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Lab 1 Vertebrate Evolution
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  1. 2. ECOLOGY <ul><li>The study of living organisms and their interaction with the nonliving environment </li></ul>
  2. 3. Historical Background <ul><li>Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Eco = “house” ology = “study of” </li></ul><ul><li>BIOTIC ABIOTIC </li></ul>
  3. 4. Realms of Ecology <ul><li>Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Biome </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>
  4. 6. What Ecologists Study <ul><li>Concerned with levels of organization ABOVE population </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Biosphere <ul><li>The portion of the earth where living organisms exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the earth were an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the skin </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Atmosphere <ul><li>The troposphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface to 17 km (11 miles) up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains most of the oxygen and nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The stratosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 to 48 km up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains most of the O 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens out all UV-C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens out most UV-B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens out some UV-A </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Hydrosphere <ul><li>All the water on the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>underground </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar ice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Icebergs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice in frozen soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Lithosphere <ul><li>Crust and upper mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all usable minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all nutrients for plant life </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. What Sustains Life on Earth? <ul><li>Life on Earth depends on three interconnecting factors </li></ul><ul><li>One way flow of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cycling of matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All nutrients must be recycled repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the planet to hold its atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes downward movement of chemicals in cycles </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Lights and warms the planet </li></ul><ul><li>Supports photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Powers matter cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Drives climate and weather systems </li></ul>
  11. 13. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Lights and warms the planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth receives about 1/1,000,000,000 of the suns energy output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>34% reflected back into space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remaining 66% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warms the troposphere and land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporates water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generates winds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Supports photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds decomposition </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Powers matter cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous cycle </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. How the Sun Helps Sustain Life <ul><li>Drives climate and weather systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributes heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributes fresh water </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Natural Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Most solar radiation is degraded into heat </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gasses keep the heat around the planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ozone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be as cold as Mars </li></ul>
  16. 18. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Biomes – large regions of land characterized by a distinct climate and specific animal and especially plant species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desserts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jungles </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Biomes - consist of two components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abiotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic (biota) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>microorganisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Ecosystem Concepts <ul><li>Ecotones – biomes do not have clear-cut edges. They blend into one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones contain a mixture of organisms from each biome and frequently species found nowhere else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotones are more biologically diverse than either of the bordering biomes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Deciduous Forest/River Ecotone
  21. 26. Aquatic/Marine life Zones <ul><li>Fresh water life zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes & ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streams & rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marine life zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep oceans </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Abiotic Limitations <ul><li>Abiotic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water – how much or how little </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy – shade or sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients – rich or poor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Range of Tolerance <ul><li>There is an optimum range of each abiotic component of a biome for each species </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals in a population may have slightly different tolerances </li></ul>
  24. 30. Law of Tolerance <ul><li>The levels, abundance and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the ranger tolerated by that species. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation: Don’t expect to find polar bears in Tahiti </li></ul>
  25. 31. Limiting Factor Principle <ul><li>Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation: If the restaurant serves really spicy food, don’t look for Anglos </li></ul>
  26. 32. Limiting Factor Principle <ul><li>Too much of a particular abiotic factor can also be a limiting factor </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting factors can change </li></ul>
