES OF STAIN REMOVALON FURNITURE Stain removal is one of the difficult part of cleaning task. Rust, ink, bloods, butter, and oil are some of the common causes of this problem. Knowing the type of stains will effectively dissolve and thus remove the spots. In removing the stain, apply fewer chemicals rather than more. Repeating the process will be more effective rather than using a large amount to do the job faster Stain Removal Chemical Product Content Alcohol (rubbing) sopropyl alcohol Ammonia Ammonium hydroxide Carpet shampoo, carpet stain remover Isopropyl alcohol Color remover Sodium hydrosulphite Nail varnish remover Acetone Petroleum – based solvent and dry-cleaning fluid Trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloethylene (PERC) (K), petroleum distillates Rust remover Oxalic acid, hydrofluoric acid Turpentine Terpene
  66. 66. LM-Household Services Grade 9 66 Stain Removal Natural Product Alcohol  A very effective multi purpose, tough satin remover Ammonia  Solid as a liquid in bottles but is actually a gas, dilute in water for convenience. Cigarette ash  Excellent ultra- light abrasive for removing alcohol stains from wooden furniture. Milk  Effective soak for ballpoint ink, red juice and newsprint stains. Rottenstone  Very fine abrasive powder that is used to polish lacquered or varnished surfaces after coarse rubbing with pumice stone. Turpentine  Used as a thinner of oil paints, varnishes, and enamels turpentine (turps), which is good on difficult oil – based stains like asphalt and tar. White vinegar  Natural, mild bleach that dissolves dirt and grease and acts as a water softener.
  67. 67. LM-Household Services Grade 9 67 General Rules on Removing Stains Physical and chemical methods are the two types of removing the stains.  Physical method is a process through absorption of water- based stains or through removal in friction.  Chemical method is the use and application of chemical solutions. Physical Method (Absorption water based stains) 1. Wash hands and put on gloves 2. Use cloth or paper towel to absorb the liquid. 3. Always start from the outer edge of the stain and work towards the middle; this prevents the spreading of the stain. 4. Dispose of the cloth or paper towel when the task is completed. 5. After use, all tools and materials should be checked, cleaned, and dried and returned to the storage area. 6. Remove gloves and wash hands Physical Method (Friction removal water staining) 1. Wash hands and put on gloves 2. This involves scraping, brushing, rubbing, or scrubbing to remove dried-on stains. 3. It is important to rub gently to avoid damage to the surface. 4. Always start from the outer edge of the stain and work towards the middle. 5. After use, all tools and materials should be checked, cleaned, and dried and returned to the storage area. 6. Remove gloves and wash hands. 7. Note: never rub the stain into the carpet / fabric 8. Should the friction method does not work use the chemical method.
  68. 68. LM-Household Services Grade 9 68 Chemical Method 1. Wash hands and put on gloves 2. Prepare the cleaning solution in a well- ventilated area. 3. Poor a small amount of the chosen cleaning solution onto the stain. 4. Allow the cleaning solution to have a contact time with the stain. 5. Using a scraper and cloth, start from the outer edge of the stain and work towards the middle until the stain is removed. 6. Dispose of the cloth when the task is completed. 7. After use, all tools and materials should be checked, cleaned, dried and returned to the storage area. 8. Remove gloves and wash hands. Do’s Don’ts  Treat the stain promptly  Test for colorfastness and damage before applying any solutions to the furniture  Read carefully proper care, maintenance and manual of instructions of the products  Start and choose the simplest method of removing the stains.  Store chemicals out of the reach of children and away from food products.  Do the work from outside of the stain inwards to prevent stains from spreading.  Don’t give up after one application  Don’t forget to rinse.  Don’t rub at liquid stain spots, as you will simply spread the stain further and might damage fibres.  Don’t use a colored cloth on stains. Use a clean white cloth or kitchen towels.  Don’t use solvents on inflammable stains like petrol and diesel.  Don’t mix products, especially bleach and ammonia.
