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10 internet-of-things-iot-applications


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Internet of Things Applications (Part of Internet of Things Tutorial)

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10 internet-of-things-iot-applications

  1. 1. IoT Applications John Soldatos, PhD (;
  2. 2. Overview: Contents IoT and Smart Cities IoT and Manufacturing IoT and Wearables IoT and HealthCare IoT and Connected Cars
  3. 3. Internet of Things and Smart Cities
  4. 4. Smart Cities Definitions • “Use of Smart Computing technologies to make the critical infrastructure components and services of a city—which include city administration, education, healthcare, public safety, real estate, transportation, and utilities—more intelligent, interconnected, and efficient” (Forrester, 2011). • “A smart city is based on intelligent exchanges of information that flow between its many different subsystems. This flow of information is analyzed and translated into citizen and commercial services. The city will act on this information flow to make its wider ecosystem more resource-efficient and sustainable. The information exchange is based on a smart governance operating framework designed for cities sustainable” (Gartner, 2011). • “‘Smart city’ [refers to] a local entity—a district, city, region or small country—which takes a holistic approach to employ[ing] information technologies with real-time analysis that encourages sustainable economic development” (IDC, 2011).
  5. 5. What is a Smart City? Investin Human capital Infrastructure (including ICT) toward Sustainable development Economy growth Quality of life Basedon Participatory governance Improved management of natural resources
  6. 6. Smart City Drivers Urbanization • Urban population worldwide amounts currently to approx. 3.7 billion people • Expected to double by 2050 • Resource depletion; need for efficient management of resources • Exclusion, inequality, and rising insecurity challenges Demographic changes • Number of seniors aged 60 or over is the fastest growing segment of the population at a rate of 3.26% • Decline in infant mortality & high fertility • Proliferation of the younger population • Need for employment opportunities Changing lifestyles • Changes in family patterns • New habits in work and mobility, e.g., tele-working, vehicle sharing, & renting • Need for novel urban services in support of these changes Climate change • Climate changes & global warning • Policies for efficient use of water, energy, and other resources • Measures for sustainable growth
  7. 7. Smart Cities and IoT Smart Cities are empowered by IoT technologies • Empowers internet-based connectivity across devices • IoT will generate up to $11.1 trillion a year in economic value by 2025 • Smart cities are one of the IoT settings with the highest business value Relevant IoT technologies • Connectivity: WiFi, 4G/LTE, 5G • Devices interaction: oneM2M, sensor, & IoT middleware • Scalable processing: Cloud computing • Data processing: Data mining, Data analytics, BigData
  8. 8. IoT and Smart Cities Standards Relevant IoT (connectivity) Standards • ZigBee • 3GPP • LoRa • oneM2M • IEEE (802.11) Wi-Fi • …. IoT Standards for Vertical Applications • Smart home (e.g., UPnP, KNX) • Manufacturing applications (e.g., Open Platform Communications (OPC) and Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) standards) • Transportation (e.g., Car2Car, standards of the Open Automotive Alliance) Smart city standards & Outlook • ISO 37120:2014: “Indicators for city services and quality of life” • Need for more integration and smart city interoperability standards (e.g., Hypercat) • Relevant collaborations between IEC, ISO, ITU, IEEE, CEN-CENELEC, and ETSI (e.g., World Smart City Forum in Singapore, July 2016)
  9. 9. Smart City: A rising market
  10. 10. Smart City Maturity Model Phase 1: Digital Infrastructure • Broadband networks • Sensor networks • Public Open Data • Certification & validation of infrastructures • Digital city Phase 2: Services Development • Smart Energy, Smart Transport, urban mobility • Stakeholders’ Involvement • “Smart City” Phase 3: Services Integration & Citizens Participation • Integration and reusability of data & services • Citizens’ engagement • Integrated Smart City
  11. 11. NIST Smart Grid Framework
  12. 12. Vertical Deployment “silos” in Smart Cities Source: FP7 VITAL project,
