There are four major phases of transition: Denial, Resistance, Exploration, and Commitment. During any type of change initiative people will focus on the past and what worked well. This almost always leads to people pushing back on the change that has been introduced. People will often go through a period where they evaluate how the change will impact them personally and where it may leave them. People will initially evaluate if the change will impact them in any negative way evaluating if they will be able to operate successfully in the “new” way. This is when resistance is usually experienced. As people enter the exploration and commitment phases, they start to better understand the change, they will start to understand to better understand what the change has to offer them personally. Most everyone moves through these phases and usually at different rates. Knowledge and understanding is key to successfully moving quickly through these phases. The ability of a an effective leader to illuminate the possibilities and vision, while removing fear and doubt, can help people and teams to be more successful and efficient in implementing the change. Denial – This phase typically represents people’s ability to ignore the immediate impact of change. People will continue to ignore change until forced to confront the change. Resistance – When people are continually confronted with change they will eventually start resisting change by becoming angry and laying blame on others. Exploration – Faced with the inevitability of change combined with knowledge and understanding, people will start embrace the change., experimentation and innovation are likely outcomes for this phase. Commitment – This phase is typically achieved once the change has been accepted and integrated by individuals and teams. Once this is achieved the foundation for additional change has been created. Summary As a change leader, it is imperative to fully understand the transition phases. This will enable you to develop strategies and methodologies for leading people through these phases quickly and successfully. Strategies should incorporate the sharing of drivers and expected outcomes of the change and ensuring that information is shared and understood by the team while gathering feedback from individuals and teams
12 typical reasons for resistance to change:Misunderstanding about the need for change/when the reason for the change is unclear — If staff do not understand the need for change you can expect resistance. Especially from those who strongly believe the current way of doing things works well…and has done for twenty years!Fear of the unknown— One of the most common reasons for resistance is fear of the unknown. People will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new directionLack of competence — This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very wellConnected to the old way — If you ask people in an organization to do things in a new way, as rational as that new way may seem to you, you will be setting yourself up against all that hard wiring, all those emotional connections to those who taught your audience the old way – and that’s not trivialLow trust— When people don’t believe that they, or the company, can competently manage the change there is likely to be resistanceTemporary fad — When people belief that the change initiative is a temporary fadNot being consulted — If people are allowed to be part of the change there is less resistance. People like to know what’s going on, especially if their jobs may be affected. Informed employees tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than uninformed employeesPoor communication — It’s self evident isn’t it? When it comes to change management there’s no such thing as too much communicationChanges to routines — When we talk about comfort zones we’re really referring to routines. We love them. They make us secure. So there’s bound to be resistance whenever change requires us to do things differentlyExhaustion/Saturation — Don’t mistake compliance for acceptance. People who are overwhelmed by continuous change resign themselves to it and go along with the flow. You have them in body, but you do not have their hearts. Motivation is lowChange in the status quo — Resistance can also stem from perceptions of the change that people hold. For example, people who feel they’ll be worse off at the end of the change are unlikely to give it their full support. Similarly, if people believe the change favours another group/department/person there may be (unspoken) anger and resentmentBenefits and rewards — When the benefits and rewards for making the change are not seen as adequate for the trouble involved
Disclaimer• The purpose of the presentation is forinformation and awareness only.• Research Sources and Models have beenattributed wherever appropriate. I cannotvouch for the validity of the statisticsshowcased but am quoting them verbatimas available in public domain.• Please feel free to share the presentationwith attribution to Kapil Kant Kaul.
