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This is the report I made in our class on Psychology of Learning.

Published in: Education
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  1. 1. Reporter: Domingo J. Langa, Jr. October 15, 2016 Baliuag University Professor: Dr. Greg Quinto, Jr. Saturday,October 15, 2016 1
  2. 2. Saturday,October 15, 2016 2
  3. 3.  Name: Howard Earl Gardner  Born: July 11, 1943 (age 73), Scranton, Pennsylvania, United States  Education: Harvard University (1966– 1971), Harvard College (1961–1965) Saturday,October 15, 2016 3
  4. 4.  Parents: Refugees from Nazi Germany  Likes: Reading and playing the piano  First course: History then shifted to Cognitive Developmental Psychology Saturday,October 15, 2016 4
  5. 5.  Spouse: EllenWinner  Wife’s Occupation: Developmental psychologist  Number of children: four sons and one grandchild Saturday,October 15, 2016 5
  6. 6.  Proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983  Revolutionized how we understand intelligence  The theory of multiple intelligences challenges the idea of a single IQ, where human beings have one central "computer" where intelligence is housed Saturday,October 15, 2016 6
  7. 7.  Gardner (1999) developed eight criteria for classifying a behavioral or learning pattern as an intelligence as follows: ▪ The potential of isolation by brain damage, as evidenced by individuals who have experienced brain damage by accident or disease. ▪ An intelligence must have an evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility, such that it confers some survival value for those who possess it. ▪ An intelligence must have an identifiable core operation or set of operations ▪ An intelligence can be encoded in a symbol system, such as language or musical notation. Saturday,October 15, 2016 7
  8. 8.  Gardner (1999) developed eight criteria for classifying a behavioral or learning pattern as an intelligence as follows: ▪ An intelligence has a developmental history in that individuals must go through a process of maturing the intelligence until they can perform a set of expert “end-state” performances. ▪ The existence of savants, prodigies, and other exceptional people with “special abilities” supports the identification of an intelligence. ▪ Support from experimental psychological tasks, such as transfer of skills to new tasks, and interferences among tasks help identify discrete intelligences. ▪ Support from psychometric findings have been used to support the existence of multiple intelligences. Saturday,October 15, 2016 8
  9. 9.  Gardner (1999) made two fundamental claims about multiple intelligences: ▪ That the theory accounts for the full range of human cognition, and ▪ Each individual has a unique blend of the various intelligences that contributes to his/her personal predilections and abilities.  One of the main challenges for educators and individuals is for each person to develop his/her intelligences to the fullest. Saturday,October 15, 2016 9
  10. 10.  There are multiple types of human intelligence, each representing different ways of processing information:  Verbal-linguistic intelligence refers to an individual's ability to analyze information and produce work that involves oral and written language, such as speeches, books, and emails.  Logical-mathematical intelligence describes the ability to develop equations and proofs, make calculations, and solve abstract problems. Saturday,October 15, 2016 10
  11. 11.  Visual-spatial intelligence allows people to comprehend maps and other types of graphical information.  Musical intelligence enables individuals to produce and make meaning of different types of sound.  Naturalistic intelligence refers to the ability to identify and distinguish among different types of plants, animals, and weather formations found in the natural world. Saturday,October 15, 2016 11
  12. 12.  Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails using one's own body to create products or solve problems.  Interpersonal intelligence reflects an ability to recognize and understand other people's moods, desires, motivations, and intentions.  Intrapersonal intelligence refers to people's ability to recognize and assess those same characteristics within themselves. Saturday,October 15, 2016 12
  13. 13.  Spiritual Intelligence ▪ Gravitates toward religion, theology, mysticism and the transcendent. Concern with cosmic issues, supernatural, meaning of life's event; spends time in altered states such as meditation, self-hypnosis, and prayer; and connects with others in non-ordinary ways that may help and heal the other. Skills and Careers: Monastic lifestyles; minister; mediator, alternative medicine, yoga and martial arts teachers,  Existential Intelligence ▪ Is concerned with ultimate issues; continuity of spirit between lifetimes; sense of relationship with beings of other planes and the cosmos Skills and Careers: Examples include spiritual masters such as Gandhi, MotherTeresa, the Dalai LamaSaturday,October 15, 2016 13
