Wall built by the Roman Empire across the width of northern England by the
Roman Emperor Hadrian. To prevent military raids on Raman Britain by the
Pictish tribes of what is now Scotland.
The Romans took the art of
brick making to the far
reaches of the empire. So long
as suitable clay, sand and
water was available, tiles and
bricks were manufactured on-
site or in kilns nearby.
Flatter than modern bricks
Roman bricks were seldom
more than 2 inches thick.
Today they are practically as
sound as when they were
made, fifteen centuries ago.
Ancient Roman Concrete Vault in Rome
Concrete consisted of a mortar and an aggregate. The mortar—a hydraulic cement
—was a mixture of lime and a special kind of volcanic deposit. The aggregate
varied and included pieces of rock, ceramic tile, and brick rubble from the
remains of previously demolished buildings.
Pantheon in Rome
Arches were held in place by
wooden scaffolding until the
Roman audiences watched spectacles here:
•Fights to the death between gladiators
•Trained animal and acrobats
•Mock sea battles (the floor could be flooded)
•The opening performance lasted 100 days
and cost the lives of 9000 animals and 2000
Tuscan-plain on ground level
The floor was laid over a foundation of service rooms and
tunnels and covered with sand or arena in Latin, hence the
English term. Approximately 50,000 spectators moved easily
through the 76 entrance doors to the 3 sections of seats and
standing area at the top.
Note: how similar this
construction is to
present day stadium
The Pantheon (125 – 28 AD) is a
temple to the Olympian gods.
The Entrance porch is made to
resemble the façade of a Roman
Behind the porch is a giant Rotunda
(a circular structure with 20 ft. thick
Supported on these walls is a round
bowl shaped dome (143 ft wide and
143 ft high).
Originally created as an aqueduct
It once provided 100 gallons of spring water a day from
the springs of Uzes, 30 miles to the north
It consists of three Arcades (walls with a series of regularly spaced arch
openings) stacked one on the other
High Relief sculpture ---form is raised from the
background without being disconnected from it and
Bas relief is raised slightly from the background
A sunken-relief recedes into the background.
Roman Mammisi (chapel)
in Dendarah, Egypt.
•Shows them crossing the Danube and building a fort
•Used as positive propaganda for the Emperor
Trajan. Roman emperors used statues, buildings , and
coins as positive propaganda .
Pomeii had many beautiful buildings with ornate Roman
motifs until Mt. Vesuvius erupted.
Casts of people who died
in the eruption.
Created a three
on the flat walls.
A wall treated as a
flat surface then
vertical bands with
decorative frames as
if hung on the wall
Vitruvius informs us that Roman artists made their red
pigments from cinnabar or red ochre
Fresco of a Roman
woman from Pompeii,
c. 50 CE.
Chi Rho are the first two letters in the Greek spelling
of the word Christ, and so have come to be used for a
number of Christian-related usages. The Chi Rho is one of
the earliest cruciform symbols used by Christians. It is
formed by superimposing the first two letters of the word
"Christ" in Greek. . Constantine I use of it on flags and
armor, and it became the imperial standard in the early 4th
Mildenhall Treasure These items were
discovered in January1,942 by a Suffolk,
England ploughman . He did not recognize
the objects for what they were, and it was
some years before the silver pieces came to
the attention of the authorities. In 1946 the
discovery was made public and the treasure
was acquired by the British Museum in
The treasure is believed to have been buried
in the 4th century. It includes some of the
finest surviving examples of Roman silver-
smithing, including the mid-4th century
Great Dish of Bacchus
Great Dish of Bacchus
What are some of the unique elements
of Roman art and architecture that
distinguish it from Greek and other art
of the same time period?
In what ways does Roman art and
architecture incorporate the arts of
conquered peoples from Greece,
England to Egypt?