Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chapter17 - Respiratory System

3,885 views

Published on

Chapter17 - Respiratory System

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Login to see the comments

Chapter17 - Respiratory System

  1. 1. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Chapter 17 The Respiratory System
  2. 2. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Upper respiratory tract Lower respiratory tract Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  3. 3. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Nose and nasal cavities Conchae Branches of olfactory nerve Sphenoid sinus
  4. 4. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Pharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx
  5. 5. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Larynx Thyroid cartilage Vestibular folds
  6. 6. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Which is a function of the nasopharynx? A. Filter dust B. Warm and moisten inspired air C. Provide openings for eustachian tubes D. Contain olfactory receptors for sense of smell Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  7. 7. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Correct answer: C Rationale: Filter dust, warm and moisten inspired air, and contain olfactory receptors are all functions of the nasal cavity. Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  8. 8. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Lower respiratory tract Consists of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs
  9. 9. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Trachea Carina
  10. 10. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Alveoli
  11. 11. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Lungs Horizontal fissure Oblique fissure Oblique fissure
  12. 12. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Pleura Visceral pleura Parietal pleura Pleural cavity
  13. 13. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Inhaled food or foreign objects are most likely to lodge in which part of the respiratory system? A. Pharynx B. Right bronchus C. Left bronchus D. Bronchioles Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  14. 14. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Correct answer: B Rationale: The right bronchus is slightly wider and more vertical than the left, making it the most likely location for aspirated objects to lodge. Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  15. 15. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Pulmonary ventilation  Inspiration and expiration  Both depend on:  Respiratory muscles  Difference between air pressure within the lungs and outside the body
  16. 16. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Respiratory muscles External intercostals Internal intercostals Diaphragm
  17. 17. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Neural control of breathing  Inspiratory center: Primary respiratory center  Apneustic center: Increases length and depth of inspiration  Pneumotaxic center: Prevents lung overinflation  Expiratory center: Used for forceful exhalations
  18. 18. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Factors that influence breathing  Oxygen levels  Hydrogen ions (pH)  Stretch  Pain and emotion  Irritants Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  19. 19. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach What is the main muscle responsible for pulmonary ventilation? A. Abdominals B. External intercostals C. Diaphragm D. Internal intercostals Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  20. 20. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Correct answer: C Rationale: Whereas the intercostals are used in the respiratory process, the diaphragm is the main muscle for pulmonary ventilation. The abdominal muscles are accessory muscles of ventilation. Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  21. 21. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Pressure and airflow  Atmospheric pressure drives respiration.  When pressure within lungs drops lower than atmospheric pressure, air flows in.  When pressure within lungs rises above atmospheric pressure, air flows out.
  22. 22. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Inspiration
  23. 23. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Expiration View animation on respiratory cycle
  24. 24. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach When pressure in the lungs drops lower than atmospheric pressure, what occurs? A. Air flows out of the lungs. B. Air flows into the lungs. C. A pneumothorax forms. D. The bronchioles constrict. Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  25. 25. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Correct answer: B Rationale: Air flows from an area of higher to lower pressure; therefore, air flows out of the lungs when pressure in the lungs is higher than atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  26. 26. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Factors that affect airflow  Pulmonary compliance  Alveolar surface tension
  27. 27. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Measurements of ventilation  Tidal volume  Inspiratory reserve volume  Expiratory reserve volume  Residual volume  Vital capacity  Total lung capacity Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  28. 28. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Gas exchange  Exchange depends on differences in pressure.  Gas diffuses from higher to lower pressure until pressures are equalized.
  29. 29. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Transport of oxygen  Forms oxyhemoglobin in the lungs.  Oxyhemoglobin travels to the cells.  Difference in pH between venous and arterial blood breaks bond with hemoglobin.  Oxygen is released to the tissues.
  30. 30. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company Transport of carbon dioxide Occurs in three ways: 1. 10% dissolved in plasma 2. 20% bound to hemoglobin 3. 70% carried as bicarbonate ions
  31. 31. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach The primary way oxygen is transported in the blood is: A. in the form of bicarbonate. B. in the form of carbaminohemoglobin. C. in the form of oxyhemoglobin. D. dissolved in plasma. Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company
  32. 32. Understanding Anatomy & Physiology A Visual, Interactive Approach Correct answer: C Rationale: Carbaminohemoglobin and bicarbonate are two forms used to transport carbon dioxide. Only 1.5% of oxygen is dissolved in plasma; 98.5% circulates in the form of oxyhemoglobin. Copyright © 2012 F.A. Davis Company

×