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Critical Thinking

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Critical Thinking

  1. 1. Critical Thinking An Introduction Wednesday, June 17, 2015 Presented By: Kamal Talwar
  2. 2. CRITICAL THINKING 2 Through this presentation you will learn: ● What is thinking? ● What is Critical Thinking? ● Types of thinking? ● Critical Thinking Standards? ● Benefits of Critical Thinking ● Barriers to Critical Thinking ● Characteristic of Critical Thinker
  3. 3. 3 Do You Agree? “GIVE place here to some further consideration of thought. You will never become great until your own thoughts make you great, and therefore it is of the first importance that you should THINK.”
  4. 4. 4 1.What is thinking? Why is the sky blue? Is time travel possible? Why doesn’t she like me? Why doesn’t he like me? As you start asking questions and seek answers, you are in fact THINKING. In other words:- Thinking is purposeful, organised process that we use to make sense of the world.
  5. 5. 5 2. Types of thinking? Creative Thinking Critical Thinking ❖Analysing ❖Evaluating ❖Reasoning Problem solving Decision Making
  6. 6. 6 2.1 Lets think!!! This is an old quiz (hope you remember the ans) developed by Anderson Consulting Worldwide. Answer each question in order. ➢ How do you put a giraffe into a refrigerator? ➢ How do you put an elephant into a refrigerator? ➢ The Lion King is hosting an animal conference. All the animals attend ... except one. Which animal does not attend? ➢ There is a river you must cross but it is used by crocodiles, and you do not have a boat. How do you manage it? The correct answers are given in the last slide
  7. 7. 7 3. What is Critical Thinking? Example of not thinking critically
  8. 8. 8 3.1 What is Critical Thinking? Gather and assess information Information in a logical balanced and way to reach conclusions justified by reasoned argument argument based on available evidence
  9. 9. 9 3.2 What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is general term given to a wide range of cognitive and intellectual skills needed to: ➢Effectively identify, analyze and evaluate arguments. ➢Discover and overcome personal prejudices and biases. ➢Formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions. ➢Make reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do. Note: Critical thinking is a skill so fortunately for us we can enhance it through practice.
  10. 10. 3.3 What is Critical Thinking? 10
  11. 11. 11 4. Critical Thinking Standards? Universal intellectual standards are standards which must be applied to thinking. To think critically requires having command of these standards ❏ CLARITY ❏ ACCURACY ❏ PRECISION ❏ RELEVANCE ❏ DEPTH ❏ BREADTH ❏ LOGIC ❏ FAIRNESS
  12. 12. 12 4.1 Clarity ❏ Could you elaborate further on that point? ❏ Could you express that point in another way? ❏ Could you give me an illustration? Clarity is the gateway standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant. In fact, we cannot tell anything about it because we don't yet know what it is saying.
  13. 13. 13 4.2 Accuracy ❏ Is that really true? ❏ How could we check that? ❏ How could we find out if that is true? A statement can be clear but not accurate THIS DOG WEIGHS MORE THAN 300 POUNDS!!!
  14. 14. 14 4.3 Precision ❏ Could you give more details? ❏ Could you be more specific? A statement can be both clear and accurate, but not precise. Let it go man!! Jack is overweightThats true but how much overweight 20 pounds or 500 pounds
  15. 15. 15 4.4 Relevance ❏ How is that connected to the question? ❏ How does that bear on the issue? I have given good effort in studies all semester so I should get A+ The "effort" does not measure the quality of your learning dear! A statement can be clear, accurate and precise, but not relevant to the question at issue.
  16. 16. 16 4.5 Depth ❏ How does your answer address the complexities in the question? ❏ How are you taking into account the problems in the question? ❏ Is that dealing with the most significant factors? NOBODY TELLS US WHY!!! A statement can be clear, accurate, precise and relevant, but superficial.
  17. 17. 17 4.6 Breadth ❏ Do we need to consider another point of view? ❏ Is there another way to look at this question? ❏ What would this look like from the point of view of . . .? Was studying all night!! You got zero marks for “participation”, coz you didn’t participate in the class discussion at all. A line of reasoning may be clear, accurate, precise, relevant and deep, but still ignore another side of the argument.
