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Models of Corporate Governance

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Models of Corporate Governance

  2. 2. NEED FOR A MODEL • The essence of the model is to evaluate the “crafted” principles are applied to the “LOGIC” of governance: continuous earning versight, uidance, nformation, ulture
  3. 3. Three Models of Corporate Governance from Developed Capital Markets Anglo-US Model Japanese Model German Model
  4. 4. The Anglo-US model is characterized by share ownership of individual, and increasingly institutional, investors not affiliated with the corporation known as outside shareholders or “outsiders”; a well-developed legal framework defining the rights and responsibilities of three key players, namely: management, directors and shareholders; and a comparatively uncomplicated procedure for interaction between shareholder and corporation as well as among shareholders.
  5. 5. KEY PLAYERS “Corporate Governance Triangle”
  6. 6. Share Ownership Pattern • In 1990, institutional investors held approximately 61 percent of the shares of UK corporations, and individuals held approximately 21 percent. (In 1981, individuals held 38 percent.) In 1990, institutions held 53.3 percent of the shares of US corporations.
  7. 7. Composition of the Board of Directors Insiders (executive director) Outsiders (non-executive director or independent director) Is a person who is either employed by the corporation who has significant business relationship with corporate management. Is a person/institution which has no direct relationship with the corporation or management
  8. 8.  Concentration of power in the hands of one person  Concentration of power in a small group of persons  Management and/or the board of directors’ attempts to retain power over long period of time  The board of directors’ flagrant disregard for the interests of outside shareholders The same person has served as both chairman of the BOD and CEO which led to ff. abuses:
  9. 9. Several factors contributed to an increased interest in corporate governance in the UK and US. These included: • increase in institutional investment in both countries; • greater governmental regulation in the US, including regulation requiring some institutional investors to vote at AGMs; • the takeover activity of the mid- to late-1980s; • excessive executive compensation at many US companies and a growing sense of loss of competitiveness vis-а-vis German and Japanese competitors.
  10. 10. • the pattern of stock ownership, specifically the above-mentioned increase in institutional investment the growing importance of institutional investors and their voting behavior at AGMs; • recommendations of self-regulatory organizations such as the Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance in the UK and shareholder organizations in the US. Several factors influenced towards an increasing percentage of OUTSIDERS:
  11. 11. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK Laws regulating pension funds also have an important impact on Corporate Governance.In 1988, the agency of the U.S. Department of Labor ruled that: Pension Fund have a "fiduciary responsibility" to exercise their stock ownership right -huge impact on behavior of Private Pension Funds and other institutional investors;Institutional investors have taken a keen interest in all aspects of corporate governance, shareholder's right and voting at annual general meetings U.S. has the most comprehensive disclosure requirements and a complex, well-regulated system for shareholder communication The regulatory framework of UK in corporate governance is established in parliamentary acts and rules established by self-regulatory organizations such as Securities and Investment Board which is responsible for oversight of securities market, this is not a government agency like the SEC in US.
  12. 12. DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENT 1. Corporate Financial Data(quarterly basis in the U.S) 2. Breakdown of Corporation's Capital Structure 3. Substantial background information on each nominee to the board of directors(including name, occupation relationship with the company and ownership of stock in the corporation) 4. The aggregate compensation paid to all executive officers(upper mgmt.) as wel as individual compensation data for each of the five highest paid executive officers, who are to be named; 5. All shareholders holding more than 5% of the corporation's total share capital 6. Information on proposed mergers and restructuring 7. Proposed amendments to the articles of association 8. And the names of individuals and/or companies proposed as auditors. Disclosure requirements in the UK and other countries that follow the Anglo-US model ae similar. However, they generally require semi-annual reporting and less data in most categories, including financial statistics and the information provided on nominees.
  13. 13. CORPORATE ACTIONS REQUIRING SHAREHOLDERS APPROVAL The 2 routine corporate actions requiring shareholders approval under the Anglo-uS model are: 1. Election of Directors 2. Appointment of Auditors Non-routine corporate actions which also require shareholder approval include: 1. Establishment or amendment of stock option plac(because these plans affect executive and board compensation) 2. mergers and takeovers 3. Restructuring 4. Amendments of the articles of incorporation
  14. 14. INTERACTION AMONG PLAYERS • The Anglo-US model establishes a complex, well-regulated system for communication and interaction between shareholders and corporations. A wide range of regulatory and independent organizations play an important role in corporate governance. • Shareholders may exercise their voting right without attending the annual general meeting in person • All registered shareholders received the following by mail(the agenda for the meeting including background information on all proposals"proxy statements", the corporation's annual report and a voting card. • Shareholders may vote by proxy
  15. 15. In the Anglo-US model, a wide range of institutional investors and financial specialists monitor a corporation's performance and corporate governance. These include: 1. A variety of specialized investment funds 2. Venture-capital funds, or funds that invest in new or start-up corporation 3. Rating Agencies 4. Auditors 5. Funds that target investment in bankrupt or problem corporation. In contrast, One bank serves many of these functions in the Japanese and German models. As a result, one important element of both of these models is the strong relationship between a corporation and its main bank.
