1 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education SystemLegal Deriving from or founded on law. Created by the constructions of the law.Legal Bases of the Philippine Education System The laws which are the bases of the PES.MAJOR LAWS WHICH STIPULATE THECURRENT PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM1987 CONSTITUTIONARTICLE XIV: Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports Quality education accessible to all. (Section 1) Complete, adequate, and integrated relevant education. (2.1.) Free public education in the elementary and high school level. (2.2.) Scholarship grants, loans, subsidies and other incentives to deserving studentsin both private and public schools. (2.3.) Non-formal, formal, and indigenous learning systems. (2.4) Vocational training to adults, disabled and out of school youth. (2.5) Study of the constitution. (3.1) Study of values. (3.2.)e.g. patriotism, nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights,appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of thecountry, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritualvalues, etc. Optional religious instruction in public schools. (3.3.) Supervision and regulation of all schools. (3.4.)
2 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System Control and administration of schools by Filipinos. (3.5) Exemption from taxes and duties. (3.6.) Academic freedom in institutions in higher learning. (5.2,3,4.) Assigning highest budget priority to education. (5.5.) National language is Filipino. (6.1.)PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 6 – AEDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT DECREE OF 1972 Goals of the Educational system. (2, a – c)1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development andsocial progress.2. To assure of maximum participation of all the people in the attainment andenjoyment of the benefits of such growth.3. To strengthen national consciousness and promote desirable cultural valuesin a changing world. Objectives of the Educational system. (3, a – d) Ten – year program to attain the objectives. (4, a – f) Educational projects to attain objectives. (5, a – g)a. Management studies by the DEC.b. Improvement of secondary schools which include services, facilities,equipments and curriculum.c. Upgrading and improvement of technical institutions, skill – trainingcenters and other non-training programs for the out of school youth andthe unemployed.d. Curriculum and staff development including mathematics and scienceteaching.e. Expansion of agricultural secondary and higher education programs.f. Textbooks and instructional materials.g. Assistance and incentives.
3 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System Working arrangements. Financing the whole educational system.BATAS PAMBANSA BLG 232 – “EDUCATION ACT OF 1982”Goals1. Achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and socialprogress;2. Assure the maximum participation of all people in the attainment andemployment of such growth, and3. Achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, developand promote desirable culture, moral, and spiritual values in a changing world.Aims1. Provide for a broad general education that will assist each individual in thepeculiar ecology of his own society, to:1.1. attain his potentials as human beings;1.2. enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in thebasic functions of society, and1.3. acquire essential educational foundations of his development into aproductive and versatile citizen.2. Train the nation’s manpower in the middle – level skills required for nationaldevelopment.3. Develop the profession that will provide leadership for the nation in theadvancement of knowledge for improving the quality of human life, and4. Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions of the nations through asystem educational planning and evaluation.Rights and Duties of Parents in the Education of Children1. Rights1.1. Right to organize themselves and/or with teachers for the discussionbetterment of the school.1.2. Right to access to any official record concerning the children who are undertheir parental responsibility.2. Duties
4 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System2.1. Duty to help carry out the educational objectives in accordance with nationalgoals.2.2. Duty to enable their children to obtain elementary education and shall strive toenable them to obtain secondary or higher education in the pursuance of theright formation of the youth.2.3. Duty to cooperate with the school in the implementation of the schoolprogram.Rights and Duties of Students1. Rights1.1. Right to receive, primarily through competent instruction, relevant qualityeducation in line with national development goals and conducive to their fulldevelopment as persons with human dignity.1.2. Right to freely choose their field of study subject to existing course therein upto graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency or disciplinaryregulations.1.3. Right to school guidance and counselling services.1.4. Right of access to his own school records, the confidentiality of which theschool shall maintain and preserve.1.5. Right to the issuance of official certificates, diplomas, transcript of records,grades, transfer credentials, and other similar documents within thirty days ofrequest.1.6. Right to publish a school newspaper.1.7. Right to free expression of opinions and suggestions and to effectivechannels of communication.1.8. Right to form, establish, and join organizations.1.9. Right to be free from involuntary contributions, except those approve by theirown organizations or societies.
