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The Square Kilometre Array: 
Overview and Engineering Update 
Juande Santander-Vela 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
Outline 
• Who am I? 
• SKA Science 
• Site, Telescopes, Technologies 
• SKA Organisation 
• Engineering Progress 
• SKA: ...
Who am I? 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
Who am I? 
• Systems Engineer for the SDP/TM elements 
(since March 2014) 
• VIA-SKA Project Manager (Jan ’12-Feb ’14) 
• ...
Great observatories of the present… 
• Introduction 
• Science 
• Site, Telescopes, Technologies 
• SKA as an Exaflop Came...
…and the future 
• Introduction 
• Science 
• Site, Telescopes, Technologies 
• SKA as an Exaflop Camera 
• Engineering Pr...
…and the future 
• Introduction 
• Science 
• Site, Telescopes, Technologies 
• SKA as an Exaflop Camera 
• Engineering Pr...
…and the future 
• Introduction 
• Science 
• Site, Telescopes, Technologies 
• SKA as an Exaflop Camera 
• Engineering Pr...
SKA Science 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
Why we do this? SKA Science Goals 
XX Century: We discovered our place in the Universe 
XXI Century: We understand the Uni...
SKA Science Goals 
• Initial SKA Science Book (2004): 5 KSPs, 43 
additional ones 
• Updated SKA Science Book (2014): 13 P...
SKA Science Goals: WGs 
• Astrobiology (“The Cradle of Life”) 
• Project Scientist: Tyler Bourke 
• WG Chair: Melvin Hoare...
SKA Science Goals: Headline Projects 
Year in the life of SKA1: Mock-up 
3-years scheduling to constrain 
operations, comp...
Telescopes, Sites, 
Technologies 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
SKA Telescopes 
SKA1-Low 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
SKA Telescopes 
SKA1-Mid 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
SKA Telescopes 
SKA1-Survey 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
SKA1-Mid: 
Karoo Site
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
SKA1-Low/-Survey: 
Murchison Radio Observatory
SKA Organisation 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
• Australia (DoI) 
• Canada (NRCZHIA) 
• China (MOST) 
• Germany (BMBF) 
• India (NCRA) 
• Italy (INAF) 
• Netherlands (NW...
SKA Governance: Pre-Construction 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
SKA Governance 
****************** 
Members$ 
Board$of$Directo...
SKA International Design Consortia 
Project Management and System Engineering Team based at JBO 
(UK) 
~500 scientists & e...
Engineering 
Progress 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
erKAT receiver and digitiser 
SKA1 Precursors: MeerKAT 
64 x 13.5m offset Gregorian 
antennas 
8km maximum baseline length...
SKA1 Precursors: MeerKAT 
Lot’s more of infrastructure already in place: dish assembly 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
SKA1 Precursors: MeerKAT 
Lot’s more of infrastructure already in place: dish assembly 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
SKA1 Precursors: ASKAP 
36 x 12m antennas 
3-axis movement 
30m – 6km baselines 
Novel PAF receiver 
700MHz – 1800MHz 
Wid...
SKA1 Precursors: ASKAP 
BETA 
• 6 Mk I PAFs and digital systems 
• Commissioning, learning about beamforming 
Lesson: depl...
SKA1 Precursors: MWA 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
Murchison Widefield Array, Operational 
17 refereed papers published, more...
3 dish prototypes in testing 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
3 dish prototypes in testing 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
3 dish prototypes in testing 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
SKA: the Exaflop 
HI Tomograph 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
Engineering Challenges 
• Dishes, feeds, receivers (N=250 → 2500) 
• Low and mid aperture arrays (n=250k → 1000k) 
• Signa...
SKA High-Level Architecture 
SKA-TEL-SKO-DD-001 
Revision : 1 
SKA Observatory Global 
Headquarters 
Australia 
SKA1-surve...
SKA Elements & Interfaces 
Conceptual figure: 
it should be split by 
telescope 
SaDT 
Timing 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
I...
