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Municipal Solid waste Management in INDIA

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Solid waste management scenario in INDIA,Issues in MSW & case study of Jawahar nagar,HYDERABAD & Bengaluru

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Municipal Solid waste Management in INDIA

  1. 1. PLANNING COLLOQUIUM SUBMITTED TO : Mrs.Indu Priya SUBMITTED BY : G.Gowtham Raj 11011BA003 P.Joseph 11011BA006 B.Laxmi Sarojini Harsha 11011BA007 K.Ravi Varma 11011BA019 Y.Sarath Chandra 11011BA027 V.Srinivas 11011BA032 DEPARTMENT OF URBAN & REGIONAL PLANNING School of Planning & Architecture JNAFAU ISSUES IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. Introduction -MSW G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Definition: Municipal Solid Waste includes commercial and residential wastes generated in a municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio- medical wastes - Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000. Waste minimization:  Prevention of waste being created is known as waste reduction which is an important method of waste management.  The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.  Methods of avoidance include reuse of second hand products, designing products to be refillable or reusable, repairing broken items instead of buying new etc
  3. 3. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Solid Waste Management in India  India is the second largest nation in the world, with a population of 1.21 billion, accounting for nearly 18% of world’s human population.  The proportion of population residing in urban areas has increased from 27.8 % in 2001 to 31.80 % in 2011 and likely to reach 50% by 2030.  India is facing a sharp contrast between its increasing urban population and available services and resources. Solid waste management (SWM) is one such service where India has an enormous gap to fill. Waste Generation:  It is estimated that Urban India generates about 1.5 Lakhs Tonnes per day.  The per capita waste generation rate in India has increased from 0.44 kg/day in 2001 to 0.5 kg/day in 2011.  Waste generation rate in Indian cities ranges between 200 - 870 grams/day, depending upon the region’s lifestyle and the size of the city. The per capita waste generation is increasing by about 1.3% per year in India
  4. 4. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Solid Waste Management in India MSWM - Important Policy landmarks and funding initiatives of GoI Source: IMaCS analysis
  5. 5. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Solid Waste Management in India Roles & responsibilities of Institutions in SWM Source: IMaCS analysis Responsible institutions Roles and responsibilities in SWM Government of India and State Governments Make Central/ State-level laws and rules; frame policies; prepare guidelines, manuals, and technical assistance; provide financial support Municipal authorities and state government Plan for MSWM treatment facilities Municipal authorities Collect, transport, treat and dispose of waste Municipal authorities with state government approval Frame bylaws; levy and collect fees Municipal authorities, State and central governments Capital investment in SWM systems National Legal & Regulatory Framework 74th Amendment Act for empowered municipalities to implement SWM schemes Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 by MoEF The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977
  6. 6. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Metro Cities CITY AHMEDABA D BANGLOR E CHENNAI DELHI HYDERAB AD KOLKAT A MUMBAI Population(2011) 6,352,254 8,499,399 8,696,010 16,314,838/ 21,753,486(m ) 7,749,334/ 9,900,000(m ) 14,112,53 6 18,414,288/2 0,748,395(m ) Area(sq.kms) 7,700 741 1,189 46,208 7,100 1,886.67 4,355 Density 720 11,000 20,000 11,297.01 18,480 24,000 21,000 Total Waste Generated(tonnes/day )2010-11 2300 3700 4500 6800 4200 3670 6500 5114.76 7000 By EEC/WTERT 2636 3501 6404 11558 5154 12060 11645 Per Capita Waste Generation 0.42 0.45 0.71 0.65 0.65 0.66 0.51 Total Waste collected 700 Source: Status report on municipal solid waste management by CPCB Earth Engineering Centre (EEC) Waste to Energy Research & Technology Council(WTERT)