  27. 33. Limiting Factor Principle <ul><li>Aquatic or marine life zones also have limiting factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul>
  28. 34. Living Components of the Biome <ul><li>Metabolism – all living creatures capture and transform matter and energy from their environment to supply their needs for survival, growth and reproduction </li></ul>
  29. 35. Living Components of the Biome <ul><li>All living things are divided into two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Producers – make their own food from components obtained from the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers – obtain nutrients and energy by consuming other organisms or their remains </li></ul>
  30. 36. Producers Autotrophs <ul><li>Most producers capture sunlight and abiotic nutrients to produce carbohydrates (such as glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in a process called Photosynthesis </li></ul>
  31. 38. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Carbon dioxide + water + solar energy  glucose + oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + solar energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 </li></ul>
  32. 39. Chemosynthesis <ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide + carbon dioxide + geothermal heat  nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 S + CO 2 + geothermal heat  nutrients </li></ul>
  33. 41. Consumers Heterotrophs <ul><li>Obtain their energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms or their remains </li></ul>
  34. 42. Consumers Heterotrophs <ul><li>All these organisms consume living prey </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores – (primary consumers) feed directly on producers </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores – ( meat eaters) feed on other consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers – feed only on primary consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary consumers – ( higher level consumers) feed on other carnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Omnivores – feed on both plants and animals </li></ul>
  35. 43. Herbivores Primary Consumers
  36. 44. Carnivores Secondary Consumers
  37. 45. Heterotrophs some feed on the dead or dying <ul><li>Scavengers – feed on dead animal carcasses </li></ul><ul><li>Detritivores – feed on waste, parts of carcasses or cast off parts </li></ul><ul><li>Detritus feeders – feed on partially decomposed organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers – (mostly bacteria and fungi) break down dead organic materials to simpler inorganic compounds </li></ul>
  38. 46. Aerobic Respiration and Photosynthesis <ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Energy + Carbon Dioxide + water  glucose + oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>sunlight + CO 2 + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + Energy </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy </li></ul>
  39. 47. Energy Cycling <ul><li>Solar energy is collected by plants (producers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy from the sun is lost as heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers (herbivores) eat the plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers (carnivores) eat the primary consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul>
  40. 48. Energy Cycling <ul><li>Tertiary consumers eat the secondary consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detritivores consume the dead and dying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul>
  41. 49. Energy Cycling <ul><ul><li>As you pass up the energy pyramid, the number of organisms decreases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At each step in the pyramid, ~90% of the energy is lost as heat </li></ul></ul>
  42. 50. Food Chains <ul><li>Simplified constructs used to show energy flow in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Food chains do not exist in nature </li></ul>
  43. 51. Food Webs <ul><li>Food webs are more realistic representations of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms rarely feed at only one trophic level </li></ul>
  44. 52. Available Energy <ul><li>How many trophic levels are present depends on how much energy is available in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are rarely more than four or five trophic levels in an ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The amount of energy an ecosystem produces is called the Net Primary Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in kcal/m 2 /yr or g/m 2 /yr </li></ul>
  45. 53. Net Primary Productivity Equals <ul><li>Rate at which producers store chemical energy as biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Minus </li></ul><ul><li>(produced by photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Rate at which producers use chemical energy stored as biomass </li></ul><ul><li>(through aerobic respiration) </li></ul>
  46. 54. Net Primary Productivity
  47. 55. Different Ecosystems Produce Different Biomass <ul><li>Most Productive </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swamps/marshes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical rainforests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Least Productive </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 56. Human Biomass Usage <ul><li>Humans have taken over, disturbed or degraded ~73% of the earths’ land surface </li></ul><ul><li>Humans use, waste or destroy ~27% of the earths’ total potential net primary productivity and ~40% of the total potential net primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems </li></ul>
  49. 57. Matter Cycling <ul><li>Energy is an open system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy enters the system as sunlight (low entropy) and is degraded and dispersed (high entropy) as organisms use it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matter is a closed system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All matter is recycled in one of three ways </li></ul></ul>
  50. 58. Matter Cycles <ul><li>There are three major types of nutrient recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic cycle (ex. Water cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric cycle (ex. Carbon cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary cycle ( ex. Phosphorous) </li></ul>
  51. 59. Hydraulic Cycle <ul><li>Water evaporates and cycles through the biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>global </li></ul></ul>
  52. 61. Atmospheric Cycle <ul><li>A large portion of the nutrient exist in the atmosphere and cycle rapidly through soil, organisms and back to the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul>
  53. 63. Sedimentary Cycle <ul><li>Earths’ crust is the main storehouse. Elements move from the land to the seabed then back to land through geological uplift and volcanic action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>global </li></ul></ul>
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