Index•What is Change•Surveys and Statistics•Change ManagementIntroduction to Organization Change Management•Steering Committee and their role•Roles of Change AgentsProject Governance•William Bridges Model•Personal Change CurveChange and Transition•Types•Symptoms•Causes•How to Manage ResistanceChallenges in Change ( Resistance)
ChangeDevelopmentalChangeTransitionalChangeTransformationalChangeDoing more of, or betterthan, what currently existsImplementing an evolutionarynew state, requiring major andongoing shifts in organizationalstrategy and vision.”Implementation of a new desiredstate requiring dismantlingexisting new ways
PEOPLEAny significant change has three aspectsCHANGE
WHILE PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGYCHANGES ARE FAIRLYSTRAIGHFORWARD AND CAN BEDEALT WITH MINIMAL FUSS,PEOPLE PRESENT A COMPLEX ANDABSTRACT CHALLANGE
8Conscious World: TangiblesConscious World: Tangibles• Rational BusinessCase, Facts, Figures, Logic, Analysis, SystemsSub - Conscious World: Intangibles• Attitudes, Values, Beliefs, Feelings, Habits, Skills, Assumptions, Emotions, Norms, CultureThe world of technology implementations is littered with thewreckage of financially and operationally sound programs crushed byorganization’s resistance to changeConventional Management operates on the premiseof a conscious and rational ecosystemWhile being indifferent to
Technology driven changes impact thefundamental ‚ways-of-working‛ of anyorganization9
10Challenges in IT implementationsDeloitte Consulting CIO survey
Change ManagementChangeManagement• Is the CRAFT of helpingorganizations, teams and individualsevolve from their current state to aplanned and more desirable future statein a sustainable fashion• Is a multidisciplinary approachinvolving OrganizationBehavior, Psychology, Communication,Training, PeopleManagement, Facilitation, PerformanceCoaching and Counseling• Is NOT HR though it primarily dealswith people issues• Is NOT PROJECT MANAGEMENTthough it supplements it, is alignedwith Project Timelines and has aninterest in ensuring timely addressal ofuser expectations and concerns
Role of Steering Committee• Monitoring and review of the project at regular SteeringCommittee meetings• Providing assistance to the projects• Reviewing project scope as emergent issues forcechanges to be considered, ensuring that scope aligns withthe objectives of the project sponsor and key stakeholdergroups• Formal review of project deliverables andrecommendations of co-ordination group• Prioritization of future projects• Quality of deliverables as identified in the project taskorder• Review of schedule•Risk management strategies, ensuring that strategies toaddress potential threats to the projects success havebeen identified, estimated and approved, and that thethreats are regularly re-assessedThe SteeringCommittee includesmanagementrepresentatives fromthe key departmentsinvolved in the projectoversight andcontrol, and keystakeholder groupsthat have specialinterest in theoutcome of the project.The responsibilitiesinclude
Role of Change Agents as Focal Points•Understanding and capturing requirements of the usersat respective assets•Participating in Co-ordination group meetings•Sharing the requirements with the Project Manager/Nominated person•Testing and validating the applications when requestedfor•Sharing user feedback with the project team•Ensuring Changes (If any) are communicated to theproject team as per the defined process in the definedformatAs Focal Point- Workclosely with theProject Manager anddevelopment team for
Role as Change Agents•Learning and Communication - Raising awareness ofchange and the associated improvements and benefitsfrom the implementation of the Change.•Gaining buy-in from all users/stakeholders throughparticipation in the relevant decision-making processes andimplementation as and where appropriate.•Acting as on-job Trainer if required.•Acting as the in-house Coach for the Asset and the firstlevel go to person in case of queries /doubts•Ensuring participation of team members in trainings/workshops•Helping staff to accept and adjust to the physical andmental aspects of the change and the new ways of working.•Embedding the new ways of working into the day to dayworkings for sustainability•Ensuring compliance to the new systems and processesAs Change Agent -Work closely with theChange Manager for
Change & TransitionIt isnt the actual change that individuals resist, but rather thetransition that must be made to accommodate the change.Change is not the same as transition.Change is situational: the new site, the new boss, the new teamroles, the new policy. Transition is the psychological processpeople go through to come to terms with the new situation.Change is external, transition is internal. Unless transition occurs,change will not work"- Malcolm Bridges
Ending, Letting Go-Before you can begin something new, you often need to end what used to be. Often it may not be thechanges that people are resisting, but the losses and endings that go with it,Identify what is actually ending and who is losing what•Explain what will be different when the changes are complete. What is it that people will be asked to let go of, to give up -relationships, current methods, values, expectations?•Be as specific as you can by avoiding vague terms.Accept the reality and importance of the subjective losses•Dont argue, as this is not the time to try to convince people. After all, loss is a subjective experience.Dont be surprised at overreaction•Remember, people are probably reacting to the prospect of loss, not necessarily against the change. Sometimes people may bereacting from past negative experience with change.Acknowledge the losses openly and sympathetically•It helps to talk openly. This approach also gives others permission to express their feelings.Expect and accept the signs of grieving•This might involve denial, anger, sadness, bargaining (to try and change the situation), fear and anxiety, disorientation ordepression. Stay tuned in, express your own feelings, give people a chance to get things off their chests, provide empathy andreassurance, but dont reassure people with unrealistic suggestions of hope. Do what you can to restore peoples sense ofhaving some control over their situation.Define whats over and what isnt•There can be a lot of confusion about what has changed often embellished by rumour. It is important to be clear about whathas changed and what continues or stays the same.Treat the past with respect•Dont denigrate it. Whilst it is important to move on to new and better ways, the trick is to do it without being toojudgemental about the past. If you can, honour the past for what it accomplished. Also, if possible, let people take a bit of theold way with them, even if it is just symbolic.
