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BIOTERRORISM
INTRODUCTION
Advances in DNA technology has led to its issue in the
field of forensics. The use of DNA has recently found
...
OBJECTIVES
At the end of this lesson....
 ....the students should be able to have an idea on the history of
biological wa...
WHAT IS BIOTERRORISM?
Bioterrorism is a type of warfare that makes use of
biological agents (biological weapons) to inflic...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
Poisons from plants were used to contaminate drinking and
bathing wells of enemies.
6TH CENTURY BC
T...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
Threw earthen pots with serpents to the enemies.
4TH CENTURY BC
Hurl plague-ridden dead over the wal...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
Presented Native Americans with blankets and handkerchiefs
contaminated with smallpox.
1763
Infectin...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
Alleged cholera organism spread in Italy by Germans.
1914-1917
Geneva protocol banned biological wea...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
A Japanese, a physician and an army officer began experiments
on biological warfare and troops invad...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
Plague bacteria released in Chuhsien and Ninpo, Chinhua.
1940-1941
British experimented with anthrax...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
US studies on the defense from biological warfare with camps in
Maryland, Mississippi and later in U...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
Vietcongs used fecally contaminated spear traps during the
Vietnam War.
1960's
A virus and a rickett...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
US President Richard Milhous Nixon renounced biological warfare
and limited the research to defense ...
BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE
Iraqi authorities acknowledged that they had 100 botulinum toxins,
50 anthrax. 16 aflatoxin bombs, 1...
17 COUNTRIES THAT ARE INSPECTED
OF MANUFACTURING BIOLOGICAL
WEAPONS
Bulgaria Egypt Iraq
South
Korea
Russia Taiwan China Cu...
TERRORISTS
MAY USE
Anthrax Salmonella Smallpox
Hemorrhagic
Fever
Typhoid
E. Coli
Pneumonic
Plague
Diptheria Ricin Dengue F...
WHY USE BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS?
These are the characteristics of agents used as biological
weapons:
 Invisible and microscopi...
DISADVANTAGES OF BIOLOGICAL
WEAPONS
Even though it is advantageous for them to use biological
weapons, there are also disa...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
ANTHRAX
Anthrax usually affects livestock and is caused
by the bacterium Bacillus anthraci...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
ANTHRAX
B. anthracis is a rod-shaped Gram-positive
spore-forming and non-motile facultativ...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
ANTHRAX
There are three forms of anthrax, all of which are treatable with
antibiotics:
Cut...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
SMALLPOX
Smallpox is a highly contagious viral disease caused
by the virus Variola. Consid...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
PLAGUE
Also known as the "Black Death" in the
Middle Ages, the pestilence spread
across As...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
PLAGUE
There are three types of plague.
Bubonic plague - most common type of plague
caused...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
BOTULISM
Botulism is a muscle paralyzing disease caused
by the toxin made by the bacterium...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
TULAREMIA
Also known as "Rabbit Fever". It is caused by the
bacterium Francisella tularens...
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE
RICIN
Ricin is a poison derived from castor bean
plants, the same beans used to make
casto...
REVIEW YOUR
NOTES FOR 5
MINUTES AND
AFTER REVIEWING,
A SHORT 10-ITEM
QUIZ WILL BE GIVEN.
QUIZ
1. What is the common use of DNA in introduction?
2. What do you call the type of warfare that makes use of biologica...
QUIZ
6. Give 3 countries that were inspected of manufacturing biological
agents. (3 pts)
7. Natives of South America were ...
ANSWERS
ANSWERS
1. Identifying individuals in crimes
2. Bioterrorism/Biowarfare
3.
4. 1970
5. Annthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism...
ANSWERS
1. Identifying individuals in crimes
2. Bioterrorism/Biowarfare
3.
4. 1970
5. Anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism,...
ANSWERS
1. Identifying individuals in crimes
2. Bioterrorism/Biowarfare
3.
4. 1970
5. Annthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism...
THANK YOU!
Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry
Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry
Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry
Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry
Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry
Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry
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Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry

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This presentation focuses on a short history of bioterrorism, description, its advantages and disadvantages and organisms incorporated into weapons are also shown here.

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Bioterrorism: History, Advantages and Weaponry

  1. 1. BIOTERRORISM
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Advances in DNA technology has led to its issue in the field of forensics. The use of DNA has recently found strong acceptance as a means of identifying individuals: in legal cases such as identification of victims, in rape cases and paternity testing; medical diagnostics; determining evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity and relationships between different plant and animal species, and; forensic archaeology. DNA identification of individuals, termed DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting, uses the 0.1 - 1% difference in the DNA content of humans to generate a unique identification tag, or fingerprint, for an individual. However, developments in recombinant DNA techniques have brought with it the dangers of producing superbugs for use as biological weapons.