  16. 16. JAPANESE MODEL The Japanese model is characterized by a high level of stock ownership by affiliated banks and companies ● a banking system characterized by strong, long-term links between banks and corporation ● A legal, public policy and industrial policy framework designed to support and promote "keiretsu" ● BOD composed of solely insiders and comparatively low(in some corp., non- existent)level of input of outside shareholders ● Equity Financing is important for Japanese Corporations ● Insiders and their affiliates are the major shareholders in most Japanese corporations.
  17. 17. KEY PLAYERS The Japanese system of Corporate Governance is many-sided, centering around a main bank and a financial/industrial network or keiretsu ● The bank provides its corporate clients with loans as well as services related to bond issues, equity issues, settlement accounts and related consulting services. ● The main bank is generally a major shareholder in the corporation. ● In the US, Anti-monopoly prohibits one bank from providing this multiplicity of services ● Many Japanese corporation also have a strong financial relationships with a network of affiliated companies. These networks, characterized by crossholding of a debt and equity, trading of goods and services, and informal business contacts, are known as Keiretsu ● Government-directed industrial policy plays a key role in Japanese Governance, this includes official and unofficial representation on corporate boards, when a corporation faces financial difficulty
  18. 18. In the Japanese model, the four key players are: 1. Main Bank(a major inside shareholder) 2. Affiliated company or keiretsu(a major inside shareholder) 3. Management and the 4. Government Interaction among these players serves to link relationship rather balance power, as in the case of Anglo-US Model - non-affiliated shareholders have little or no voice in japanese Governance -As a result, there are few truly independent directors(representing outside shareholders)
  19. 19. Share Ownership Pattern In Japan, Financial institutions and corporations firmly hold ownership of the equity market. Insurance companies Banks 43 % Corporations 25 % Foreign 3 %
  20. 20. Composition of the board of directors Executive managers – the heads of major divisions of the company and its central administrative body. COMMON PRACTICE: • If a company’s profit fall over an extended period, the main bank and member of the keiretsu may remove directors and appoint their own candidates to the company’s board. • Appointment of retiring government bureaucrats to corporate boards • The average japanese board contains 50 members
  21. 21. Austrian Corporations governs Some elements also apply Netherlands German Corporations ScandinaviaFrance Belgium
  22. 22. UNIQUE ELEMENTS of the GERMAN MODEL Two-tiered Board Structure Which means it consist of a management board and supervisory board. The 2 boards are completely distinct; no one may serve simultaneously on a corporations management board. Size of supervisory board It is set by law cannot be change by shareholders Voting right restrictions Voting right restrictions are legal; these limit a shareholder to voting a certain percentage of the corporation’s total share capital, regardless of share ownership position
  23. 23. BOARD COMPOSITIONS Two-tiered Board Management Board “VORSTAND” Supervisory Board “Aufsichtsrat” Employees/labour Union & Shareholders Responsible for daily management of the company Responsible for appointing the management board Responsible for appointing members to the supervisory board
  24. 24. KEY PLAYERS BANKS Corporate shareholders Banks usually play a multi- role as shareholder, lender, issuer of both equity and debt, depository. German and Austrian corporations use the abbreviations AG following their names
  25. 25. Share Ownership Pattern Corporations Banks 41% 27% Pension Funds Individual Owners 3% 4% 19%Foreign investors
  26. 26. Disclosure Requirements ❶ Corporate financial data, requires on a semi-annual basis. ❷ Data on capital structure ❸ Limited information on each supervisory board nominee, including name, hometown and occupation/affiliation. ❹ Aggregate data for compensation of management and supervisory board. ❺ Any substantial shareholder holding more than 5% of the corporation’s total share capital. ❻ Information on proposed mergers and restructurings. ❼ Proposed amendments to the articles of association. ❽ Names of individuals and/or companies proposed as auditors
  27. 27. Corporate Actions Requiring Shareholder Approval ❶ Allocation of net Income (payment of dividends and reserves. ❷ Ratification of the acts of the management board for the previous fiscal year. ❸ Ratification of the acts of the supervisory board for the previous fiscal year. ❹ Election of the supervisory board. ❺Appointment of auditors.