  69. 69. LM-Household Services Grade 9 69 Some tips to remove stains on furniture and fixtures 1. Any food containing milk that spills on furniture surface should be wiped immediately. The effect of lactic acid on wood furniture’s will create stains. To remove the stains, dip your finger in liquid or paste wax or coconut oil. – or even moistened cigar ash and rub the solution over the damaged area. Then re-wax. 2. Items such as perfumes, medicines, beverages, or other alcohol- based products leave rings or spots that can cause damage. Treat them with the same method use for milk or cream stains. 3. Watermarks or rings spots on furniture surface can be treated with a non-linty cloth moistened with coconut oil. Use a clean cloth to wipe the affected area immediately, at times, be remedied by placing a clean, thick blotter over the ring and pressing it with an iron (not too hot) until the ring disappears. 4. Candle drippings and marks left on furniture can be removed by hardening the dripped candle wax by holding an ice cube in it a few seconds. Crumble off as much wax as possible with your fingers then gently scrape with a dull, plastic spatula. Rub briskly with cloth saturated with liquid wax, then wipe dry with a clean cloth. 5. Oil stains caused by butter, salad dressing, cream and the like can be remove by placing a white blotter soaked in lighter fluid over the spot and let it dry. Repeat the process several times if the stains bleach it with an application of hydrogen peroxide (not the antiseptic kind but the commercial solution) to which a drop or two of ammonia has been added. 6. If acid marks appear due to spilled fruit juices or spots from alcohol, it is advisable to sand the area gently with fine sandpaper. Then rub with the shine putty (tin oxide) using a damp, soft cloth. 7. After the stains have been removed, protect the furniture; especially marble by applying furniture wax, which makes furniture shiny.
  70. 70. LM-Household Services Grade 9 70 Review of Lesson 2.4 A. ESSAY Direction: Discuss briefly the physical and chemical method of removing stains on furniture and fixtures. Put your answer on your notebook. B. CLASS DEMONSTRATION Direction. Divide the class into five groups. Choose a group leader and check the type of furniture assigned to your group. Work on removing the stains seen on the furniture. Lists down the procedures and technique applied in removing the stains including cleaning agent and materials. Make a group report and submit to your teacher. Scoring rubrics is provided to assess the performance of the group. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Removing of stains and spots Physical method Chemical method
  71. 71. LM-Household Services Grade 9 71 SCORING RUBRICS ON REMOVING STAINS 30% Highly Skilled (30-29) Skilled (28-27) Moderately Skilled (26-25) Unskilled (24-23) No attempt (22-21) Proper and effective use of tools, equipment, and materials Appropriate and effective selection, preparation and use of materials and tools /equipment all the time. Appropriate and effective selection, preparation and use of materials and tools/ equipment most of the time. Appropriate and effective selection, preparation and use of materials and tools/equipment some of the time. Never selects, prepares and use appropriate materials and tools/ equipment No attempt to use tools/ equipment to task given 30% (30-29) (28-27) (26-25) (24-23) (22-21) Work Application Procedure Systematic application of all work procedure all the time even without proper supervision Systematic application of work procedure most of the time with minimum supervision Systematic application of work procedure some of the time with constant supervision Never follows systematic application of procedure and highly development on supervision No attempt to apply procedure to the task given 