  14. 14. Saturday,October 15, 2016 14
  15. 15.  Born: December 8, 1949 (age 66), Newark, New Jersey, United States  Education: Stanford University (1975),Yale University (1972)  He holds thirteen honorary doctorates from two North American, one South American, oneAsian, and nine European universities, and additionally holds an honorary professorship at the University of Heidelberg, in Germany. Saturday,October 15, 2016 15
  16. 16.  Among his major contributions to psychology are the triarchic theory of intelligence, several influential theories related to creativity, wisdom, thinking styles, love and hate  He is the author of over 1500 articles, book chapters, and books.  A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Sternberg as the 60th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Saturday,October 15, 2016 16
  17. 17.  Robert Sternberg is married to Karin Sternberg, a German psychologist  He has a set of triplets, consisting of a boy and two girls.  Sternberg and his first wife had a son and a daughter. Saturday,October 15, 2016 17
  18. 18.  Robert J. Sternberg has articulated a model of mental self- government that reproduces the structure of concern under one of its facets (Sternberg, 1997). Sternberg sees thinking style not as something that defines a person. According to him, we all command a variety of styles. These nevertheless do leave us with a certain style profile, and life is better if we can find social roles to match our profile.  In Sternberg’s schema, there are five facets of thinking styles.Thinking styles have functions, form, levels, scope and leanings. All can be discussed in terms of the structure of concern, but the lowest-hanging fruit here is his typology of the forms of thinking styles, which plainly exhibit the four-part pattern. Saturday,October 15, 2016 18
  19. 19.  P – Monarchic Self-Government: Single-minded, driven, determined, focused, pushes past obstacles. Expects things to be done, no ifs, ands or buts.  A – Hierarchic Self-Government: Carefully ranks and prioritizes goals, considers many angles before deciding, comfortable in large organizations, except when the organization’s priorities/principles and theirs diverge.  E – Anarchic Self-Government: A potpourri of wants, needs and goals that nobody can figure out. Random approach to problems, rejecting systems and constraints. Because they gather information from all over, they are more likely to find solutions others will overlook. If they can focus their efforts, they may succeed where all others fail.  I – OligarchicSelf-Government:Willing to focus and prioritize but torn by several competing goals all of equal perceived importance. Feel pressured and uncertain over what to do next and how much time to allot to each task. Given even a minimum of guidance about the priorities of the organization or team however, they can become as or more productive than any of the other styles. Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking Styles.Cambridge,UK:Cambridge University Press.Saturday,October 15, 2016 19
  20. 20.  Individuals with a Legislative Style: 1. Enjoy creating, formulating, and planning for problem-solving. 2. Make their own rules 3. Prefer an independent way of doing things 4. Find original problems to solve 5. Enjoy creative and constructive activities such as writing, project design, and creating new systems in fields such as business and education. Saturday,October 15, 2016 20
  21. 21.  Individuals with an Executive Style: 1. Implementers 2.Work well with rules and pre-existing systems 3. Prefer to work with prestructured problems 4.Work best with predefined activities such as solving engineering or legal problems, giving talks or lessons based on others' ideas 5. Good at enforcing rules and traditions Saturday,October 15, 2016 21
  22. 22.  Individuals with a Judicial Style: 1. Good at analysis and criticism 2. Evaluative problems 3. Good at forming and giving opinions 4.Tend toward judging people, work, and programs Saturday,October 15, 2016 22
  23. 23.  Sternberg (1990) discussed classroom implications for his metaphor, stating that primary and secondary schools tend to reward executive types most. Students who work within the existing rule systems and seek the rewards the schools or teachers value (grades, performance, good behavior) tend to produce the best academic performance at these levels.  Judicial types are rewarded more in college and post- graduate programs where criticism and judgment are more highly valued.  Legislative types may not be rewarded until graduate school, where originality in research, writing, and presentations are valued.The fit between students and teachers is a factor in the success of a course or program. Sternberg gives examples for a variety of classroom situations. Saturday,October 15, 2016 23
