1. WHAT IS CHILD DEVELOPMENT? Child development refers to the biological and psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence then through adulthood, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.
1. DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH The term DEVELOPMENT and GROWTH both refer to two different meanings.
a) DEVELOPMENT(qualitative) changes in a person’s physical and behavioural traits that emerge in orderly ways and last for a reasonable period of time. the changes are… PROGRESSIVE (results in acquisition of skills and abilities that are complex, finer and more efficient.) IN ORDER (there is an order in development.) LONG LASTING
4 main areas of development: Physical (height, strength and weight) Emotional (feelings and attitudes) Spiritual (believes and religions) Intellectual (thinking and understanding) Social (interacting with others)
b) GROWTH (quantitative) refers to physical increase in the size of the body. (increase in weight, height, etc..) refers to a quantitative change (can be measured) there is a change in form and increase in the complexity of body parts and their functioning, thinking abilities and social skills. Growth is only one aspect of the larger process of development.
c) The main areas of growth and development:1. Physical (weight, height, muscles, systems, organs)2. Emotional (extend trusting relationships to other adults and to children, show a strong sense of self as an individual, recognise feelings, label their own feelings)
3. Social (enjoy playing alongside other children, but won’t interact a great deal with them, show awareness of others’ feelings and might try to give basic help, look to adults for comfort.)4. Spiritual (concerns the broad search for transcendental meaning that may be as simple as a young child’s inquiries into how the world came into being)
5. Intellectual The Sensorimotor Stage: A period of time between birth and age two during which an infants knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. The Preoperational Stage: A period between ages two and six during which a child learns to use language. During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information and are unable to take the point of view of other people. The Concrete Operational Stage: A period between ages seven and eleven during which children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. The Formal Operational Stage: A period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.
The human life span has been divided into the stages of...a) Infancyb) Childhoodc) Adolescenced) Adulthood
a) Infancy – from birth to 2 years of age the child is totally dependent on the caregiver for the fulfilment of her needs. the period of the most rapid growth and development. their skills and abilities increase.b) Childhood – from 2 to 12 years of age acquire learning skills that will associated with schooling. learns about numbers, colours, shapes and the reasons for everyday events. thinking develops rapidly and her interest in the outside world grows by leaps and bounds.
c) Adolescence - from 12 to 18 years of age the beginning of this period is marked by puberty. Puberty refers to the stage around 11-14 years of age, when there is a spurt in physical growth. This results in a rapid increase in height and weight and the emergence of secondary sexual characteristics (face hair, pubic hair, sexual organs) Conflicts due to peer pressure occur and there will be needs for emotional adjustment.
d) Adulthood – 18 years and above the ability to support oneself economically (getting married, settle down, raise family) adulthood typically involves either working or preparing for ones livelihood. physical changes are complete and the person is mature.
http://psychology.about.com/od/developme ntalpsychology/ss/early-childhood- development_3.htm Thompson and Randall, retrieved from http://www.desmos.info/en/doc/Childrens_S piritual_Development.pdf http://www.preservearticles.com/201105206 839/physical-growth-and-development-of- a-child.html