  13. 13. Bridging the silos: Smart City Operations Center Control center integrating all systems and projects in the smart city Control Center = Software middleware and processes Example #1: Integrated Performance Management: Calculate CO2 saving across all different energy projects Example #2: Repurposing and reusing smart city infrastructures across multiple applications
  14. 14. Smart Cities and Open Data Sets • Open Data Sets == Key enabler for open innovation/novel apps • Examples: London Data Store, Glagow Data Source: London Data Store, Source: Glasgow, Open Data,
  15. 15. IoT & Smart Cities Services Trends Interoperability • Integrating silo deployments • Use of IoT technologies (e.g., Hypercat, IoT+Semantics) Citizen Engagement • Engagement in IoT Services design (e.g., co- creation, integration of artistic concepts) • Citizen-centric services Public Private Partnerships • Preferred financing model • E.g., public sector deploys connectivity infrastructure (Wifi); private sector deploys services
  16. 16. Internet of Things and Wearables
  17. 17. Introducing Wearables Wearables’ Characteristics • Small electronic devices • Comprised of one or more sensors • Associated with clothing or worn accessories, such as watches, wristbands, glasses, and jewelry • Have some sort of computational capability • Capture and process data about the physical world • Some presenting data in some sort of display Connectivity • Wearable devices are not always connected to the Internet • Offer connectivity, such as Bluetooth or NFC (Near Field Communications), based connectivity to smartphones • Connect to smartphone applications
  18. 18. Wearable System Building Blocks Wireless Network Input Device Display Device Video Camera Low Power Indicator Power Supply Com port VGA out Framegrabber Networkcard Parallel port Back plane Main Unit
  19. 19. Wearables Input & Output Devices Input Devices • Keyboard alternative, included chording keyboards and special purpose keyboards • Mouse alternatives, including trackballs and joysticks • Tab alternatives, including buttons and dials • Eye trackers • Head trackers • Pens • Gesturing • Bar code readers • Textiles • Video capture devices, microphones, GPS locators • Speech recognition • Other devices (e.g., skin sensors) Output Devices • Head mounted displays (HMDs) • Flat panels, text-to-speech • Tactile output • Non-speech auditory output • Paper and olfactory output (scent)
  20. 20. Wearables’ Functionalities and Application Areas Sensors • Light • Sound • Speed/acceleration • Humidity • Etc. Consumer-oriented applications • Fitness and sports • Fashion and apparel • Home automation • Gaming Non-consumer- oriented applications • Defense and security • Manufacturing and industry • Healthcare
  21. 21. Introducing Internet of Things Wearables IoT Wearables • Adding information & value to wearables’ capabilities • More sensors and functionalities • Integration with services and data provided by other devices (including other wearables)
  22. 22. Wearables Examples (1) Apple Watch • Includes a heart rate sensor, GPS, and an accelerometer • Fully integrated into the Apple ecosystem Sensoria Fitness T-shirt • Comprised of embedded textile sensors • Enables tracking of heart rate Adidas Smart Run • Wrist device that monitors the wearer's heart rate and location data • Blended into Adidas miCoach system
  23. 23. Wearables Examples (2) FitBit’s Flex • Sleek wristband • Provides real-time statistics on a user's daily fitness activity Google Glass • Head-mounted wearable computer • Projects a transparent screen in front of the user’s field of vision Nike+ Sportwatch • Measures the distance traveled • Measures pace and speed of the wearer's run
  24. 24. Wearables Examples (3) Samsung’s Galaxy Gear • Android-based smart watch • Synchronizes with a cellphone to achieve smartphone-like capabilities Sony Core • Wrist-worn waterproof wearable smart band with a built-in sensor • Records activity levels throughout the day Garmin SmartWatch • Built-in sports apps • Smart scales with wireless connectivity • Enables a more active lifestyle
  25. 25. Future Trends Wearables Ecosystems • Complete programming and application development environments beyond the device level • Wearables as parts of the IoT ecosystem Interoperability • Across devices of different types and from different vendors • Across different ecosystems • Single entry point for managing personal data Novel IoT Services • Integrated IoT wearables services combining data and services from multiple ecosystems • Driven by innovation for fitness, healthcare, industry, etc.
