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Gamification of Learning

Games create engagement - the cornerstone of any positive learning experience. With the growing popularity of digital games and game-based interfaces, it is essential that gamification be part of every learning professional's toolbox. During this program, international learning expert Karl M. Kapp reveals the value of game-based mechanics to create meaningful learning experiences. Every learning manager, instructional designer, and trainer needs to be aware of the influence of this leading edge engagement technique.

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Gamification of Learning

  1. Gamification of Learning By Karl M. KappTwitter:@kkapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning &Instruction March 21, 2013 
  2. Interactivity (I) + Immersion (I) = Sustained Engagement (E) Results in meaningful learning.
  3. Interactivity (I) + Immersion (I) = Sustained Engagement (E) Results in meaningful learning.
  4. Slides for This Presentation Google  “Kapp Notes”Look for ASTD DC METRO 2013 Presentation Resources Content ripped from the pages of “The Gamification of Learning and  Instruction”
  5. Agenda 1 2 What are four instructional design methods What are three simple, low‐tech  that encourage immersive learningtechniques for creating engaging learning experiences? 3 How do I, create learning experiences tied to interactivity,  immersion and game‐based elements? 
  6. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  8. Some people think Gamification is only about points,  badges and rewards…
  9. … if it was, this would be the most engaging game in the  world.
  10. 20% increase in profile completion.
  11. … the possibilities of “gamification” are far larger than  points, badges and rewards.
  12. Two Examples of the Concepts of  Games and Gamification
  13. Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically  Motivating Instruction Challenge Fantasy Curiosity
  14. ChallengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  15. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  16. Fantasy– There are both cognitive andemotional reasons for evoking fantasy.Cognitively a fantasy can help a learnerapply old knowledge to understand newthings and help them remember thecontent. Emotionally, a person canconnect with the experiences and notbring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
  17. Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
  18. TransferThe ability of simulations to teach skills that transfer to real‐life, on‐the‐job situations seems abundantly positive… Computer‐based simulations—assessed as an alternative to other means of training, as a supplement to other means of training, as a device to combat skill decay in experienced trainees, and as a means of improving performance levels as they stand prior to training—show positive results for transfer a majority of the time. In 22 out of 26 studies, trainees demonstrated equal or  superior transfer to the control group from simulations. Shenan Hahn ADL Research and Evaluation Team
  19. Recommendations 1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning. 2) Include Fantasy to overcome resistance, encourage  generalization and invoke curiosity.  3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities  to increase engagement and interactivity to increase  learning.4) Transfer of learning occurs when tasks are cognitively the  same.
  20. Story
  21. Researchers have found that the  Yep, People tend to remember facts  human brain has a natural affinity for  more accurately if they encounter  narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. 
  22. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
  23. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  24. Recommendations • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to  the learner.• Use stories that are related to the context of the  desired learning outcome. 
  25. We’ve Always Wanted Characters Characters
  26. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical  worldRosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1‐9.
  27. An experience as an avatar  can change a persons real  life perceptions. In a study  conducted by Yee and  Bailenson (2006), it was  found that negative  stereotyping of the elderly  was significantly reduced  when participants were  placed in avatars of old  people compared with those  participants placed in avatars  of young people.Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective‐Taking on TheReduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  28. On tests involving different word problems, the group who had  a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct  answers than the group with  just on‐screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids  to learning.  A “realistic” character did not facilitate  learning any better than a “cartoon‐like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  29. Recommendations • Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and  instruction to learners.• Characters should  speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for  expertise is better than just having one character trying to  do both.
  30. Feedback
  31. Games like The Sims provide feedback on  many dimensions which provide  opportunities to consider tradeoffs and  higher level cognitive thinking. 
  32. The most helpful feedback provides specific  comments  about errors and suggestions for  improvement. It also encourages learners to focus  their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than  on simply getting the right  answer.Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata‐Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295‐321.
  33. Embed into a larger Curriculum Training Manuals E-learning Classroom instruction
  34. Instructional games should be embedded in  instructional programs that include  debriefing and feedback.  Engagement Instructional support to help learners  Educational understand how to use the game increases  Simulation instructional effectiveness of the gaming  Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” g
  35. Example
  36. Player Results“I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another game solution.” “The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.”“I’m a pretty competitive person so challenging myself to get one of the top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect product.”“The game was a fun way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the scenario‐type questions, which put it all into context.”
  37. Business ResultsAverage contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product.First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%Of all the launches done in the previous two years to MobileConnect, the sales team has built the quickest pipeline for this product.
  38. Player Results“I really had a good time with Merchants.  It’s original, fun, challenging, outside of the ordinary.  It hooks you!”“This is the best online training I know of.  It has had a positive impact on our business.” “It’s a very new and interesting program.  The lessons from the mentor and the readings are very beneficial.  You learn concepts to help you plan, and afterwards negotiate in situations that reflect real negotiations that you have with clients.”“Very interesting cases.  You learn very efficiently and effectively.  Applicable to real life.”“I found it very interesting, especially the lessons of the mentor.  The main concepts are completely applicable to our day‐to‐day.  I am already looking forward to the next course!”
  39. Learning ResultsAverage course evaluation, to date:  9.4 out of 10Average assessment of educational value:  9.3 out of 10Percentage answering “Yes” to “I find it applicable to real life”:  98%Percentage answering “Yes” to “I will recommend this course”:  99%Percentage of learners who completed the course after starting it:  92%The above results are aggregate averages from over 30,000 learners who have taken this course.
  40. Special Thank You! • Game On! Learning – Bryan Austin –• The Knowledge Guru – Sharon Boller –
  41. Takeaways1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge.2) Fantasy, curiosity and challenge are key elements for  instructional games.3) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. 4) On screen characters can enhance e‐learning.5) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.6) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and  motivate them. 7) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired  learning outcome. 8) Feedback needs to be targeted.9) Embedded the game into a larger curriculum. 
  42. Contact Karl via  Race you to Book Twitter or email Store! Twitter:@kkapp

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Games create engagement - the cornerstone of any positive learning experience. With the growing popularity of digital games and game-based interfaces, it is essential that gamification be part of every learning professional's toolbox. During this program, international learning expert Karl M. Kapp reveals the value of game-based mechanics to create meaningful learning experiences. Every learning manager, instructional designer, and trainer needs to be aware of the influence of this leading edge engagement technique.


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