  18. 18. 18 4.7 Logic ❏ Does this really make sense? ❏ How does this follow from what I said before? ❏ Does this contradict a previous statement? When the combination of thoughts are mutually supporting and make sense in combination, the thinking is "logical." Superman can see through anything!! Superman can see through walls!! Superman can see through you!!
  19. 19. 19 4.8 Fairness ❏ Do I have a vested interest in this issue? ❏ Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others? ❏ Am I open minded? We do not naturally consider the rights and needs of others on the same plane with their own rights and needs, but to be a good thinker you should apply “Fairness” in your thinking.
  20. 20. 20 5. Benefits of Critical Thinking At Work As more and more employers are looking for employees not with specialized academic skills but with good thinking and communications skills, who can ❏ Learn quickly and solve problems. ❏ Shows creativity. ❏ Gathers and analyze the issue meaningfully. This has become vital skill for any professional
  21. 21. 21 5.1 Benefits of Critical Thinking Daily life ❏ Helps us avoid making foolish decision. ❏ Helps us become a good citizen capable of making good decisions on important social, political and economic issues. ❏ Helps us in developing good thinking skill capable of examining our own assumptions and dogmas.
  22. 22. 22 6. Barriers to Critical Thinking You might ask, ➢If the critical thinking is so important, then why is uncritical thinking so common? ➢Why is that so many people including the highly educated and intellectual people find it difficult to think critically?
  23. 23. 23 6.1 Barriers to Critical Thinking Egocentrism Self centered thinking ❏ Self interest thinking ❏ Thinking self as centre of attention 5 most powerful barriers to critical thinking. Sociocentrism Group centered thinking ❏ Group interest thinking ❏ To assume that own group is more superior or righteous. Unwarranted Assumptions A belief that something is true without proper evidence or justification. Wishful Thinking Believing something is true because one wishes it to be true. Relativism Thinking that truth is just a matter of opinion. The problem is not the problem. The problem is your attitude towards the problem.
  24. 24. 24 7. Characteristic of Critical Thinker Critical Thinker…. ➢Are honest with themselves. ➢Regard problems and controversial issues as exciting challenges. ➢Strive for understanding, keep curiosity alive remain patient with complexity.
  25. 25. 25 7. Characteristic of Critical Thinker Critical Thinker…. ➢Base judgments on evidence rather than personal preferences. ➢Are interested in other people's ideas and so are willing to read and listen attentively. ➢Practice fair mindedness, and seek a balance view. ➢Practice restraint, controlling their feelings rather than being controlled by them.
  26. 26. 26 Any Questions?
  27. 27. Wednesday, June 17, 2015 27 THANKS
  28. 28. Wednesday, June 17, 2015 28 Famous Quotes “The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of true education” -Martin Luther King, Jr. “Education is not the learning of facts, but the training of the mind to think.” -Albert Einstein “Five percent of the people think; ten percent of the people think they think; and the other eighty-five percent would rather die than think.” ― Thomas A. Edison
  29. 29. 29 Answers for quiz in slide 6 ❏ How do you put a giraffe into your refrigerator? Open the refrigerator, put in the giraffe, and close the door. This question tests whether you tend to do simple things in an overly complicated way. ❏ How do you put an elephant into your refrigerator? Did you say, Open the refrigerator, put in the elephant, and close the refrigerator? Wrong answer. Correct answer: Open the refrigerator, take out the giraffe, put in the elephant and close the door. This tests your ability to think through the repercussions of your previous actions.
  30. 30. 30 Answers for quiz in slide 6 ❏ The Lion King is hosting an animal conference. All the animals attend - except one. Which animal does not attend? Correct Answer: The elephant. The elephant is in the refrigerator. You just put him in there. This tests your memory. Okay, even if you did not answer the first three questions correctly, you still have one more chance to show your true abilities. ❏ There is a river you must cross but it is used by crocodiles, and you do not have a boat. How do you manage it? Correct Answer: You jump into the river and swim across. Have you not been listening? All the crocodiles are attending the animal conference. This tests whether you learn quickly from your mistakes.