Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
Lab 1 Vertebrate Evolution
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

4

Share

Download to read offline

Ecology

Download to read offline

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Ecology

  1. 2. ECOLOGY <ul><li>The study of living organisms and their interaction with the nonliving environment </li></ul>
  2. 3. Historical Background <ul><li>Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Eco = “house” ology = “study of” </li></ul><ul><li>BIOTIC ABIOTIC </li></ul>
  3. 4. Realms of Ecology <ul><li>Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Biome </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>
  4. 6. What Ecologists Study <ul><li>Concerned with levels of organization ABOVE population </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Biosphere <ul><li>The portion of the earth where living organisms exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the earth were an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the skin </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Atmosphere <ul><li>The troposphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface to 17 km (11 miles) up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains most of the oxygen and nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The stratosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 to 48 km up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains most of the O 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens out all UV-C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens out most UV-B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens out some UV-A </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Hydrosphere <ul><li>All the water on the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>underground </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar ice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Icebergs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice in frozen soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Lithosphere <ul><li>Crust and upper mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all usable minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all nutrients for plant life </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. What Sustains Life on Earth? <ul><li>Life on Earth depends on three interconnecting factors </li></ul><ul><li>One way flow of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cycling of matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All nutrients must be recycled repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the planet to hold its atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes downward movement of chemicals in cycles </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Lights and warms the planet </li></ul><ul><li>Supports photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Powers matter cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Drives climate and weather systems </li></ul>
  11. 13. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Lights and warms the planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth receives about 1/1,000,000,000 of the suns energy output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>34% reflected back into space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remaining 66% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warms the troposphere and land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporates water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generates winds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Supports photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds decomposition </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Powers matter cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous cycle </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Drives climate and weather systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributes heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributes fresh water </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Natural Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Most solar radiation is degraded into heat </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gasses keep the heat around the planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ozone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be as cold as Mars </li></ul>
  16. 18. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Biomes – large regions of land characterized by a distinct climate and specific animal and especially plant species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desserts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jungles </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Biomes - consist of two components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abiotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic (biota) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>microorganisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Deciduous Forest/River Ecotone
  21. 26. Aquatic/Marine life Zones <ul><li>Fresh water life zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes & ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streams & rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marine life zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep oceans </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Abiotic Limitations <ul><li>Abiotic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water – how much or how little </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy – shade or sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients – rich or poor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Range of Tolerance <ul><li>There is an optimum range of each abiotic component of a biome for each species </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals in a population may have slightly different tolerances </li></ul>
  24. 30. Law of Tolerance <ul><li>The levels, abundance and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the ranger tolerated by that species. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation: Don’t expect to find polar bears in Tahiti </li></ul>
  25. 31. Limiting Factor Principle <ul><li>Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation: If the restaurant serves really spicy food, don’t look for Anglos </li></ul>
  26. 32. Limiting Factor Principle <ul><li>Too much of a particular abiotic factor can also be a limiting factor </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting factors can change </li></ul>
  27. 33. Limiting Factor Principle <ul><li>Aquatic or marine life zones also have limiting factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul>
  28. 34. Living Components of the Biome <ul><li>Metabolism – all living creatures capture and transform matter and energy from their environment to supply their needs for survival, growth and reproduction </li></ul>