25% (25-24) (23-22) (21-20) (19-18) (17-16) Safety and security work habits Highly self- motivated and observes all safety and security precautions all the time Self- motivated and observes most safety and security precautions most of the time in work Self- motivated and observes sometimes some of the safety and security precautions in work Needs to be motivated and does not observe safety and security precaution in work Not motivated and totally disregards safety and security precautions in work 15% (15-14) (13-12) (11-10) (9-8) (7-6) Speed/Time Finished the work ahead of time Finished the work on time Finished the work close to given time Finished the work beyond the given time. No work at all
  72. 72. LM-Household Services Grade 9 72 Post Test A. MULTPLE CHOICE Direction. Read the statement carefully and write the letter that best describes the statement. Put your answer in your answer sheet. 1. Type of floor that is durable, versatile and not easily pierced. a. hard floor c. vinyl b. soft floor d. terra cotta 2. Type of floor which is durable, lightweight, easy to clean, and has anti bacterial properties. a. bamboo floor c. linoleum b. concrete d. marble 3. Mixture of sand and cement with gravel, broken stone and other elements. a. ceramic c. linoleum b. concrete d. terra cotta 4. Similar to linoleum but it is more durable and highly resistant to moisture. a. rubber flooring c. wood floors b. pebble washout d. vinyl 5. Floor surface texture developed through intense heat treated with sealer and very porous. a. bush hammered c. sawn b. flamed d. tumbled 6. Major consideration for successful flooring a. spacing c. surface texture b. styles d. versatility 7. The function of white scouring pads in cleaning a. cleaning painted surfaces b. cleaning glass mirrors c. cleaning marble and porcelain d. all of the above
  73. 73. LM-Household Services Grade 9 73 8. The process which includes clearing, stripping, sealing and finishing surfaces. a. bed making c. washing b. floor cleaning d. sweeping 9. The process that uses a lightly wet mop to clear the floor with dirt and soil. a. damp mopping c. floor stripping b. dust mopping d. plain polishing 10. Floor cleaning process which involves elimination of embedded dirt, oil and old layers in the floor. a. finishing c. sealing b. maintaining d. stripping 11. Removing dirt and trash from floor using sweeper and trash. a. Shampooing c. spray buffing b. Sweeping d. vacuuming 12. The process of elimination of embedded dirt on floors using a vacuum cleaner. a. extraction c. spray buffing b. plain polishing d. vacuuming 13.Cleaning equipment used for dry foam shampooing of carpets. a. carpet extractor c. floor polisher c. carpet sweeper d. vacuum cleaner 14.Equipment for cleaning and dusting the floor. a. cleaning cloth c. mop b. dustpan d. scrubbing pads 15.The removable furniture that can be moved from one area to another. a. antique c. cantilevered b. built – in d. upholstered 16.Classification of sofas and chairs in furniture selection. a. cantilevered c. free standing b. Fitted d. upholstered
  74. 74. LM-Household Services Grade 9 74 17.Below are examples of fixtures and fittings except one: a. air condition c. wardrobe b. doors d. telephone 18.One of the principles to follow when arranging furniture. a. budget c. time b. color d. unity 19.Easiest stain to remove by just completely rinsing in cold water with cool biological soak. a. Greasy stains c. Protein stains b. Organic stains d. Tannin stains 20.These are stains that do not fall into any specific grouping such as scorch and chewing gum. . a. Combination stains c. Organic stains b. Dye stains d. Special stains Congratulations! You successfully demonstrated tasks and responsibilities prepared for you in the previous four sets of sessions. It’s time for you to answer Post Assessment that will evaluate you further. Let’s begin!