5 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System2. Duties2.1. Duty to exert his utmost to develop his potentialities.2.2. Duty to uphold the academic integrity of the school.2.3. Duty to promote the peace and tranquillity of the school.2.4. Duty to participate actively in civic affairs, and in the promotion of the generalwelfare.2.5. Duty to exert his rights responsibly.EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 117, s. 1987 (REORGANIZATION OF DECS)The Department shall be responsible for the formulation, planning, implementation, andcoordination of policies, plans, programs and projects in the areas of formal and non –formal education at all levels: elementary, secondary, higher, technical – vocational, non– formal, sports and culture.RA 7722: HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1994An act creating the Commission on Higher Education.RA 7796: AN ACT CREATING THE TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLSDEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY OF 1994An act creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority.RA 9155: AN ACT INSTITUTINGA FRAMEWORK OF GOVERNANCE FOR BASICEDUCATION, ESTABLISHING AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY, RENAMINGTHE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS AS THEDEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Authored by former senator Tessie Aquino – Oreta. DECS (Department of Education, Culture and Sports) was renamed DEPEd(Department of Education).
6 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System Governance of Basic Education starts at National level, but it is in the Regional,Division, District and School level where the policies and principles are translatedinto projects, programs, and services developed, offered to fit local needs.RA 4670: MAGNA CARTA FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS (1966)COVERAGE: All public school teachersELIGIBILITY:A. Elementary School Teachers1. BEED Graduate2. PBET/LET PasserB. Secondary School Teachers1. BSE/ BSEd Graduate/ Bachelor’s Degree2. 18 units in major subject/ 18 units of professional education subject3. PBET/LET PasserRights of Teachers1. Right to be informed of the charges in writing.2. Right to full access to the evidence in the case.3. Right to defend himself and be defended by a representative of his choice.4. Right to appeal to clearly designated authorities.5. Right for a married couple, both of whom are school teachers, to be employed in thesame locality whenever possible.Hours of Work and Remuneration1. Enjoy academic freedom in the discharge of professional duties regarding teachingand classroom methods.2. Enjoy free physical exam and free medical treatment or hospitalization.3. Salary scale – gradual progression from a minimum to a maximum salary by meansof regular increments, granted automatically every after three years.4. Granting of cost of living allowance.5. Additional compensation for service excess of 6 hours actual classroom teaching,hardship allowance and automatic retirement promotion.
7 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education SystemLeave and Retirement Benefits1. Study leave (Sabbatical leave) – with pay equivalent to 60% of salary after sevenyears of service.2. Indefinite leave3. Maternity leave with pay for 60 days.4. Vacation leave with pay.5. Enjoy one range salary raise upon retirement, which shall be the basis of theretirement pay and the monthly benefits thereafter.Teacher’s Organization1. Freedom to organize.2. Prohibition of discrimination against teachers.PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES AND OTHER LEGALBASES OF EDUCATIONAct No. 74January 1, 1901 Laid the foundations of Philippine public school system and made English as thelanguage of instruction. Established in the Philippine Normal School and Trade school in Manila, and anAgricultural school in Negros.RA 476June 18, 1949 Converted the Philippine Normal School into a Teacher college and offered coursesleading to Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education and Master of Arts ineducation.RA 7168December 26, 1991 Converted the Philippine Normal School into a University.RA 6655
8 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System Also known as the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988. Public secondary schools were nationalized and they were reclassified by source offunding and curriculum type.DECS ORDER NO. 38, s. 1994 NSAT is required for all senior high school students.PD 603 Required that every school division should organize special classes for children withspecial needs.RA 5250 (1966) Provided a ten – year teacher education program in Special education for theteaching of the gifted, mentally – retarded and those with behaviour problems. Only two schools offered undergraduate in SPEd: UP COEd and CEU.RA 7686 Being paid in OJTs in private industries.RA 7687 Scholarship programs for careers in science and technology.PD 1006September 22, 1976 Considered teachers as professionals and teaching promulgated as a profession. Teachers need to pass the PBET before they could teach, whether in private orpublic school.PD 146
9 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System Required all high school graduates seeking admissions to post – secondary degreesnecessitating a minimum of four years study to pass a national entranceexamination.RA 7731 Abolished the NCEE to give the marginalized sector greater access to collegeeducation.RA 7743 Created the Center of Excellence in Teacher Education.RA 7791 Stretched the school year from 185 – 200 days.RA 1265 Made the observance of the flag ceremony compulsory,RA 7836 An act professionalizing the teaching profession. Established the Licensure Examinations for Teachers.RA 10157 Kindergarten Education Act Provides the inclusion of the Kindergarten level into the basic education program. Itis a must that children must undergo kinder before entering grade 1.Senate Bill 3286: Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2012 An addition of two years in the basic education.Reference:Foundations of Education 2 by Dr. Doris D. Tulio
10 Pineda, Keith William P.MS – Mathematics EducationFoundations of EducationLegal Bases of the Philippine Education System