SKA Elements & Interfaces 
Conceptual figure: 
it should be split by 
telescope 
SaDT 
Timing 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
D...
SKA is a Software-Defined Telescope 
• Software Defined Networking 
• Allows easy partitioning, sub-arraying, 
quality of ...
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
Telescope Manager 
Science Data Processor Local M&C 
Science Data Processor 
Correlator / 
Beamf...
courtesy 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
Performance Modelling 
• Imaging and calibration determines 
system sizing 
• Data is ...
SKA1 Archive Size 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
ALMA vs. SKA: 
Telescope Control 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
SKA Control Problem 
• Need to find COTS-based solution 
• Move away from expensive hard real-time 
solutions 
• Switched ...
SKA Elements & Interfaces 
Conceptual figure: 
it should be split by 
telescope 
SaDT 
Timing 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
I...
SDP.PIP.* 
Figure 1. ALMA Software Subsystems interaction diagram (source: ALMA Software documentation) 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec ...
SKA Observation interaction: SKA1-Mid 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
TM.OBSMGT 
TM.TELMGT 
DSH.LMC CSP.LMC 
SDP.LMC 
Data 
Com...
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
(EPICS/TANGO/OPC UA) 
Ethernet switching 
Middleware TBD 
DSH.LMC 
SADT.DDBH 
SADT.TM 
CSP.LMC 
...
TM.OBSMGT TM.TELMGT 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 
TM.TELMOD 
SDP.PIP.
What’s next? 
ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
The SKA1 timeline 
KEY:/Blue/=/SKA1/science/&/engineering;/orange/=/policy;/green/=/SKA2;/milestones*in*italics*=/proposal...
The SKA1 timeline 
!! 
!! 
!! 
Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 
AL...
Questions? 
Juande Santander-Vela 
j.santander-vela@skatelescope.org
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The Square Kilometre Array: Overview and Engineering Update

The Square Kilometre Array is currently undergoing the Preliminary Design Reviews for its composing elements, and is thus at a critical point on its way to becoming ready for construction starting in 2018. In this talk we will provide an overview of the SKA, its composing elements, and their status, with emphasis on the Telescope Manager and the Science Data Processor, respectively the Monitoring & Control system, and Pipeline. We will see how do they compare with their ALMA equivalents, and how is the SKA similar/different from ALMA.

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The Square Kilometre Array: Overview and Engineering Update

  1. 1. The Square Kilometre Array: Overview and Engineering Update Juande Santander-Vela ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  2. 2. Outline • Who am I? • SKA Science • Site, Telescopes, Technologies • SKA Organisation • Engineering Progress • SKA: the Exaflop HI Tomograph • ALMA vs. SKA: Telescope Control • What’s Next? ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  3. 3. Who am I? ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  4. 4. Who am I? • Systems Engineer for the SDP/TM elements (since March 2014) • VIA-SKA Project Manager (Jan ’12-Feb ’14) • Former VLT Archive Applied Scientist (Jun ’09- Feb ’11), ALMA Science Archive Front-/Back-end Developer at ESO Garching (Mar-Dec 2011) • Ph.D. in Radio Astronomical data archives & Virtual Observatory • Software Analyst/Manager in Industry ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  5. 5. Great observatories of the present… • Introduction • Science • Site, Telescopes, Technologies • SKA as an Exaflop Camera • Engineering Progress • What’s Next? ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  6. 6. …and the future • Introduction • Science • Site, Telescopes, Technologies • SKA as an Exaflop Camera • Engineering Progress • What’s Next? ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  7. 7. …and the future • Introduction • Science • Site, Telescopes, Technologies • SKA as an Exaflop Camera • Engineering Progress • What’s Next? ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  8. 