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Types of fabrics

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Basic Textiles

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Types of fabrics

  1. 1. VARIOUS TYPES OF FABRICS A PRESENTATION BY: V.R.KARTHIKEYARAYAN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR & CENTRE COORDINATOR TEXTILE DESIGN DEPARTMENT NIFT-Chennai Subject: BASIC TEXTILES 2015-16
  2. 2. The List  Poplin  Cambric  Voil  Canvas  Brocade  Crepe  Georgette  Chiffon  Gabardine  Drill  Denim  Teffeta  Chambray  Damask  Organdy  Corduroy  Velvet  Seersucker  Tissue  Terry
  3. 3. Poplin  Poplin, also called tabinet (or tabbinet), is a strong fabric in a plain weave of any fiber or blend, with crosswise ribs that typically gives a corded surface.  Poplin traditionally consisted of a silk warp with a weft of worsted yarn. In this case, as the weft is in the form of a stout cord the fabric has a ridged structure, like rep, which gave depth and softness to the lustre of the silky surface. The ribs run across the fabric from selvage to selvage.  Poplin is now made with wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester or a mixture of these. Being a plain under/over weave, if the weft and warp threads are of the same material and size, the effect is a plain woven surface with no ribbing. Shirts made from this material are easy to iron and do not wrinkle easily.  Poplins are used for dress purposes, and for rich upholstery work which are formed by using coarse filling yarns in a plain weave.
  4. 4. Poplin  The term poplin originates from papelino, a fabric made at Avignon, France, in the 15th century, named for the papal (pope's) residence there, and from the French papelaine a fabric, normally made with silk, of the same period.  Common usage of poplin until about the 20th century was to make silk, cotton or heavy weight wool dresses, suitable for winter wear. Poplin was also a popular upholstery fabric.
  5. 5. Poplin  Poplin dress embroidered with grape vines from Aguascalientes at the Museo de Arte Popular in Mexico City.
  6. 6.  Cambric or batiste, one of the finest and most dense kinds of cloth, is a lightweight plain-weave cloth, originally from the French commune of Cambrai, woven in greige, then bleached, piece- dyed and often glazed or calendered. Initially it was made of linen; later, the term came to be applied to cotton fabrics as well.  Cambric is used for linens, shirtings, hand kerchieves and as fabric for lace and needlework. Cambric
  7. 7.  Cambric was originally a kind of fine white plain-weave linen cloth made at or near Cambrai. The word comes from Kameryk or Kamerijk, the Flemish name of Cambrai, which became part of France in 1677.  The alleged invention of the fabric, around 1300, by a weaver called Baptiste or Jean-Baptiste Cambray or Chambray, from the village of Castaing in the peerage of Marcoing, near Cambrai, has no historic ground.  Cambric was a finer quality and more expensive than lawn (from the French laune, initially a plain-weave linen fabric from the city of Laon in France. Denoting a geographic origin from the city of Cambrai or its surroundings (Cambresis in French), cambric is an exact equivalent of the French cambrésine a very fine, almost sheer white linen plain-weave fabric, to be distinguished from cambrasine, a fabric comparable to the French lawn despite its foreign origin. Cambric
  8. 8.  White linen cambric or batiste from Cambrai, noted for its weight and luster, was "preferred for ecclesiastical wear, fine shirts, underwear, shirt frills, cravats, collars and cuffs, handkerchiefs, and infant wear". Technical use sometime introduced a difference between cambric and batiste, the latter being of a lighter weight and a finer thread count. Chambray, though the same type of fabric, had a coloured warp and a white weft, though it could be "made from any colour as you may wish, in the warp, and also in the filling; only have them differ from each other.  In the 18th century, after the prohibition of imports in England of French cambrics, with the development of the import of Indian cotton fabrics, similar cotton fabrics, such as nainsook, from the Hindi nainsukh ("eyes' delight"), became popular. These fabrics, initially called Scotch cambrics to distinguish them from the original French cambrics, came to be referred to as cotton cambrics or batistes. Some authors increased the confusion with the assumption the word batiste could come from the Indian fabric bastas. Cambric
  9. 9.  In the 19th century, the terms cambric and batiste gradually lost their association with linen, implying only different kind of fine plain-weave fabrics with a glossy finish. In 1907, a fine cotton batist had 100 ends per inch in the finished fabric, while a cheap-grade, less than 60. At the same time, with development of an interest in coloured shirts, cambric was also woven in colours, such as the pink fabric used by Charvet for a corsage, reducing the difference between cambric and chambray. Moreover, the development and rationalization of mechanical weaving led to the replacement, for chambray, of coloured warp and white weft by the opposite, white warp and coloured weft, which allowed for longer warps. Cambric
  10. 10.  Popular Culture Cambric The English folk song ballad Scarborough Fair has the lyric in the second verse "Tell her to make me a cambric shirt, / Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme / Sewn without seams or fine needlework, / If she would be a true love of mine." It also appears in the David Bowie song, Come And Buy My Toys ... "You shall own a cambric shirt, you shall work your father's land." Charvet corsage in pink cambric (1898).