  24. 24.  Globalists: 1. Prefer large, abstract issues 2. Ignore or dislike detail 3.Work best with concepts and ideas 4. Can easily lose focus and get lost in abstraction Saturday,October 15, 2016 24
  25. 25.  Localists: 1. Prefer concrete problems 2. Detailed work 3. Pragmatic and down-to-earth 4. Difficulty seeing the larger picture Saturday,October 15, 2016 25
  26. 26.  Internalists (Domestic affairs): 1. Introverted 2.Task-oriented 3. Aloof, 4. Less socially sensitive 5. Like to work alone Saturday,October 15, 2016 26
  27. 27.  Externalists (foreign affairs) 1. Extroverted 2. People oriented 3. Socially sensitive 4.Work best in groups or teams Saturday,October 15, 2016 27
  28. 28. Saturday,October 15, 2016 28
  29. 29.  Born in 1940 in Utica, NewYork  also known as "JSB”  Alma mater: Brown University and University of Michigan Saturday,October 15, 2016 29
  30. 30.  Education: Brown University, B.S., 1962; University of Michigan, M.S., 1964, Ph.D., 1970.  Career: Assistant professor, University of California at Irvine, 1969–73; senior scientist, Bolt Baranek and Newman, Cambridge, MA, 1973–78; principal scientist in cognitive and instructional sciences, Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), 1978–84 Saturday,October 15, 2016 30
  31. 31.  Brown’s work on cognitive apprenticeship evolved from the work of Lave on situated learning, a model of learning derived from the notion that cognitive tools are acquired in the same way as apprentices learn a craft or trade.  This method of instruction is a synthesis of formal schooling and traditional apprenticeship. Saturday,October 15, 2016 31
  32. 32.  Learners enter a culture of practice.  Acquisition, development and application of cognitive tools in a learning domain is based on activity in learning and knowledge.  Enculturation (social interaction) and context (learning environment) are powerful components of learning in this model. Saturday,October 15, 2016 32
  33. 33.  Instructors and other students provide modeling in situ and scaffolding for students to enter into learning activity.  As students learn and gain skills and self-confidence they are prepared for more autonomy, and begin to have conscious participation in the learning culture. Saturday,October 15, 2016 33
  34. 34.  In traditional classroom approaches, the teacher’s thinking processes are usually invisible and operate outside of conscious awareness, even for the teacher.  The goal of cognitive apprenticeship is to make the thinking processes of a learning activity visible to both the students and the teacher. Saturday,October 15, 2016 34
  35. 35.  The teacher is then able to employ the methods of traditional apprenticeship (modeling, coaching, scaffolding, and fading) to effectively guide student learning. Saturday,October 15, 2016 35
  36. 36.  Procedures are seen as flexible and evolving.  Both algorithms and heuristics are assessed in context and with respect to desired outcomes and objectives.  This flexibility allows students to generate unique solutions to problems, and makes them more active, conscious, and creative participants in the learning culture.Saturday,October 15, 2016 36
  37. 37.  It can be especially effective when teaching complex, cognitive skills such as reading comprehension, essay writing, and mathematical problem solving.  It leads to students’ greater understanding of the material.  It also combats “inert knowledge” helping students to apply their knowledge and skills in novel situations.Saturday,October 15, 2016 37
  38. 38.  The teacher models the processes involved in a complex task initially, by thinking aloud or describing the cognitive strategy for the task.  As soon as possible, the teacher turns the role of “teacher” over to students.  The teacher coaches and scaffolds students’ efforts, decreasing active participation as they become more proficient in their skills.Saturday,October 15, 2016 38
  39. 39. Saturday,October 15, 2016 39
  40. 40.  Born inVancouver, British Columbia in 1947  Entered the university with hopes to become a writer, but left with the dream of practicing psychology as a precise and qualitative science.  Graduated at the head of his class in Arts and Science in 1968 Saturday,October 15, 2016 40
  41. 41.  Earned his Ph. D. from Stanford in 1972  Spent one year atYale as an assistant professor  Three years at the University of Michigan as a Junior Fellow  One year atYale as associate professor and a final year as a full professor  Has been at Carnegie Mellon University since 1978 Saturday,October 15, 2016 41