8. …and the future • Introduction • Science • Site, Telescopes, Technologies • SKA as an Exaflop Camera • Engineering Progress • What’s Next? ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  9. 9. SKA Science ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  10. 10. Why we do this? SKA Science Goals XX Century: We discovered our place in the Universe XXI Century: We understand the Universe we inhabit Fundamental Forces & Particles • Gravity • Radio pulsar tests of General Relativity • Gravitational Waves • Dark Energy • Magnetism • Origin and evolution of Cosmic Magnetism Origins • Galaxies and the Universe • Cosmic Dawn • First Galaxies • Galaxy Assembly & Evolution • Stars, Planets & Life • Protoplanetary Disks • Biomolecules • SETI ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 Some of these can only be achieved with SKA2
  11. 11. SKA Science Goals • Initial SKA Science Book (2004): 5 KSPs, 43 additional ones • Updated SKA Science Book (2014): 13 Phase 1 Headline Projects, 130 Chapters • Projects reduced, parameterised from ~43 projects, through science prioritisation exercise with SKAO and SWGs ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  12. 12. SKA Science Goals: WGs • Astrobiology (“The Cradle of Life”) • Project Scientist: Tyler Bourke • WG Chair: Melvin Hoare • Galaxy Evolution – Continuum • Project Scientist: Jeff Wagg • WG Chairs: Nick Seymour & Isabella Prandoni • Cosmic Magnetism • Project Scientist: Jimi Green • WG Chairs: Melanie Johnston- Hollitt & Federica Govoni • Cosmology • Project Scientist: Jeff Wagg • WG Chair: Roy Maartens • Epoch of Reionisation & Cosmic Dawn • Project Scientist: Jeff Wagg • WG Chair: Leon Koopmans • Galaxy Evolution – HI • Project Scientist: Jimi Green • WG Chairs: Lister Staveley-Smith & Tom Osterloo • Pulsars (“Strong field tests of gravity”) • Project Scientist: Jimi Green • WG Chairs: Ben Stappers & Michael Kramer • Transients • Project Scientist: Tyler Bourke • WG Chairs: Rob Fender & J.-P. MacQuart ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  13. 13. SKA Science Goals: Headline Projects Year in the life of SKA1: Mock-up 3-years scheduling to constrain operations, computation ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  14. 14. Telescopes, Sites, Technologies ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  15. 15. SKA Telescopes SKA1-Low ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  16. 16. SKA Telescopes SKA1-Mid ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  17. 17. SKA Telescopes SKA1-Survey ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  18. 18. ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 SKA1-Mid: Karoo Site
  19. 19. ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 SKA1-Low/-Survey: Murchison Radio Observatory
  20. 20. SKA Organisation ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  21. 21. • Australia (DoI) • Canada (NRCZHIA) • China (MOST) • Germany (BMBF) • India (NCRA) • Italy (INAF) • Netherlands (NWO) • New Zealand (MED) • South Africa (DST) • Sweden (Chalmers) • UK (STFC) SKA Organisation Other partners in negotiation, expected Currently UK Company Limited by Guarantee → Treaty Organisation ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  22. 22. SKA Governance: Pre-Construction ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 SKA Governance ****************** Members$ Board$of$Directors$ Director;General$ $ SKA$Office$ ~50$staff$ $ 11$Design$ConsorXa$ ~500$ScienXsts$&$Engineers$ Strategy$&$$ Business$Dev$ Cmte$ Finance$ Cmte$ ExecuXve$Cmte$ Science$&$Eng$ Advisory$Cmte$ €23.4M$ (cash)$ ~$€125M$ (in;kind)$