  26. 26. Internet of Things and Manufacturing
  27. 27. Drivers of Future Manufacturing From capacity to capability • Manufacturing flexibility • Respond to variable market demand and achieve high levels of customer fulfillment New production models • Moving away from mass production • From make-to-stock (MTS) to make-to-order (MTO), configure-to- order (CTO), and engineer-to-order (ETO) production • Becoming more demand driven Profitable proximity sourcing and production • Modular products based on common platforms and configurable options • Adopt hybrid production and sourcing strategies • Produce modular platforms centrally, while leveraging suppliers, distributors, or retailers to tailor final products locally to better serve local customer demands Workforce engagement • People will remain at the center of the factory of the future • People will provide the degree of flexibility and decision-making capabilities required to deal with increasing operational complexity • Higher levels of collaboration
  28. 28. Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industrie 4.0): Role of IoT & Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Source: Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0 by The Industry- Science Research Alliance & Sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
  29. 29. IoT vs. CPS IoT Sensing of the physical world Internet connectivity Used in China and EU CPS Control of combined organizational and physical processes Tight human machine interaction Used in USA and EU (Industry 4.0) Embedded Systems (e.g., Board) Networked Embedded Systems (e.g., Autonomous Vehicle) Cyber- Physical Systems (e.g., networked distributed traffic management system) Internet of Things (e.g., Smart City Transport) Evolution from Embedded Systems to CPS and IoT
  30. 30. IoT Interconnects Factories and the Manufacturing Chain Source:
  31. 31. Vision of Informed Manufacturing Plant Source:
  32. 32. Connected Supply Chain Connected Supply Chain Concept • Connecting the production line to suppliers • Stakeholders understand interdependencies, the flow of materials, and process cycle times • Location tracking, remote inventory level monitoring, and automatic reporting of material consumption • Predictive analytics based on real-time data helps manufacturers identify issues before they happen, lowers inventory costs, and potentially reduces capital requirements Case Study: Dell • Employees are engaged with customers to help them find the best customized choice that fits their needs • Orders translated to OptiPlex manufacturing facility, which is able to build more than 20,000 custom-built products • Orders arrive and are consolidated at the part level via real-time factory scheduling and inventory management • Churns out a revised manufacturing schedule every two hours • Enables communications (with time stamps) to suppliers to ensure that required materials are delivered to specific buildings, dock doors, and manufacturing lines
  33. 33. Connected Supply Chain Source:
  34. 34. IoT and Manufacturing Maintenance Activities Preventative and condition- based monitoring • Prevent malfunctions • Equipment that needs to operate within a certain temperature range, the company can use sensors to actively monitor when it goes out of range • Measuring vibrations to detect operations that are out of spec • Leverages Big Data Analytics, including predictive modelling Predictive Maintenance • Leverage multiple modalities to predict when maintenance will be required • E.g., vibration analysis, oil analysis, thermal imaging, etc.
  35. 35. Asset Monitoring and Management Asset Management • Monitoring assets for their status (including predictive maintenance) • New service offerings and business models for equipment suppliers Example Business Models • Models around hours of operation rather than equipment sale; buyers use the equipment in an “as-a-service” offering • New and very closely linked business relationships between manufacturers and their suppliers Industry example • GE’s maintenance cost per (flight) hour model for its aviation business
  36. 36. Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0) Source: Vdi Vde Gesellschaft Mess und Automatisierungstechnik, “Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0 (RAMI4.0)”, July 2015
  37. 37. Challenges for Future (IoT-based) Manufacturing Standardization for CPS Manufacturing • Interfaces should be standardized and solutions made interoperable at various levels (e.g., communication and service levels) • International Standard for Metadata Registries (ISO/ IEC 11179) and its implementation (e.g., the Universal Data Element Framework, or UDEF, from OpenGroup) are aimed at supporting semantic interoperability between structured data • RAMI and Industrial Internet Consortium specify IoT Architectures for Industrial Automation Security and Privacy • IoT Data ranges from big to colossal and from high-velocity to supersonic, and it spans multiple categories (e.g., structured, unstructured, and semi-structured) • Devices must be secured on the network • Users need to feel confident both about their personal data and sensitive organizational data Analytics • Need to convert data into actionable insight • Biggest challenge for many manufacturers, given the growth of Internet of data • No wonder that organizations are investing in getting things on the Internet, as they see the potential for generating business-critical insight from this data