  7. 7. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Service Level Benchmarks Metro Cities 1HH Coverag e Collection Efficiency Segregation of MSW MSW Recovery Scientific Disposal Cost Recovery Collection Efficiency Complaints Redressal Benchmark 100% 100% 100% 80% 100% 80% 100% 90% National Average 39 80 0 0 0 0 0 70 AHMEDABA D 96 95 15 15 100 20 20 90 BANGLORE 70 60 2 33 54 1 16 DELHI(2008) 4.2 80.8 31.6 31.6 1.2 90 HYDERABA D 72 80 0 12 0 75 13 65 MUMBAI 100 100 15 2 0 100 100 100Source: SLB Data book , 2008 , 2010
  8. 8. 1148 67 18 Total projects No.of sanctioned No.of completed UNDER JnNURM (UIDSSMT) 599 46 13 Total projects No.of sanctioned No.of completed UNDER JnNURM (UIG) SWM Projects under JnNURM Sector No. of projects approved No. of projects completed Drinage/ strome water 76 29 Roads/ flyovers 104 60 water supply 186 71 urban renewal 10 4 sewerage 122 35 other urban transport 17 12 mass rapid transport 22 7 solid waste management 46 13 parking lots 5 0 development of heritage 7 2 preservation of water bodies 4 0 Total 599 233 sector No. of projects approved No. of projects completed Strom water /drainage 78 33 Road 221 83 Parking 1 1 Sewerage 156 18 Soil Erosion 4 1 Solid wastemanagement 67 18 Urban renewal 10 7 water Body 13 7 Water supply 597 285 Heritage 1 Total 1148 453 Source: JnNURM G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem
  9. 9. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem LANDFILL  A landfill site (also known as dump, rubbish dump or dumping ground) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment.  The design, construction, management of the Landfill should be in accordance with the MSW Act 2000. ISSUES: A large number of impacts may occur from landfill operations. These impacts can include: i. Injuries to wildlife ii. Infrastructure damage iii. Pollution of the local environment iv. Harboring of disease vectors (such as rats/flies) v. Methane is generated (by decaying organic wastes) vi. Fatal accidents (such as scavengers buried under waste piles) Landfill Issues
  10. 10. Name of city No. of landfills Area landfill (ha) Chennai 2 465.5 Coimbatore 2 292 Surat 1 200 Greater Mumbai* 3 140 Greater Hyderabad* 1 121.5 Ahmadabad* 1 84 Delhi* 3 66.4 Jabalpur 1 60.7 Indore 1 59.5 Madurai 1 48.6 Greater Bangalore 2 40.7 Greater Visakhapatnam 1 40.5 Ludhiana 1 40.4 Nasik 1 34.4 Jaipure 3 31.4 G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem
  11. 11. Name of city No. of landfills Area of landfill (ha) Srinagar 1 30.4 Kanpur 1 27 Kolkata * 1 24.7 Chandigarh 1 18 Ranchi 1 15 Raipur 1 14.6 Meerut 2 14.2 Guwahati 1 13.2 thiruvananthapuram 1 12.5 Note: * having both sanitary landfill and landfill sites Sanitary Landfill sites in India: Delhi Mumbai Ahmadabad Pondicherry Hyderabad Pune Agra Lucknow Kolkata G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem
  12. 12. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Landfills in metro cities CITY No of Landfills Delhi 3-Ghaziapur,Bhalaswa,Okhla Kolkata 2-Dhapa,Naopada,Garden Reach Greater Hyderabad 1-Jawahar Nagar Bangalore 7-Mandur North,Mandur South, Mavallipura, Anjanapur, Cheemsandra, Kannahalli, S.Bingipura Chennai 2-Kodungaiyur, Perungudi Ahmedabad 1-Pirana Mumbai 2-Deonar,Ghorai
  13. 13. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Landfill Issues TYPE OF IMPACT EXAMPLE Environment Surface water contamination oTakes place when the wastes reach water bodies oPollution of rivers, lakes and ground water Ground water contamination Takes place when residues from waste, leach into the ground water ▪A specific environmental hazard caused by waste is Leachate which is the liquid that forms as water trickles through contaminated areas leaching out the chemicals ▪Movement of Leachate from landfills, effluent treating plants and waste disposal sites may result in hazardous substances entering surface water, ground water or soil Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore