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson....  ....the students should be able to have an idea on the history of biological warfare.  ....to identify biological agents with potential as biological weapons.
  4. 4. WHAT IS BIOTERRORISM? Bioterrorism is a type of warfare that makes use of biological agents (biological weapons) to inflict harm to the enemy. Biological weapons use toxins or chemicals produced by microorganisms, plants or animals. Infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, protozoans or fungi are intentionally used to inflict harm to others. These agents are invisible and microscopic, yet, deadly.
  5. 5. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE Poisons from plants were used to contaminate drinking and bathing wells of enemies. 6TH CENTURY BC To conquer South America, natives were given gifts and clothing laden with virus. 5TH CENTURY BC
  6. 6. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE Threw earthen pots with serpents to the enemies. 4TH CENTURY BC Hurl plague-ridden dead over the walls of the city. 1346
  7. 7. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE Presented Native Americans with blankets and handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. 1763 Infecting ponds with carcasses of dead animals. 1860-1865
  8. 8. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE Alleged cholera organism spread in Italy by Germans. 1914-1917 Geneva protocol banned biological weapons and Japan refused to accept the ban. 1925
  9. 9. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE A Japanese, a physician and an army officer began experiments on biological warfare and troops invade Manchuria with such weapons. 1932 Field testing of biowarfare on Chinese soldiers and civilians, cholera, anthrax etc. 1936
  10. 10. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE Plague bacteria released in Chuhsien and Ninpo, Chinhua. 1940-1941 British experimented with anthrax off Scottish coast. 1941
  11. 11. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE US studies on the defense from biological warfare with camps in Maryland, Mississippi and later in Utah. 1941-1943 The US announced its involvement in biological weapons research. 1946
  12. 12. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE Vietcongs used fecally contaminated spear traps during the Vietnam War. 1960's A virus and a rickettsiae production plant was constructed. 1964
  13. 13. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE US President Richard Milhous Nixon renounced biological warfare and limited the research to defense measures only. 1969-1970 Anti-biological warfare advocates. 1970-present
  14. 14. BIOTERRORISM TIMELINE Iraqi authorities acknowledged that they had 100 botulinum toxins, 50 anthrax. 16 aflatoxin bombs, 13 botulinum toxin, 10 anthrax, and 2 aflatoxin Scud missile warheads, 122-mm rockets filled with anthrax, botulinum and aflatoxin. 1995
  15. 15. 17 COUNTRIES THAT ARE INSPECTED OF MANUFACTURING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS Bulgaria Egypt Iraq South Korea Russia Taiwan China Cuba India Iran Israel North Korea South Africa Libya Laos Syria Vietnam
  16. 16. TERRORISTS MAY USE Anthrax Salmonella Smallpox Hemorrhagic Fever Typhoid E. Coli Pneumonic Plague Diptheria Ricin Dengue Fever Cobra Venom Haemophilus influenzae Tuberculosis Aflatoxin Malaria Bubonic Plague Yellow Fever Botulinum Toxin Tularemia Cholera
  17. 17. WHY USE BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS? These are the characteristics of agents used as biological weapons:  Invisible and microscopic  Simple laboratory techniques are required for preparation of these agents and may not require sophisticated apparatus  Easy to multiply and maintain  Difficult to trace  Very deadly
  18. 18. DISADVANTAGES OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS Even though it is advantageous for them to use biological weapons, there are also disadvantages of using biological weapons. These are the disadvantages of using biological weapons to those who are involved in preparing the agents:  High risk of worker being contaminated  Living organism may be destroyed when incorporated into bombs and missiles (by heat)  Problem of dispersal and attack, difficult to deploy  Requires confirmation that the strains are pathogenic or disease-causing  Problems of acquisition for highly-restricted microbes.
  19. 19. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE ANTHRAX Anthrax usually affects livestock and is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The bacterium produces spores that make toxin which can be fatal to man and animals. Several of the advantages of using anthrax as a biological weapon are that the tough spores survive delivery via bombs and they are relatively easy to obtain. Furthermore, anthrax is estimated to cause 95,000 deaths and 125,000 casualties.
  20. 20. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE ANTHRAX B. anthracis is a rod-shaped Gram-positive spore-forming and non-motile facultative aerobe. The spores produced are invisible, colorless and tasteless; it takes less than a speck of dust to make a person ill. It is also highly resistant to heat, cold, radiation, dessication, and disinfectants. Spores need oxygen to sporulate and produce a polypeptide capsule (polyglutamic acid) which protects the bacterium from host defenses and phagocytosis.
  21. 21. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE ANTHRAX There are three forms of anthrax, all of which are treatable with antibiotics: Cutaneous anthrax - the bacterium enters a cut in the skin, resulting to skin sores with characteristic black center. Intestinal anthrax - bacterium ingested from meat of infected animal causes inflammation of the intestines, vomiting of blood and severe diarrhea. Inhalation anthrax - infects the lungs; cold or flu-like symptoms develop initially, with fatigue, low grade fever and dry cough, later developing into high fever and pneumonia.
