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DNA & Molecular Computing

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DNA & Molecular Computing

  1. 1. Molecule.jpg (1024×768) DNA & Molecular Computing Computer Architecture Ben Atwell Josh Dean Matt Wienkes
  2. 2. History of DNA Computing <ul><li>Initially developed in 1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Adleman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Southern California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as a proof of concept to solve seven-point Hamiltonian path problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various Turing machines have been constructed using DNA since. </li></ul>dna
  3. 3. DNA Computers vs. Computers Today <ul><li>One pound of DNA has the capacity to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. </li></ul><ul><li>The computing power of a teardrop-sized DNA computer, using the DNA logic gates, will be more powerful than the world's most powerful supercomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike conventional computers which perform linearly, DNA computers perform calculations parallel to other calculations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Switching From Silicon to DNA <ul><li>As long as there are cellular organisms, there will always be a supply of DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>The large supply of DNA makes it a cheap resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the toxic materials used to make traditional microprocessors, DNA biochips can be made cleanly. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA computers are many times smaller than today's computers. </li></ul>http://www.pdphoto.org/jons/pictures2/chips_3_bg_102602.jpg
  5. 5. <ul><li>Drawbacks of DNA Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Can currently only return Yes or No answers to problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Although it has the potential for great speed, is currently quite slow </li></ul><ul><li>Is competing with more well known/popular models such as Quantum Computing. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classes of DNA Computing <ul><li>Intramolecular </li></ul><ul><li>Intermolecular </li></ul><ul><li>Supramolecular </li></ul>http://www.popsci.com/files/imagecache/article_image_large/articles/harddlctemplate.jpg
  7. 7. Intramolecular DNA Computing <ul><li>Involves constructing programmable state machines in single DNA molecules </li></ul><ul><li>These can operate by means of intramolecular conformational transitions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intermolecular DNA Computing <ul><li>The core of Adleman's work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving the seven-point Hamiltonian path problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the hybridization between different DNA molecules as a basic step for computations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Supramolecular DNA Computing <ul><li>The creating of molecular assemblies that are beyond the scale of one molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Harnesses the process of self-assembly of rigid DNA molecules with different sequences to perform computations </li></ul>
  10. 10. Current Uses of DNA Computing <ul><li>MAYA-I </li></ul><ul><li>MAYA-II </li></ul>
  11. 11. DNA Computers: The MAYA-I <ul><li>Molecular Array of YES and ANDNOT logic gates </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of only 23 DNA logic gates </li></ul><ul><li>Able to complete only specific Tic-Tac-Toe games </li></ul>
  12. 12. Her Successor: The MAYA-II <ul><li>Replaced the MAYA-I </li></ul><ul><li>Based on DNA Stem Loop Controllers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Nanotechnology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of a single strand of DNA which has a loop at an end, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic structure that opens and closes when a piece of DNA bonds to the loop part </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. DNA Computers: The MAYA-II <ul><li>Contains well over 100 DNA circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Able to play any game of Tic- Tac -Toe, not just specific ones </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: Very slow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take up to 30 minutes to perform a move </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Makes it just another proof of concept, not a full application </li></ul>2143 Web
  14. 14. Bacteria-based Computer <ul><li>Light sensitive bacteria known as Halobacterium can switch between two “states” </li></ul><ul><li>Red and green laser change the form of the bacteria back and forth, essentially creating a binary system </li></ul><ul><li>High storage density potential (480Gb per 5cc) </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially slower than DNA, but unlike DNA, not limited to Yes or No answers. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Future is Coming <ul><li>IBM seeks a fusion of DNA, silicon, and carbon nano -tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced self- assembing DNA machines have created nano -scale car parts </li></ul><ul><li>Biologists are researching implanting DNA computers into human cells </li></ul>http://www.pollsb.com/photos/o/17835-best_invention.jpg

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