  14. 14. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Landfill Issues TYPE OF IMPACT EXAMPLE Environment Soil contamination •Caused by dumping of waste ▪Waste can harm plants and can indirectly adversely impact the health of humans and animals Jawahar nagar landfill,Hyderaba d Air contamination waste burning Green house gases: from landfills Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore Health Dengue,malaria,intestin al problems,vision problems,etc. Landfills are living sites for number of disease carrying medians such as flies,rats,etc. Economic issues Decrease of land rents and land values Burning of waste,emission of bad odour and contamination of natural habitat Agriculture lands are vacated due to water contamination and ash emission from burning Mavallipura
  15. 15. Case study BANGALORE 1/19/2015 Issues in Solid Waste Management 15
  16. 16. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem
  17. 17. CASE OF MAVALLIPURA LANDFILLS  The Mavallipura landfills are merely 2.5 kms. away from the the flow of River Arkavathi and comprehensively violate an an order of the Karnataka Department of Forest, Ecology and Ecology and Environment that protects the 1453 sq kms watershed of Tippagondanahalli Reservoir across Arkavathi Arkavathi - a major drinking water source for Bangalore - - from polluting facilities.  landfills is that they are located merely 5.6 kms from the critical defense facility Yelahanka Air Force Base. Pond near landfill site, Mavallipuram Unsegregated waste in Mavallipuram G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.Srinivas PLANNING VII Sem
  18. 18. ISSUES IN MAVALLIPURA LANDFILL SITE:  With water contamination widespread, diarrhea is very common. This has resulted in people becoming increasingly vulnerable to a variety of infections and children appear generally malnourished.  The most alarming indicator of the high rate of human toxicity is that the village has discovered a sudden spike in the rate of cancers, kidney failures and heart diseases.  The results showed that the highest metal concentration that exists in the Leachate was Iron which is about of 12 ppm.  Contamination of the soil and water resulting in failed crops, such that many of the farmers in the village are turning to alternate means of livelihood like brick making.  NO FENCING: Landfill site shall be fenced or hedged and provided with proper gate to monitor incoming vehicles or other modes of transportation  NO PROPER TREATMENT: leachates collection and treatment shall be made.  RUN-OFF FROM SITE: Prevention of run-off from landfill area entering any stream, river, lake or pond. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem
  19. 19. A trench was dug from landfill to a near-by water body to drain the toxic Leachate Unsegregated waste in Mavallipura Leachate run off heads straight towards the Mavallipura village during Monsoon Waste covered with tarpaulin sheets ISSUES IN MAVALLIPURA G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem
  20. 20. HYDERABAD
  21. 21. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Introduction Hyderabad is the capital city of Andhra Pradesh & Telangana and is the sixth largest city in India. The city has been divided into five zones namely North, South, East, West and Central zones with 18 circles and around 150 municipal wards. The population growth experienced (5.7 to 6.8 million) during the decade 2001-2011 is further expected to continue to increase by 13.64 million 2021. Zone Population East zone 7899.86 South zone 32777.42 Central 27257.28 West 6684.3 North 16590.98
  22. 22. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Waste Generation Sl.no Type of waste Waste generated (MT/day) % waste composition 1 Domestic household 1870 37.18 2 Commercial establishments 350 6.95 3 Hotels & restaurants 666 13.24 4 Institutions 125 2.48 5 Parks & gardens 69 1.38 6 Street sweeping 325 6.47 7 Waste from drains 175 3.47 8 Markets 479 9.52 9 Temples 35 0.70 10 Chicken, mutton, beef, fish stalls 164 3.26 11 Cinema halls 15 0.30 12 Function halls 88 1.74 13 Hospitals 35 0.69 14 Construction and demolition 635 12.62 Total 5030 100.00
  23. 23. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Transfer Stations & Dumping sites Upliftment & Transfer stations: Imlibun Transfer station Tank bund Transfer station Yousuf Guda Transfer station Disposal Sites: BHEL Fathullaguda Shamshiguda Jawahar Nagar* New Transfer stations: Kapra Uppal Kukatpally Sherilingampally Rajendra nagar Organization Structure