The Neutral ZoneA phase where people have let go of the past but are not yet clear or confident about the future.New ways may be in place but awkward and not yet working satisfactorily.Normalise the neutral zone•By explaining to people that it is a normal part of the change process. That it is OK to experience someconfusion, loss of motivation and mix of feelings. That it is unrealistic to move straight from the past tothe future.Create temporary systems•Have systems or structures in place to help you through. For example, regular briefing meetings. Set andmonitor short-term goals. Be wary of expecting too much.Strengthen relationships and interaction•People can feel isolated and lonely, so create occasions for people to meet and interact - lunches, meetingsand briefings. Consider whether you should establish a Transition team to monitor and help manage thisphase. It could have a particular focus on the issues affecting people.•Keep interaction with intact teams as consistent as possible, take the opportunity to evolve teamnorms/behaviours for new teams.Using neutral zone creatively•Often in this phase, like any break point, unexpected possibilities and fresh ideas may emerge in regardto how the organisation could act differently and better. Managers should consider creating a focus forthis and encouraging people to reflect on opportunities and possibilities.
New BeginningsPhase where the new world is largely in place. While often a time of relief and excitement, there may still be residualanxieties about effectiveness of new ways of work, personal capability, risk of failure and so forth. It probably signalsthe end of the transition period and the support systems that were put in place for that phase. Performanceexpectations are likely to rise and there is now more a sense of business as usual.’Purpose•People need to be reminded of the situation that was facing the organisation, and why the changes have occurredand the new beginning embarked upon. This may include reflecting on what might have occurred had the changesnot been introduced.•Accept that there will still be some ambivalence.A picture•Of what the future will be like. This helps people to clearly understand what the new world will be like and how itwill operate at quite a detailed level.A transition management plan•For what is going to happen on the people side (training, information, announcement of new roles etc) as the newbeginning is implemented. It is about when, what and how things will happen, step-by-step.A part to play•Giving people a clear understanding of their role, responsibilities and relationships in the new world. In otherwords, how they fit in.Reinforce the new beginning•By being consistent in applying plans, targets, rules and rewards. Try and achieve some quick wins to buildconfidence, create powerful symbols of the new identity and, most importantly, celebrate success.
DISCUSSION• Is RESISTANCE good or bad ?• Can it be avoided or removed ?• Any examples of resistance seen ?
Symptoms of Resistance•Overt•Characterized by ‘direct confrontation’•Arguments•Open Hostility•Threats• Ridiculing or undermining•Appealing to fear•ManipulationActiveResistance•Somewhat Covert•Characterized by ‘Inaction’•Absenteeism/No Show•No response/ delayed response to emails/phone calls•Feigning ignorance•Avoiding Responsibilities•Withholding informationPassiveResistance
Change is often associated with a perceivedsense of loss deeper than the prospective gain
Common Causes of ResistanceResistanceComfort withStatus QuoSense of LossLack ofClarityLack ofInvolvementLack of TrustFear of theUnknownChangeSaturation/ExhaustionLack ofCompetenceTemporaryFadBenefits andRewardsPoorCommunication
Managing Resistance•The best approach to creating change is to work with them, helping them achieve goals thatsomehow also reach to the goals of the change project. When you work with people, theywill be happier to work with you.•This is a good practice when people want to collaborate but are struggling to adjust to thesituation and achieve the goals of change.Facilitation•When people are not really bought into the rationale for the change, they may well comearound once they realize why the change is needed and what is needed of them. Inparticular, if new skills are required, you can provide these via a focused course ofeducation.Education•When people are not involved physically or intellectually, they are unlikely to be involvedemotionally either. One of the best methods of getting people bought in is to get theminvolved. When their hands are dirty, they realize that dirt is not so bad, after all. They alsoneed to justify their involvement to themselves and so persuade themselves that is the rightthing to do.Involvement•When the other person cannot easily be persuaded, then you may need to give in order toget. Sit them down and ask what they are seeking. Find out what they want and what theywill never accept. Work out a mutually agreeable solution that works just for them and justfor you.Negotiation•Manipulation means controlling a persons environment such that they are shaped by whatis around them. It can be a tempting solution, but is morally questionable and, if they sensewhat you are doing, will lead to a very dangerous backlash. Only consider this when changeis necessary in the short term and all other avenues have been explored.Manipulation• . This should only be used when speed is of the essence or when the other personthemselves has taken to public and damaging actions.Coercion
Change Vision ConfusionChange Leadership FrustrationChange Consensus ResistanceChange Training AnxietyChangeWorkflowImprovementStagnation