  75. 75. LM-Household Services Grade 9 75 QUARTER II Learning Outcome 3 Make Up Beds and Cots Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the learner is expected to: a. Classify linens according to types and functions b. Perform make up beds and cots as per standard operating procedures c. Demonstrate proper cleaning of beds and cots. This lesson with the learning competencies make up beds and cots discusses and give the learners on the classification of linens according to its types and functions Linen replenishment and maintenance techniques, vacuuming mattresses, and centering and mitering according to standard operating procedures are also demonstrated
  76. 76. LM-Household Services Grade 9 76 Pre- test: Let’s See What You Know A. MULTPLE CHOICE Direction. Read the statement carefully and write the letter that best describes the statement. Put your answer in your answer sheet. 1. A rectangular piece of cloth or linen cotton used to cover a mattress a. apron c. blanket b. bed sheets d. pillow 2. Table linen used for wiping the mouth and fingers while eating. a. blanket c. handkerchief b. dish towel d. napkin 3. Protective table pad usually made of paper, plastic or cloth for restaurants and household use: a. apron c. napkin b. handkerchief d. placemat 4. An elastic running around the edge that helps keep it flat upon the mattress. a. blanket c. fitted sheets b. comforter d. flat sheets 5. The following are procedures in cleaning the toilet bowl except one: a. Flush the toilet bowl b. Clean the toilet seat and cover c. Wet the surface d. Flush again 6. These are hair product used to remove oils, dirt, dandruff, and other contaminant particles in the hair. a. hair conditioner c. shampoo b. hot oil d. soap 7. Oral hygiene instrument used to clean teeth and gums a. mouthwash c. toothpaste b. tissue paper d. toothbrush
  77. 77. LM-Household Services Grade 9 77 8. Millennium Goal in sanitation that refers to management of human faces at household level a. environmental sanitation c. improved sanitation b. food sanitation d. on – site sanitation 9. Hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of waste a. Disposal c. segregation b. Sanitation d. washing 10. Leaves, flower, twigs, branches, and stems are classified as: a. compostable waste c. residual waste b. recyclable waste d. special waste 11. Refers to solid waste materials that are non compostable and non recyclable. a. compostable waste c. recyclable waste b. residual waste d. special waste 12. Waste disposal management that lessen household trashes and avoid unnecessary packaging of products. a. recover c. reduce b. recycling d. re –use 13. Practices that will bring down the amount of trash we dispose by avoiding the amount of unnecessary packaging of the products and reducing its waste toxicity a. recover c. reduce b. recycling d. re –use 14. Mandate of Republic Act 9003 is otherwise known as: a. Clean Air Act b. Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 200 c. Modernization Act d. Clean and Green Program 15. Center of the house where meal is prepared. a. bedroom c. living room b. dining room d. kitchen
  78. 78. LM-Household Services Grade 9 78 16. Type of kitchen cookware that is lightweight, attractive and less expensive. a. aluminum c. stainless b. ceramic d. teflon 17. Kitchen hand tools used to remove the outer skin or peel of fruits and vegetables a. baster c. peller b. knife d. spatula 18. Stainless steel sieve used to strain foods a. colander c. sauce pan b. sieve d. streamer 19. Thermally insulated chamber used for heating, baking or drying of a substance a. blender c. oven b. griller d. streamer 20. Tall and semi wide pot with straight sides used for cooking and storing soup stocks a. sauce pan c. streamer b. stauce pot d. stockpot
  79. 79. LM-Household Services Grade 9 79 Lesson 3.1 TYPES OF LINEN The term linens is used to describe any woven or knitted bath, bed, or kitchen textile such as sheets, towels and table clothes. This is true even if the fabric that makes up the item is not linen. The name is derived from an earlier time when all of these textiles were commonly made with linen. So when using the term linens what a person means depends on textiles or bed, bath and kitchen accessories. Today cotton has replaced te linen used in these activities. Linen is a fabric that is made from flax and fibers and not from cotton. The main difference in types of linen fabric comes from the length of the fiber used. Short tow fibers result in a coarser fabric and long line fibers result in a more refined cloth. Cotton that is made to resemble the wide and course weave of linen is called madapolam. However, if one asks to see the linen at the store, he or she will be shown different types of table coverings, bed coverings and bathroom textiles. Table coverings often come in sets and include the tablecloth, napkins and placemats. Table runners that are placed down the center of a table are also considered linen under table coverings. Like tablecloths, bed linens come in sets as well. These sets often include the fitted and flat sheets, shams, pillowcases, bed skirts and comforter. Duvet covers that are removable are a less traditional item belonging to the bed coverings category. The last category is the textiles that one utilizes in the bathroom. Towels are the largest item in this category that includes bath towels and body sheets. Hand towels and wash clothes round out this category completing a standard bathroom linen set. Cleaning household linens is done as appropriate to the type of cloth. Household linens are most likely to have stains from organic sources such as food, blood, and soil. If the linens are made of natural fibres such as linen or cotton, the cloth will need to be rinsed as soon as possible in cold water to prevent
  80. 80. LM-Household Services Grade 9 80 the stain from becoming permanent. Stains from red wine, or red or purple berries and fruit are an exception and must be washed in boiling water, yet despite this, these stains may be impossible to remove. Regular washing of household linens should be done in hot water for hygienic reasons, to destroy bacteria left on the linens from frequent use. Linen and cotton that are white may also become yellow over time, but this is eliminated by bleaching, either with liquid bleach, or by the traditional method of hanging the linens in the sun to let the sunlight bleach out the discoloration. Household linens are stored near the area where they are used, when possible, for convenience. Otherwise, bed and kitchen and dining linens may be stored together in a linen closet or cupboard. There are many methods of folding linens for storage. For formal occasions, table linens may be ironed before use. Traditionally, table linens could be starced while ironing, to decrease wrinkling and retain a smooth, pristine appearance.