  42. 42.  It means Adaptive Character ofThought  It is a cognitive theory dealing primarily with memory structures.  The model describes a spreading activation model of semantic memory, combined with a production system for executing higher level operations.  According to ACT*, there are three types of memory and learning. Saturday,October 15, 2016 42
  43. 43.  1. Declarative memory (WHAT) encompasses factual components and their associations and sequences.  2. Procedural memory or production memory (HOW) are sequences of behaviors (productions) based on conditions and actions stored in declarative memory. A production is a series of “if-then” rules: if x happens, then do y. New productions are formed by linking up existing ones, adding components, and deleting components. Saturday,October 15, 2016 43
  44. 44.  3. Working memory is the part of the long-term memory which is currently in consciousness.  These three parts of long-term memory work closely together, and each has its own functions and processes. Saturday,October 15, 2016 44
  45. 45.  Generalization – in which procedures (productions) are cross- contextualized or more widely applied.  Discrimination – in which procedures (productions) become more specialized.  Strengthening – in which procedures (productions) are applied more frequently. Saturday,October 15, 2016 45
  46. 46.  The theory includes notions of goal structure, problem-solving context, and feedback.  Research with ACT* has showed that reaction time for fact retrieval increase as a function of the number of times the items sought were mentioned in a story. Saturday,October 15, 2016 46
  47. 47.  Unique content in stories is easier for the reader to retrieve.  Memory ACTIVATION determines the probability of access to memory, and the rate at which a memory can be accessed, after a subject is cued to recall information. Saturday,October 15, 2016 47
  48. 48.  SPREADING ACTIVATION proposes that activation travels along a network of connections, so that once cued, a subject may have multiple responses based on the connections among bits of information in memory. Saturday,October 15, 2016 48
  49. 49.  Spreading activation is not believed to be entirely under the subject’s control, but cueing may activate remote connections without the subject’s volition being involved.This tendency for memories to be activated is called ASSOCIATIVE PRIMING. Saturday,October 15, 2016 49
  50. 50. Saturday,October 15, 2016 50
  51. 51.  Joy Paul Guilford  Born: March 7, 1897  Birthplace: Marquette, Nebraska  Died: November 26, 1987  Best remembered for his psychometric study of human intelligence, including the distinction between convergent and divergent production Saturday,October 15, 2016 51
  52. 52.  In Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory, intelligence is viewed as comprising operations, contents, and products.  There are 5 kinds of operations (cognition, memory, divergent production, convergent production, evaluation), 6 kinds of products (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications), and 5 kinds of contents (visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral).  Since each of these dimensions is independent, there are theoretically 150 different components of intelligence. Saturday,October 15, 2016 52
  53. 53.  Guilford researched and developed a wide variety of psychometric tests to measure the specific abilities predicted by SI theory.  These tests provide an operational definition of the many abilities proposed by the theory. Factor analysis was used to determine which tests appeared to measure the same or different abilities. Saturday,October 15, 2016 53
  54. 54.  It is interesting to note that a major impetus for Guilford's theory was his interest in creativity (Guilford, 1950).  SI theory is intended to be a general theory of human intelligence. Saturday,October 15, 2016 54
  55. 55.  SI theory is intended to be a general theory of human intelligence. Its major application (besides educational research) has been in personnel selection and placement. Saturday,October 15, 2016 55
  56. 56.  Reasoning and problem-solving skills (convergent and divergent operations) can be subdivided into 30 distinct abilities (6 products x 5 contents).  Memory operations can be subdivided into 30 different skills (6 products x 5 contents).  Decision-making skills (evaluation operations) can be subdivided into 30 distinct abilities (6 products x 5 contents).  Language-related skills (cognitive operations) can be subdivided into 30 distinct abilities (6 products x 5 contents). Saturday,October 15, 2016 56
  57. 57. Saturday,October 15, 2016 57