  23. 23. SKA International Design Consortia Project Management and System Engineering Team based at JBO (UK) ~500 scientists & engineers in institutes & industry in 11 Member countries ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  24. 24. Engineering Progress ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  25. 25. erKAT receiver and digitiser SKA1 Precursors: MeerKAT 64 x 13.5m offset Gregorian antennas 8km maximum baseline length First receivers: 0.9 – 1.67 GHz (L-band) 0.58 – 1 GHz (UHF) 770 MHz bandwidth Early operations 2016/7 First light with L-band ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  26. 26. SKA1 Precursors: MeerKAT Lot’s more of infrastructure already in place: dish assembly ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  27. 27. SKA1 Precursors: MeerKAT Lot’s more of infrastructure already in place: dish assembly ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  28. 28. SKA1 Precursors: ASKAP 36 x 12m antennas 3-axis movement 30m – 6km baselines Novel PAF receiver 700MHz – 1800MHz Wide field of view Fast survey speed ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  29. 29. SKA1 Precursors: ASKAP BETA • 6 Mk I PAFs and digital systems • Commissioning, learning about beamforming Lesson: deploy early, test, ensure adequate gap to production commitment ASKAP • First Mk II PAF installed • Results expected in next few weeks • Production of Mk II PAFs install through to Feb 2016 ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  30. 30. SKA1 Precursors: MWA ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 Murchison Widefield Array, Operational 17 refereed papers published, more coming
  31. 31. 3 dish prototypes in testing ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  32. 32. 3 dish prototypes in testing ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  33. 33. 3 dish prototypes in testing ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  34. 34. SKA: the Exaflop HI Tomograph ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  35. 35. Engineering Challenges • Dishes, feeds, receivers (N=250 → 2500) • Low and mid aperture arrays (n=250k → 1000k) • Signal transport (~1 Pb/s → 10 Pb/s) • Signal processing (exa-MACs) • Software engineering & algorithm development • High performance computing (exa-flop capability) • Data storage (exa-byte capacity) • (Distributed) power requirements (10 → 50MW) ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  36. 36. SKA High-Level Architecture SKA-TEL-SKO-DD-001 Revision : 1 SKA Observatory Global Headquarters Australia SKA1-survey South Africa SKA1-mid Figure 1 A schematic diagram of the SKA Observatory, showing the geographical locations ALMA SCO of HQ, site Dec entities 11 2014 (telescopes), the entities at regional centres (Host Country Headquarters and Science Data Processing), and Regional Science & Engineering Centre(s) Regional Science & Engineering Centre(s) Remote stations on spiral arms Science Computing Remote Station Remote Station Remote Station Host Country Headquarters Central Signal Processing SKA1-low Core Arrays Remote stations on spiral arms Science Computing Remote Station Remote Station Remote Station Host Country Headquarters Central Signal Processing Mid-Freq Aperture Array (SKA2) Core Arrays
  37. 37. SKA Elements & Interfaces Conceptual figure: it should be split by telescope SaDT Timing ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 INFRA DSH LFAA TM CSP SDP Command control flow Data flow
  38. 38. SKA Elements & Interfaces Conceptual figure: it should be split by telescope SaDT Timing ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 DSH/LFAA CSP SDP TM INFRA Command control flow Data flow
  39. 39. SKA is a Software-Defined Telescope • Software Defined Networking • Allows easy partitioning, sub-arraying, quality of service, commensality… • Software Defined Beamforming (-Low, - Survey) • Software Defined Computing • Data-Flow Driven Science Data Processing Lots of computing challenges ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  40. 40. ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 Telescope Manager Science Data Processor Local M&C Science Data Processor Correlator / Beamformer Data Routing Ingest Visibility processing Multiple Reads Time Series Search Data Routing Data$Buffer Multiple Reads Image Plane Processing Time Series Processing Data Prodcuts Sky Models, Calibration Parameters ... Meta Data MMaassteterr C Coonntrtroolllelerr Local M&C Database Tiered Data Delivery