  81. 81. LM-Household Services Grade 9 81 Review of Lesson 3.1 A. FILL IN THE BOX Directions: Analyze the question carefully and fill up the corresponding box to form the correct types of linen that is being asked. 1. Is an outer protective garment that covers primarily the front of the body. It may be worn for hygienic reasons as well as in order to protect clothes from wear and tear. 2. A piece of absorbent fabric or paper used for drying or wiping faces. 3. A piece of cloth intended to block or obscure light, or drafts, or water in the case of a shower curtain. 3. A rectangle of cloth used at the table for wiping the mouth and fingers while eating. It is usually small and folded sometimes in intricate designs and shape. 5. Is a rectangular piece of cloth or linen cotton used to cover a mattress.
  82. 82. LM-Household Services Grade 9 82 Lesson 3.2 PROCESS IN MAKE UP BEDS AND COTS The first thing that most of the people indulge in after waking up is been made properly making up the bed. A room looks untidy unless until the bed has Beddings include:  Fitted sheets - a sheet tailored to form pocket for a mattress with elastic edges. The edge may also contain a drawstring to secure the sheet more firmly and to be used only as bottom sheet.  Flat sheets - is not fitted but should ideally match the color of the fitted sheet which is spread evenly across the bed, with the finished side facing down.  Comforter - a thick bed covering that is filled with a soft light material
  83. 83. LM-Household Services Grade 9 83  Blanket - a large piece of woolen or similar material used as a bed covering or other covering for warmth.  Pillows - a rectangular cloth bag stuffed with feathers, foam rubber, or other soft materials, used to support the head when lying down.  Pillow slip and pillow case - a linen that protects the pillows  Bed pad - is a large pad for supporting the body, used as or on a bed. May consist of a quilted or similarly fastened case, usually of heavy cloth, that contains hair, straw, cotton, foam rubber, etc.; a framework of metal springs; or they may be inflatable. Bed Making Procedure – Traditional method 1. Stand at the head side of the bed. 2. Put the bed pad on top of the bed mattress evenly. 3. Put the bottom or first sheet on top of the bed mattress enough to cover the head side of the mattress. 4. Tuck in the sheet at the head side of the bed and meter the two corners. 5. Put the bed sheet up to the edge of the head side of the bed at the wrong side position. 6. Put the blanket on top of the second bed sheet 8” to 10” distance from the head toward the foot of the bed. 7. Put the third bed sheet on top of the blanket enough to cover the entire bed. Insert or fold the sheet under the blanket with 8” or 10” distance and fold the second sheet on top of the third bed sheet. 8. Tuck in all the linens at the other side and miter all linens at the corners at the foot side of the bed and insert the remaining side towards the head. 9. Put the pillow with pillowslip and case on top of the bed facing the wall. 10. Put the bed cover on top of the bed enough to cover the entire bed.