  22. 22. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE SMALLPOX Smallpox is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the virus Variola. Considered to be an ancient killer, it has been eradicated through worldwide vaccination. Known stocks of virus exist in only two World Health Organization (WHO) laboratories but may be in the hands of terrorists. Signs and symptoms include high fever, tiny pus-filled blisters on the face, arms and legs. There is no proven treatment and the disease can kill within weeks, fatal in about 30% of cases. However, a vaccine is available which can lessen the severity of the disease.
  23. 23. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE PLAGUE Also known as the "Black Death" in the Middle Ages, the pestilence spread across Asia and Europe and killed a third of the world's inhabitants at that time, about 20-30 million people. It is caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium found in rats, squirrels and wild dogs. Antibiotics can be used to prevent it unlike before.
  24. 24. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE PLAGUE There are three types of plague. Bubonic plague - most common type of plague caused by biting of rats, squirrels and other rodents, which kills within 4-6 days. Pneumonic plague - type of plague wherein the infection moves to the lungs. Septicemic plague - type of plague wherein the bacterium grows in the blood. This type of plague is the most deadly.
  25. 25. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE BOTULISM Botulism is a muscle paralyzing disease caused by the toxin made by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that can kill within 24 hours and can be obtained from improperly canned foods or fish. Symptoms include abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, double vision and difficulty to swallow. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) keeps an antidote to botulinum toxin in storage; a penicillin treatment can also be used. An experimental vaccine exists but since the disease is too rare, immunization is not done.
  26. 26. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE TULAREMIA Also known as "Rabbit Fever". It is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, it is acquired by coming in contact with blood or body fluids from infected animals such as rabbits and squirrels mostly, and from the bite of a fly or tick that carries blood of an infected animal or from contaminated food. It can be contacted by being inhaled. Tularemia causes fever, headache, chills, weakness, and ulcerated sore when bitten by the tick, resulting in enlarged and tender nodes. On the other hand, the disease can be obtained through contaminated water resulting to mouth and throat sores, vomiting and diarrhea; it can also affect lungs leading to pneumonia.
  27. 27. COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN USE RICIN Ricin is a poison derived from castor bean plants, the same beans used to make castor oil. Ingestion of poisoned food or contaminated water supply can cause intestinal bleeding and organ damage. It can be turned into an aerosol and can contaminate by inhalation causing severe respiratory problems and damaged lungs. No anti-ricin vaccine or antidote exists, possessing a serious threat as a biological weapon.
  28. 28. REVIEW YOUR NOTES FOR 5 MINUTES AND AFTER REVIEWING, A SHORT 10-ITEM QUIZ WILL BE GIVEN.
  29. 29. QUIZ 1. What is the common use of DNA in introduction? 2. What do you call the type of warfare that makes use of biological agents (biological weapons) to inflict harm to the enemy? 3. Give 3 biological weapons that terrorists could potentially use. (3 pts) 4. Anti-biological warfare advocates started in what year? 5. What are the 5 common biological agents in use? (5 pts)
  30. 30. QUIZ 6. Give 3 countries that were inspected of manufacturing biological agents. (3 pts) 7. Natives of South America were given gifts and clothings with virus in order to conquer the place. This was done in what century BC? 8. Cholera became rampant in Italy and the organism was spread by the Germans to defeat Italy. This was done in the year ______-______. (2 pts) 9. This biological agent is caused by the virus Variola. Blisters are one of the signs of having this disease. 10. In ____-____(1 pt), _________ had renounced biological warfare and the research was limited to defense measures only.
  31. 31. ANSWERS
  32. 32. ANSWERS 1. Identifying individuals in crimes 2. Bioterrorism/Biowarfare 3. 4. 1970 5. Annthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, tularemia, ricin 6. 7. 5th 8. 1914-1917 9. Smallpox 10. 1969-1970; Richard Milhous Nixon GO TO TABLE GO TO TABLE
  33. 33. ANSWERS 1. Identifying individuals in crimes 2. Bioterrorism/Biowarfare 3. 4. 1970 5. Anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, tularemia, ricin 6. 7. 5th 8. 1914-1917 9. Smallpox 10. 1969-1970; Richard Milhous Nixon GO TO TABLE GO TO TABLE
  34. 34. ANSWERS 1. Identifying individuals in crimes 2. Bioterrorism/Biowarfare 3. 4. 1970 5. Annthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, tularemia, ricin 6. 7. 5th 8. 1914-1917 9. Smallpox 10. 1969-1970; Richard Milhous Nixon GO TO TABLE GO TO TABLE
  35. 35. THANK YOU!
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This presentation focuses on a short history of bioterrorism, description, its advantages and disadvantages and organisms incorporated into weapons are also shown here.

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