  41. 41. courtesy ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 Performance Modelling • Imaging and calibration determines system sizing • Data is Buffered after Ingest • Detailed analysis building on Cornwell: • Imaging o AW-projection o Plus w-snapshots o Plus faceting (working memory size) • Continuum imaging always required for calibration o Field of view to second zero of beam • Maximal case includes “science discovery” mode of forming high spectral-resolution image cube over primary beam • Commensal fast-imaging mode for slow transients Processing maximal (Pflop) Ingest (GB/s) Use Case examples (GB/s) LFAA! 100! 7300! 245! Survey! 135! 4600! 995! Mid! 360! 3300! 255! Detailed analysis is much more complicated
  42. 42. SKA1 Archive Size ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  43. 43. ALMA vs. SKA: Telescope Control ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  44. 44. SKA Control Problem • Need to find COTS-based solution • Move away from expensive hard real-time solutions • Switched network inside products • Orchestration instead of deterministic control • Certain amount of product independence ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  45. 45. SKA Elements & Interfaces Conceptual figure: it should be split by telescope SaDT Timing ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 INFRA DSH LFAA TM CSP SDP Command control flow Data flow
  46. 46. SDP.PIP.* Figure 1. ALMA Software Subsystems interaction diagram (source: ALMA Software documentation) ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 CSP SDP SDP.PIP.* TM.OBSMGT TM.TELMGT SDP.INGEST
  47. 47. SKA Observation interaction: SKA1-Mid ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 TM.OBSMGT TM.TELMGT DSH.LMC CSP.LMC SDP.LMC Data Commands Monitoring/Status SDP.INGEST SDP.PIP.* SDP.ARCH DSH.RECEIVER CSP.CORR
  48. 48. ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 (EPICS/TANGO/OPC UA) Ethernet switching Middleware TBD DSH.LMC SADT.DDBH SADT.TM CSP.LMC SADT.SAT
  49. 49. TM.OBSMGT TM.TELMGT ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 TM.TELMOD SDP.PIP.
  50. 50. What’s next? ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014
  51. 51. The SKA1 timeline KEY:/Blue/=/SKA1/science/&/engineering;/orange/=/policy;/green/=/SKA2;/milestones*in*italics*=/proposals/under/discussion Design/consortia/start High/level/design Rebaselining/submissions/(RBS) Preliminary/Design/Review/(elements) Board/RBS/approval 3K5/Mar/15 Construction*Readiness*Review* (1*dish*line9up) Key/Doc/Set/&/Prospectus Agreements/in/Key/Doc/Set/signed Formal/negotiations Ratification/of/Agreements Organisation/has/minimum/no./Members/with/Agreements/ratified 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Detailed/design Prototype/systems/deployed Critical/Design/Review SKA1/construction/approved Procurement SKA1/construction SKA1/early/science SKA2/concept/development SKA2/detailed/design SKA2/procurement SKA2/construction/starts 15K22/Sep/14 1/Nov/13 PreKconstruction/Stage/1 PreKconstruction/Stage/2 Production*Readiness*Review*(4*dish*array) New/SKA/Organisation/in/place Andrea/Casson,/SKAO/Project/Controller,/Sept/2014 System/PDR Integration/testing/on/site Advanced/Instrumentation/Prog.
  52. 52. The SKA1 timeline !! !! !! Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar ALMA SCO HQ, Dec 11 2014 Issue%Baseline% Design Science% Assessment% Workshops Proposal% Feedback Level%1% Requirements% Feedback Science% Conference Engineering% Meeting Level%0% Requirements Brief% SEAC Engineering%Change%Proposals Designs%&% Costs SKAO%Review Technical% Advice (working% groups) SEAC Board Consortium%Design%Activities 2013 2015 2014 PDR Science Review%Panel Science Review% Panel !! !! !! !! !! !! !!(43) !!
  53. 53. Questions? Juande Santander-Vela j.santander-vela@skatelescope.org

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The Square Kilometre Array is currently undergoing the Preliminary Design Reviews for its composing elements, and is thus at a critical point on its way to becoming ready for construction starting in 2018. In this talk we will provide an overview of the SKA, its composing elements, and their status, with emphasis on the Telescope Manager and the Science Data Processor, respectively the Monitoring & Control system, and Pipeline. We will see how do they compare with their ALMA equivalents, and how is the SKA similar/different from ALMA.

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