  38. 38. IoT Manufacturing Applications Development Process Analyze sensory architecture Create an IoT vision Initiate engagement and employee communication Focus on application development and infrastructure Rapid deployment, monitoring, and modification planning Developing product features and embedded sensors
  39. 39. Internet of Things and HealthCare
  40. 40. IoT in Healthcare • Sensors collect patient data • Microcontrollers process, analyze, and wirelessly communicate the data • Microprocessors enable rich graphical user interfaces • Healthcare-specific gateways through which sensor data is further analyzed and sent to the cloud
  41. 41. Example: Patient Monitoring Source:
  42. 42. IoT and Clinical Care Target • Replace the process of having a health professional come by at regular intervals to check the patient’s vital signs Benefits • Improve quality of care • Lowers the cost of care by eliminating the need for a caregiver to actively engage in data collection and analysis Implementation • Constant monitoring using IoT- driven, noninvasive sensors • Collect comprehensive physiological information • Uses gateways and the Cloud to analyze and store the information • Send the analyzed data wirelessly to caregivers for further analysis and review
  43. 43. Internet of Things and Connected Cars
  44. 44. Connected Car and Smart Transport Sensors Source: Application Developers Alliance, “Internet of Things: Automotive as a Microcosm of IoT”, White Paper, 2015
  45. 45. Five Ways to Develop Apps for Vehicles #1 • Run apps in the in-vehicle entertainment systems • Blackberry QNX CAR, Windows Embedded Automotive, Automotive Grade Linux, and Android #2 • Use a link to a smartphone • Airbiquity, OpenCar, CloudCar, SmartDeviceLink/ AppLink, MirrorLink, Apple CarPlay, Google Open Automotive Alliance, and Windows in the car #3 • Remote access to the vehicle through an API • OnStar, General Motors API, Ford Remote API, Airbiquity, reverse engineering of vehicle protocols #4 • Access to data through the on- board diagnostics port called OBD- ‐II • Dash Labs, Mojio, Carvoyant, MetroMile, and #5 • New and emerging initiatives • W3C Automotive and Web Platform Business Group and OpenXC
  46. 46. Example: Apple Car Play ( • Allows iPhone owners to use the features they want in their cars without creating dangerous distractions; no wireless Bluetooth option • To pair an iPhone with a vehicle plug it into the dashboard with a lightning cable: • Car automatically pops up the CarPlay icon and updates compatible apps • Phone screen will be locked to eliminate any temptation to use it while driving • Early supporters • Ferrari • Hyundai • Mercedes-Benz • Volvo • Ford Source:
  47. 47. Connected Car: Indicative Applications (1) Infotainment • Brings information functions (i.e., navigation, location-based services, rear seat web browsing, social networking, etc.) into the vehicle’s entertainment system. • E.g., CarPlay for using iTunes, watch videos, run navigation apps on the in-dash display with a touch screen interface & Apple’s voice- companion Siri (vocal commands) • Bring the entire apps ecosystem to the dashboard and present endless possibilities for an in-car experience • Examples: Read out email & calendar reminders, order food, switch on the heater, etc. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication • Wireless exchange of the position, speed, and location data between nearby vehicles • E.g., toward improving the safety of commuters Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication • Wireless exchange of information between vehicles and roadside infrastructure • Communicate with the roads, digital signage, traffic lights, safety, and control systems • E.g., avoid crashes and traffic congestion
  48. 48. Connected Car: Indicative Applications (2) Vehicles and Smartphones • Ιnformation exchange will be two-way: Smartphone to vehicle and vice versa • On-Board Diagnostics (OBD/OBD-II) data: Information regarding engine and other crucial vehicle parameters can be displayed on the driver’s smartphone and the same can be sent to service provider for analysis • Alerts: Open doors, Lights ON, Hand brake ON • Actions: Lock/Un-lock vehicle doors, Roll windows up/down, AC temperature +/- Smartphone sensors for driving insights • Commercial smartphones commonly have sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, or orientation sensor and GPS. • Docking the smartphone to the vehicle; data from these sensors can be used to detect driving patterns, such as sharp turns, sudden acceleration, hard braking, drifting, and speeding • Profile the driver as safe or aggressive to rate and compare different drivers and share such data with insurance providers for customized premiums • Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) and Pay-How- You-Drive (PHYD) are the upcoming offerings from auto insurance companies that reward safe drivers and penalize rash ones with differential premiums On-Board diagnostics for on-device analytics • The on-board Diagnostics (OBD/OBD-II) port is commonly used in automobile service and maintenance • Faults, vehicle, and engine speed, engine temperature, fluid levels, gear shifts, battery status, etc. is accessed regularly at vehicle repair shops • Up-to-date: Used for post-facto analysis • Can be made available to the vehicle owners, giving them a better picture of the car’s performance • Monitoring these parameters actively and with some level of on-device analytics, drivers can get proactive service alerts on their smartphones and potential faults can be identified for early diagnosis and care