  11. 11.  Voile is a soft, sheer fabric, usually made of 100% cotton or cotton blends including linen or polyester. The term comes from French, and means veil. Because of its light weight, the fabric is mostly used in soft furnishing. In hot countries, voile is used as window treatments and mosquito nets. When used as curtain material, voile is similar to net curtains.  Voiles are available in a range of patterns and colours (unlike net curtains, which are generally white or off-white). Because of their semitransparent quality, voile curtains are made using specially manufactured heading tape that is less easily noticeable through the fabric. Voile fabric is also used in dress-making, either in multiple layers or laid over a second material. Voile is very similar to chiffon, which is also used in dress-making. Voile
  12. 12.  Material types  Light penetrating sheer fabrics include muslin, voile, and lace. These can be broadly divided into two groups based on method of production. The first are the natural fibers such as cotton and silk. The second group is prepared from a man-made fiber. This kind of synthetic sheer is extracted from raw material such as wood pulp or petroleum. They are robust and sturdy yet still delicate looking and tend to take dye well. They are often used as window dressing as they fall into soft folds that make attractive scarf swags.
  13. 13. Brocade Large brocade loom, Nanjing, China, 2010
  14. 14.  Brocade is a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in colored silks and with or without gold and silver threads. The name, related to the same root as the word "broccoli", comes from Italian broccato meaning "embossed cloth", originally past participle of the verb broccare "to stud, set with nails", from brocco, "small nail", from Latin broccus, "projecting, pointed".  Brocade is typically woven on a draw loom. It is a supplementary weft technique; that is, the ornamental brocading is produced by a supplementary, non-structural, weft in addition to the standard weft that holds the warp threads together. The purpose of this is to give the appearance that the weave was actually embroidered on.  In Guatemala, brocade is the most popular technique used to decorate fabric woven by Maya weavers on backstrap looms. Brocade
  15. 15.  Ornamental features in brocade are emphasized and wrought as additions to the main fabric, sometimes stiffening it, though more frequently producing on its face the effect of low relief. In some, but not all, brocades, these additions present a distinctive appearance on the back of the material where the supplementary weft or floating threads of the brocaded or broached parts hang in loose groups or are clipped away. When the weft is floating on the back, this is known as a continuous brocade; the supplementary weft runs from selvage to selvage. The yarns are cut away in cutwork and broché. Also, a discontinuous brocade is where the supplementary yarn is only woven in the patterned areas. Brocade
  16. 16.  Modern uses  Brocade fabrics are used in modern times mostly for upholstery and draperies. They are also used for evening and formal clothing, for vestments, as well as for costumes. The use of precious and semiprecious stones in the adornment of brocades is not common but has been replaced with the use of sequins and beading as decoration. Brocade fabrics are now largely woven on a Jacquard loom that is able to create many complex tapestry-like designs using the jacquard technique. Although many brocade fabrics look like tapestries and are advertised by some fashion promotions as such, they are not to be confused with true tapestries. Patterns such as brocade, brocatelle, damask and tapestry- like fabrics are known as jacquard patterns. Brocade
  17. 17. Silk brocade fabric, Lyon, France, 1760-1770. Brocade Lacrocade, Russia, early 18th century Detail of hairsash being brocaded on a Jakaltek Maya backstrap loom. Persian Silk Brocade, Brocade weaver: Master Seyyed Hossein Mozhgani. 1974 A.D. the Ministry of Culture and Art . Honarhaye Ziba workshop.
