Reports; A Review
Dr. T K Sebastian
“An Uncertain Glory has incited controversy… a call to
Manjula Narayan, Hindustan Times
Concept and Measurement of HD
• What is Human Development?
• What is the need of a measurement called HDI?
• Indicators of HD: Longevity of life, Knowledge
and standard of living.
• Identifies Human Freedom as a necessary for
HD(Freedom to exercise human choices)
Major hindrance for HD: Political Will
Spending of major developing countries over
defense is just double of spending over
education and health care services
Targets to restructure country budget by
allocating atleast 2% of budget on social
Social, political and economical freedom to
choose the right one.
Global Dimensions of HD
Open market for competition so that it will bring
completion by widening choices.
Trade between countries will minimize the
disparities between them
Under the prevailing conditions 20% of rich earns
3 times more income than 20% of poor.
Observe people’s activity and channelize them
in to productive economic activity.
“You serve the market and market will serve
Boost market to generate additional employment
and make people capable to take up the
employment, HD may be achieved automatically.
Security of to people rather security to land.
Reduce number of army and engage army in
some economically productive activity
New Dimensions of Human Security
Human Security: Freedom from fear and want.
The HDR 1994 proposes a relationship as;“In
such a design, economic partnership would be
based on mutual interests, not charity;
cooperation, not confrontation; equitable sharing
of market opportunities, not protectionism; far-
sighted internationalism, not stubborn
New dimensions of human security also
propounds a mutual relationship and assistance
between the countries to support education,
health, job etc
Gender and HD
In the forward of HDR 1995 the status of women then lived had
explained by James Gustav Speth as;
“Women still constitute 70% of the world's poor
and two thirds of the world's illiterates. They
occupy only 14% of managerial and
administrative jobs, 10% of parliamentary seats
and 6% of cabinet positions.”
Economic Growth and HD
Polarization is increasing in the world
Both Economic Growth and HD should move
together and linked strongly.
HD to Eradicate Poverty
Give focus on poverty on human development
conditions than income.
HDR 1997 defines poverty from the perspective of human
development as; “..denial of choices and
opportunities for tolerable life”
Poverty is inevitable, but absolute poverty can
Three dimensions of poverty identified are;
short life, lack of basic education and lack of
accessibility to public and private resources
Consumption for HD
Examines consumption from HD point of
Pattern and effects of consumption may have
an impact on HD of a country.
According to HDR 1998 the consumption
should be shared, strengthening, socially
responsible and sustainable.
Globalization with Human Face
Tried to give more human face to Globalization
by talking about ethics, inclusion, equity,
Human Security, sustainability and
Human Rights and HD
Human rights and human development share a
common vision and a common purpose—to
secure the freedom, well-being and dignity of
all people everywhere
While human development is essential for
realizing human rights, human rights are
essential for human development. Human
Rights can be assured only by strengthening
law and administration.
Making New Technologies work for HD
Knowledge at cheap cost
Advanced health care facilities and improved
More employment opportunities.
More people’s participation in governance.
However technology is not developed for
poor but according to market demand
Deepening Democracy in Fragmented World
‘Good Governance’ is called as the ‘missing
link’ for HD and EG in developing countries
Even though democracy and economic growth
has strong correlation, it’s not automatic, rights
and political freedom should be used
consciously to achieve HD and EG.
More participation of NGOs and Civil Societies
are also recommended by the report.
Millennium Dev. Goals; A Compact among
nations to end Human Poverty
The proposed Millennium Dev goals of UN
which is supposed to achieve by 2015 were;
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Achieve universal primary education
Promote gender equality and women
Reduce child mortality
Improve maternal health
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
Ensure environmental sustainability
Develop a global partnership for development
Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World
It’s observed that less development in more
Diversity will lead to conflicts until and unless
mutual respect and liberty should not be
International Cooperations at a crossroads;
Aid, Trade and Security in an Unequal World
International cooperation is the best weapon to
prevent poverty and that is the tool which is
According to 2000 statistics they were
spending around $10 on defence for all $1 aid
to poor countries.
HDR 2005 aims to smoothen trade between
poor nations and industrial countries by
removing all hindrances like domestic conflicts
Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and Global
There are millions of people who are not
getting safe drinking water not because of
scarcity but because they are locked by poverty
and failure of government
Water is a feasible investment area for
government for HD, since it will wash out
communicable diseases like diarrhea.
Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in
From the recognition that climate changes are
going to hit development prospects of world
seriously, the HDR 2007-2008 concentrates on
‘fight against climate change’.
HDR 2007-2008 identifies ‘carbon market’ as
suggested by Kyoto protocol is not an efficient
method to tackle carbon emission, it suggests to
coordinate an international cooperation to fight
against climate change in post Kyoto protocol
period after 2012, since the agreement expires
Overcoming Barriers; Human Mobility and
Migrants always boost economic output of the
country with least or no harm to the locals. Thus
migration is an important tool for HD since it
improves the living standards of migrants and
having least impact to locals
More migration may increase violence against
migrants from locals on a fear of domination.
But lowering the barriers for mobilization can
do much in HD.
The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to HD
HDR 2010, come with 3 new measurements;
1. Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI). A measure of the average level of
human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into
account. Under perfect equality the HDI and IHDI are equal; the greater
the difference between the two, the greater the inequality.
2. Gender Inequality Index (GII). A measure that captures the loss in
achievements due to gender disparities in the dimensions of reproductive
health, empowerment and labour force participation. Values range from 0
(perfect equality) to 1 (total inequality).
3. Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). A measure of serious
deprivations in the dimensions of health, education and living standards
that combines the number of deprived and the intensity of their
Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future
The Rise of South: Human Progress in a
HDR 2013 suggests for more participation with
rest of the world, strong policy framing for better
tomorrow and changing principles by focusing
on human development
• “Pioneering the Human
Development Revalution: an
Intellectual Biography of
Mahabub Ul Haq”
• “An Uncertain Glory- India and
its contradictions”- Jean Dreze
& Amartya Sen
• Human Development Reports 1990-