  29. 35. Living Components of the Biome <ul><li>All living things are divided into two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Producers – make their own food from components obtained from the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers – obtain nutrients and energy by consuming other organisms or their remains </li></ul>
  30. 36. Producers Autotrophs <ul><li>Most producers capture sunlight and abiotic nutrients to produce carbohydrates (such as glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in a process called Photosynthesis </li></ul>
  31. 38. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Carbon dioxide + water + solar energy  glucose + oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + solar energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 </li></ul>
  32. 39. Chemosynthesis <ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide + carbon dioxide + geothermal heat  nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 S + CO 2 + geothermal heat  nutrients </li></ul>
  33. 41. Consumers Heterotrophs <ul><li>Obtain their energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms or their remains </li></ul>
  34. 42. Consumers Heterotrophs <ul><li>All these organisms consume living prey </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores – (primary consumers) feed directly on producers </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores – ( meat eaters) feed on other consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers – feed only on primary consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary consumers – ( higher level consumers) feed on other carnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Omnivores – feed on both plants and animals </li></ul>
  35. 43. Herbivores Primary Consumers
  36. 44. Carnivores Secondary Consumers
  37. 45. Heterotrophs some feed on the dead or dying <ul><li>Scavengers – feed on dead animal carcasses </li></ul><ul><li>Detritivores – feed on waste, parts of carcasses or cast off parts </li></ul><ul><li>Detritus feeders – feed on partially decomposed organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers – (mostly bacteria and fungi) break down dead organic materials to simpler inorganic compounds </li></ul>
  38. 46. Aerobic Respiration and Photosynthesis <ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Energy + Carbon Dioxide + water  glucose + oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>sunlight + CO 2 + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + Energy </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy </li></ul>
  39. 47. Energy Cycling <ul><li>Solar energy is collected by plants (producers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy from the sun is lost as heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers (herbivores) eat the plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers (carnivores) eat the primary consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul>
  40. 48. Energy Cycling <ul><li>Tertiary consumers eat the secondary consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detritivores consume the dead and dying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul>
  41. 49. Energy Cycling <ul><ul><li>As you pass up the energy pyramid, the number of organisms decreases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At each step in the pyramid, ~90% of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul>
  42. 50. Food Chains <ul><li>Simplified constructs used to show energy flow in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Food chains do not exist in nature </li></ul>
  43. 51. Food Webs <ul><li>Food webs are more realistic representations of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms rarely feed at only one trophic level </li></ul>
  44. 52. Available Energy <ul><li>How many trophic levels are present depends on how much energy is available in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are rarely more than four or five trophic levels in an ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The amount of energy an ecosystem produces is called the Net Primary Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in kcal/m 2 /yr or g/m 2 /yr </li></ul>
  45. 53. Net Primary Productivity Equals <ul><li>Rate at which producers store chemical energy as biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Minus </li></ul><ul><li>(produced by photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Rate at which producers use chemical energy stored as biomass </li></ul><ul><li>(through aerobic respiration) </li></ul>
  46. 54. Net Primary Productivity
  47. 55. Different Ecosystems Produce Different Biomass <ul><li>Most Productive </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swamps/marshes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical rainforests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Least Productive </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 56. Human Biomass Usage <ul><li>Humans have taken over, disturbed or degraded ~73% of the earths’ land surface </li></ul><ul><li>Humans use, waste or destroy ~27% of the earths’ total potential net primary productivity and ~40% of the total potential net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems </li></ul>
  49. 57. Matter Cycling <ul><li>Energy is an open system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy enters the system as sunlight (low entropy) and is degraded and dispersed (high entropy) as organisms use it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matter is a closed system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All matter is recycled in one of three ways </li></ul></ul>
  50. 58. Matter Cycles <ul><li>There are three major types of nutrient recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic cycle (ex. Water cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric cycle (ex. Carbon cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary cycle ( ex. Phosphorous) </li></ul>
  51. 59. Hydraulic Cycle <ul><li>Water evaporates and cycles through the biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>global </li></ul></ul>
  52. 61. Atmospheric Cycle <ul><li>A large portion of the nutrient exist in the atmosphere and cycle rapidly through soil, organisms and back to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul>
  53. 63. Sedimentary Cycle <ul><li>Earths’ crust is the main storehouse. Elements move from the land to the seabed then back to land through geological uplift and volcanic action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>global </li></ul></ul>
  • Kcerdenola

    Aug. 29, 2017
  • kalpabshah

    May. 19, 2016
  • yellowpants

    May. 16, 2013
  • deepblue22

    Sep. 26, 2011

Views

Total views

3,259

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

2

Actions

Downloads

219

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

4

×