  18. 18. Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used by artists as a painting surface, typically stretched across a wooden frame. It is also used in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases and shoes. Canvas
  19. 19. Modern canvas is usually made of cotton or linen, although historically it was made from hemp. It differs from other heavy cotton fabrics, such as denim, in being plain weave rather than twill weave. Canvas comes in two basic types: plain and duck. The threads in duck canvas are more tightly woven. The term duck comes from the Dutch word for cloth, doek. In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways: by weight (ounces per square yard) and by a graded number system. The numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4. Canvas
  20. 20.  Canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting, replacing wooden panels. One of the earliest surviving oils on canvas is a French Madonna with angels from around 1410 in the Gemäl de galerie, Berlin.  Early canvas was made of linen, a sturdy brownish fabric of considerable strength. Linen is particularly suitable for the use of oil paint. In the early 20th century, cotton canvas, often referred to as "cotton duck," came into use. Canvas
  21. 21.  For embroidery  Canvas is a popular base fabric for embroidery such as cross-stitch and Berlin wool work. Some specific types of embroidery canvases are Aida cloth (also called Java canvas, Penelope canvas, Chess canvas, and Binca canvas. Plastic canvas is a stiffer form of Binca canvas. Canvas
  22. 22. Canvas
  23. 23.  Crêpe or crape (anglicized versions of the Fr. crêpe) is a silk, wool, or synthetic fiber fabric with a distinctively crisp, crimped appearance. The term crape typically refers to a form of the fabric associated specifically with mourning, also historically called crespe or crisp.  There are more than 30 types available! Crêpe
  24. 24.  Woman's mourning bonnet in hard crape, c.1880 Crêpe Detail of an aerophane dress, c.1827.
  25. 25. Georgette  Georgette is a sheer, lightweight, dull-finished crêpe fabric named after the early 20th century French dressmaker Georgette de la Plante.  Originally made from silk, Georgette is made with highly twisted yarns. Its characteristic crinkly surface is created by alternating S- and Z-twist yarns in both warp and weft.  Georgette is made in solid colors and prints and is used for blouses, dresses, evening gowns, saris, and trimmings. It is springier and less lustrous than the closely related chiffon.
  26. 26. Georgette 1930 pink georgette evening gown.
  27. 27. Chiffon  English pronunciation shiff-ON, (from the French word for a cloth or rag) is a lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric woven of alternate S- and Z-twist crepe (high- twist) yarns. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel.
  28. 28. Chiffon  Chiffon is made from cotton, silk, or synthetic fibers. Under a magnifying glass it resembles a fine net or mesh which gives chiffon some see-through properties. Chiffon made from natural fibers can be dyed to almost any shade, but chiffon made from polyester requires specialized disperse dyes.  When sewing chiffon, many crafters layer tissue paper in between the two pieces being sewn together. The tissue paper helps keep the fabric together, with the rough surface of the tissue holding the chiffon in place while it is handled. After sewing, the tissue paper can be carefully ripped out. Chiffon is also pinnable, as it will spring back, concealing pin marks. As a general rule, sewers are advised to work slowly and steadily with this fabric, taking care not to run it through a sewing machine too quickly lest it bunch and gather.
  29. 29. Chiffon  Chiffon is most commonly used in evening wear, especially as an overlay, for giving an elegant and floating appearance to the gown. It is also a popular fabric used in blouses, ribbons, scarves and lingerie. Like other crêpe fabrics, chiffon can be difficult to work with because of its light and slippery texture. Due to this delicate nature, chiffon must be hand washed very gently.
  30. 30. Chiffon  Since chiffon is a light-weight fabric that frays very easily, bound or French seams must be used to stop the fabric from fraying. Chiffon is smoother and more lustrous than the similar fabric georgette. Chiffon is also known as a very light pink.
  31. 31. Chiffon The American actress Lillian Gish in morning dress in chiffon and lace in 1922 Coat and skirt street suit of gray chiffon broadcloth with embroidery and lace decoration (1905)
  32. 32.  To be continued…..

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