  84. 84. LM-Household Services Grade 9 84 Duvet - Bed Making Procedure 1. Stand at the head side of the bed 2. Put on the bed pad on top of the bed evenly. 3. Put on the first bed sheet on top of the bed. 4. Tuck in the sheet at the head side of the bed and mitre the sheet of all the corners of the bed. 5. Put the pillow with pillowcase at the head side facing the wall. 6. Put the duvet cover on top of the bed evenly Bed Stripping Procedure 1. Check the bed properly first if there are items found. 2. Loosen the sides and corners of the bed properly 3. Shake each linen for possible lost found items and damages if any. 4. Roll all the bed sheets correctly. 5. Put the soiled linens on the basket for laundry.
  85. 85. LM-Household Services Grade 9 85 Review of Lesson 3.2 A. FILL IN THE BLANKS Direction. Fill the missing word/words to make the statement complete for bed making procedure. Start the bed making procedure by standing at the head side of the bed. Put the (1) ____________ on top of the (2) __________ evenly. Put the bottom or (3) ________ on top of the bed mattress. Tuck in the sheet at the head of the bed and (4) __________ two corners. Put the bed sheet up to the edge of the head side of the bed at the (5) ____________. B. VIDEO PRESENTATION Direction. With your partner undergo the steps by steps procedures in bed make up. Using cellphone document it as requirement to check whether your work is accurate and effective. Be able to share and explain your work in the class.
  86. 86. LM-Household Services Grade 9 86 SCORING RUBRIC FOR BED MAKE – UP Dimen sion Highly Skilled 5 Skilled 4 Moderately Skilled 3 Unskilled 2 No Attempt 1 Use of tools, equip ment, and materi als Appropriat e selection, preparatio n, and use of materials and tools/ equipment all the time Appropriat e selection, preparation , and use of materials and tools/ equipment most of the time Appropriate selection, preparation, and use of materials and tools/ equipment sometimes Never selects, prepares, and uses materials and tools/ equipment No attempt to use tools/ equipment Applic ation of proce dure Systemati c applicatio n of procedure s all the time without supervisio n Systematic application of procedures all the time with minimum supervision Systematic application of procedures sometimes with constant supervision Never follows systematic application of procedures without supervision No attempt to apply procedures to project Safety / Work habits Highly self- motivated and observes all safety precaution s at all times Highly self- motivated and observes most safety precaution s most of the time Highly self- motivated and observes sometimes some safety precautions Needs to be motivated and does not observe all safety precaution s No motivation and totally disregards precaution Speed / Time Work finished ahead of time Work finished, meets deadline Work finished close to deadline Work finished way beyond deadline No concept of time
  87. 87. LM-Household Services Grade 9 87 Lesson 3.3 PROPER CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE OF BEDS AND COTS A mattress can begin smelling stale after years or even just months of use, especially in a home with moisture problems, smokers or pets that sleep on the beds. Even without contributing factors, people spend countless hours in bed. In time the surface will require cleaning and freshening no matter the situation. Fabric absorbs all sorts of bad odors including perspiration. The bedding can start out fresh and clean, and the bed can still smell bad because of the mattress. It is easy to freshen the material, and without spending a lot of money on special cleaning supplies or products that might not work. Use these easy ways to freshen your bed instead of trying to hide bad odors. They are natural alternatives to costly professional services and potentially harmful chemical products that are not necessary. Tips for Using a Vacuum to Clean a Mattress Vacuuming a mattress is an excellent way to save money and prolong the quality of your bed. However, this method doesn't work forever. A mattress must be replaced every eight or nine years to ensure that it is not a health risk to those sleeping on it. Before attempting to freshen a mattress, it is important to remove dust and accompanying mites. Use a handheld vacuum or an attachment to thoroughly cover every square inch including the sides. If it is a reversible mattress, flip it over and vacuum the other side as well. Starting with a clean surface is essential when trying to remove or neutralize odors. If necessary, clean it using a method that is recommended by the manufacturer. It must be dry before taking the next step.

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