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01 chapter01 process_flow_diagram

Chapter 01 - Instrumentation Control Systems Documentation by Frederick A. and Clifford A. Meier. An ISA Publication.

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01 chapter01 process_flow_diagram

  1. 1. Process Flow Diagrams (PFD’s) Chapter 01 – The Process Flow Diagram EMEC125
  2. 2. What is a PFD and Who Uses Them? • What is a PFD? • Process Flow Diagrams (PFD’s) are drawings that show a representation of only the absolute required elements of the entire process. They are a schematic representation for converting raw materials into a finished product. The details of this conversion are not shown on PFD’s. • Who uses them? • Strategic planners • Managers at the corporate level • Designers • Sometimes, regulatory agencies
  3. 3. Minimum Amount of Detail on a PFD • Process critical details are schematically shown in the least amount of space • PFD’s are the “Big Picture” • Line sizing is rarely, if ever shown • Only show equipment that: • Impacts material balance • Has a large impact on utilities • Contains an ownership transfer point • Process equipment that is needed for further definition of the process • Special equipment
  4. 4. Additional Detail on a PFD • Details may be added at the customer request if implementation is complex and/or costly to the project • Major measurement points, some control valves and control methods and possibly process analyzers can be shown. These types of items will then be duplicated on the P&ID • When the PFD is reviewed, there should be: • Enough information to help with the development of all the P&ID’s • Long lead items should be spelled out
  5. 5. PFD Example – Basic Cement Plant PFD_Cement_Plant.pdf
  6. 6. Process Description for Cement Plant • Lime stone is mined at the local quarry and crushed with a bell crusher and hammer mill. • The crushed lime stone is conveyed to a stone storage/blending building where a bridge crane blends it with Gypsum, Silica, Sand and Clay depending on the grade of cement being produced. • The blend of materials are then conveyed to a ball mill where it is pulverized. • The pulverized material is then dried and blown into a rotary kiln that burns the material at 1,450°C/2,642°F. • The result of burning the material creates clinker with is place into a storage silo. • The clinker is than placed in a finishing ball mill to produce the powder. • The cement is conveyed to a finished goods silo where it can be packed in bags or bulk loaded into tank trucks.
  7. 7. Classroom Exercise • Pick a process that you are familiar with and hand draw/sketch the process. • We will then discuss some of them as a group.