  24. 24. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem GARBAGE COLLECTION • Outsourced the door-to-door collection upto 80% of the area and collection is through tricycles • GHMC provided tricycles to the rag pickers at free of cost • Each tricycle crew would cover 200 – 250 houses/establishments • They are Implementing voluntary garbage disposal in association with RWAs • Separate collection of waste from bulk waste generators by GHMC through compactors • Introduced the unit system involving the SHGs 10 GARBAGE STORAGE • Primary storage at the generation sources. • Secondary storage at community level dumper bins.GARBAGE TRANSPORTATION • Primary transportation would be carried out through tricycle • Secondary transportation through dumper bins and dumper placers with rear end loader compactors • Tertiary transfer-station from transfer-stations to the disposal site through long haul vehicles
  25. 25. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem TRANSFER-STATIONS KEY INFRASTRUCTURE PREVIOUS DISPOSAL SITES
  26. 26. JAWAHAR NAGAR Dumping Yard
  27. 27. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem INTRODUCTION Location: Jawahar Nagar is located in Shamirpet mandal , Rangareddy District , which is 30kms from the GHMC. Area: 339 acres. Year of Establishment : 2002 Estimated Life Span remaining : 15 years Mode of operation : Public Private Partnership (GHMC & REEL) Amount of waste Disposed daily: 3450 tonnes/day Area occupied by waste at present : 182acres No. of intermediate transfer stations: 3 – Imlibun , Yousufguda , Tank bund Disposal Method: Scientific disposal – processing & disposal Total workers: 490 ; medical precautions : Masks , Shoes , spectacles , safety jackets. Treatment : Aerobic Decomposition of waste Frequency : Daily
  28. 28. G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem Jawahar Nagar Leachate collection: Leachate collection ponds Rag Pickers ; 40 Open Burning at site : because of old dump Surface water near the site; Malkaram pond Ground water table : 120 ft below ground level Following SWM rules and regulations Chemical properties Range pH 6.24-7.15 Moisture content 31.73- 59.24 Carbon content 7.60-15.6 Nitrogen mg/kg 4500-7200 Zinc mg/kg 132-272 Lead mg/kg 10-25 Nickel mg/kg 1-6 Calorific value k. 1250-2550 Timeline 2005 2008 2013 Gradual change in the green cover surrounding the dumping yard Lakes were present in the surrounding landuse before but now they were not present
  29. 29. ISSUES LOCATION Dumping yard is at higher elevation from residential area WIND DIRECTION & PUBLIC HEALTH Direction of wind from land fill site is towards south west direction which is on the side of residential area which is negative impact on public health, this direction of wind helps harmful air pollutants released from site to easily move to wards settlement's which creates major effects on public health . Direction of wind in site area acts as driver which eases flow of pollutants towards residential area. • The smoke and the dusty fog blows in the direction of the RGK . • The soil pollution is making the area in to barren lands. • The lakes surrounding the study area are highly polluted due to dump yard. BAD ODOUR Bad Smell from the dumping yard comes to around 2 Kms radius. GROUND WATER AND SURFACE WATER CONTAMINATION G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem
  30. 30. In rainy season water & waste from dump yard flow towards settlements and ground water gets contaminated in surrounding area due to Leachate in dump yard FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS – AIR POLLUTION Fires and explosions occur at waste treatment facilities because of improper storage or handling of materials. Large amount of heat is generated in wasted dumped which results in sudden explosion and also leading to air pollution in that area. ISSUES G.Gowtham Raj , P.Joseph , B.L.S.Harsha , K.Ravi Varma , Y.Sarath Chandra , V.SrinivasPLANNING VII Sem

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