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Thinking Like a Game Designer: Gamification, Games and Interactivity for Learning

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Presentation illustrates value of games and gamification for learning and provides information on how to think like a game designer.

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Thinking Like a Game Designer: Gamification, Games and Interactivity for Learning

  1. 1. Thinking Like a Game Designer: Gamification, Games and Interactivity for Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning & Instruction
  2. 2. Please Play: Tic Tac Toe HO Page: 1-5 Please Play: Hangman
  3. 3. Game Results • Did you like playing? • Was it fun? • Did you score points? • Who won? I Won! HO Page: 1-5
  4. 4. ? HO Page: 1-6
  5. 5. Personnel Learning Objective? HO Page: 1-6
  6. 6. Agenda HO Page: 1-7
  7. 7. Gamification Project HO Page: 1-8
  8. 8. 10,000 hrs of Game play 13 hours of console games a week Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. US Department of Commerce 87% of 8- to 17- year olds play video games at home. Average game player in US is 30-38.
  9. 9. Females play 5 hours a week of console games. They make up the majority of PC gamers at 63%. Almost 43% of the gamers are female and 26% of those females are over 18. Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. US Department of Commerce HO Page: 1-9
  10. 10. “A study of 2,300 people found only 6% of organizations are successful in influencing behavior change among employees.” --Al Switzler
  11. 11. A Gallup poll found that the average company has as many as 18% of employees who are actively disengaged. Exude negativity. Aren’t interested in learning or development. Aren’t interested in anything related to the company. Close themselves out of solutions to organizational problems. Thwart efforts for improvement. Putting in time until something better comes along.
  12. 12. The average person checks their phone 150 times a day that’s about 9 times an hour. People send or receive an average of 41 text messages per day., Smartphones users spend over 2.5 hours a day on their phones, with 32% of that time playing games.
  13. 13. Are games effective for learning?
  14. 14. Let’s Play Fact or Fishy… (true) (False)
  15. 15. New Message To: 37607  karlkapp  Cancel AT&T 9:37 AM  73% Text Option: karlkapp to the number 37607 Internet Option: Pollev.com/karlkapp
  16. 16. Two Teams Purple Orange Remember: Open Internet browser Pollev.com/karlkapp.
  17. 17. Lectures are an effective method for fostering higher order thinking skills. Fact or Fishy…
  18. 18. Lectures are NOT effective for fostering higher level thinking? Gibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing, SCED Occasional Paper No. 8, Birmingham. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/20reasons.html and Bligh, D., (1972). What’s the Use of Lectures? Penguin. Bloom, B. S., (1953). “Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussions.” Journal of General Education Vol. 7. Isaacs, G., (1994). “Lecturing Practices and Note-taking Purposes.” Studies in Higher Education, 19:2.
  19. 19. 67% of the lecture is spent in ‘passive thoughts about the subject’ and ‘irrelevant thoughts’.
  20. 20. During lectures students' thoughts involved attempting to solve problems, or synthesize or inter-relate information for 1% of the time.
  21. 21. 21 studies found lecturing to be less effective than: discussion, reading and individual work in class.
  22. 22. Lectures are not a very effective way of teaching-- if the aim is to teach thinking, or to change attitudes or other higher aims beyond the simple transmission of factual knowledge.”
  23. 23. Playing learning games results in higher gains in learning and retention than lecture-based instruction. Fact or Fishy…
  24. 24. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training Fact:
  25. 25. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training 17% Higher than Lectures 5% Higher than Discussion HO Page: 1-10
  26. 26. Percentages of Impact Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to learning.
  27. 27. Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning.
  28. 28. Engagement PedagogyGame Educational Simulation Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming experience. Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies Fact:
  29. 29. Example Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), (February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  30. 30. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups.
  31. 31. With serious games, both learners playing individually and those playing in a group learn more than the comparison group, but learners who play serious games in a group learn more Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies. Fact:
  32. 32. While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and more difficult work.
  33. 33. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria. Fact:
  34. 34. Overview of Gamification in Action HO Page: 1-14
  35. 35. Design Takeaway Challenge
  36. 36. Karl M. Kapp Presents:
  37. 37. t was a quiet Monday morning, very quiet, really quiet… almost too…
  38. 38. Then, out of nowhere, she flew into my office, like a Boss who had a problem that needed solved … Hi Boss.
  39. 39. I have a problem that needs to be solved.
  40. 40. We need more engagement. She wanted to increase learner engagement and have more interactive learning.
  41. 41. You came to the right guy that’s what I do…
  42. 42. Yeah, I know…that’s why I hired you. Now take the new person here and go ask Clyde, he went to a session on the subject. Ugh….
  43. 43. For some reason, she didn’t seem bothered by the fact that she was breaking the company’s strict no smoking policy…
  44. 44. Here’s where you come in. Help me figure out the clues …and fast.
  45. 45. Figure out the clues and solve the mystery and you will become first class detective.
  46. 46. Next, take out your smart phone or text device.
  47. 47. New Message To: 37607  karlkapp  Cancel AT&T 9:37 AM  73% Text Option: karlkapp to the number 37607 Internet Option: Pollev.com/karlkapp
  48. 48. Stakes are high……
  49. 49. Next you need to choose your disguise…
  50. 50. First stop…Clyde’s office…look for clues
  51. 51. Fact or Fishy? Games and Gamification are the Same thing?
  52. 52. HO Page: 1-15
  53. 53. HO Page: 1-15
  54. 54. Whole Part Gaming Playing (Serious ) Games Simulations Gamification Qstream Toys Legos Playful Design iPhone From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”, Deterding, S. et. al I found a strange drawing on Clyde’s desk. HO Page: 1-15
  55. 55. Look…I found some things written on one of Clyde’s notebooks. Could be a lead…or …it could be this session’s learning objectives
  56. 56. Let’s get going.
  57. 57. Now we need to find Ivan…the Informant... I knew one of his old haunts.
  58. 58. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention. Hello, Clueless…
  59. 59. Look I am going to ask you some questions, the right answer gives you a clue to gamification and interactive learning. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention.
  60. 60. What do you and your detectives here have to say about this?
  61. 61. How many types of gamification are there?
  62. 62. There are 3 types of gamification.
  63. 63. He grabbed his typewriter and made some notes to explain to me the difference between the two types of gamification.
  64. 64. Content Gamification use of game thinking to alter content to make it more game-like but doesn’t turn the content into a game. Content:  Challenge  Story  Characters  Missions HO Page: 1-16
  65. 65. Structural Gamification is use of game- elements to propel a learner through content with no alteration or changes to the content. Structural:  Points  Badges  Leaderboard HO Page: 1-17
  66. 66. Performance Gamification goal is to promote behaviors or actions. Employee actions are tied to game elements. Performance:  Points  Badges  Feedback Loop  Targeted Intervention HO Page: 1-18
  67. 67. Ivan then grabbed his laptop to show me a demonstration of the two types.
  68. 68. First Structural Gamification….
  69. 69. Gamification The concept of gamification Consists of many different elements. These elements can include: • Story • Character • Mystery • Curiosity • Curve of Interest • Surprise • Chance • Points • Badges Screen captures courtesy of MindTickle….
  70. 70. The Boehringer Ingelheim group is a large pharmaceutical company. Then he showed me another example…
  71. 71. Field reps are squeezed for time, yet have to understand multiple disease states, product attributes and competitive positioning and complex healthcare system issues of concern to their physicians. They wanted an effective way to pull through the information.
  72. 72. They rolled out Competitive Gamification which consisted of 25 questions, answers and explanations. Reps simply answer two questions from their laptop or mobile device every other day.
  73. 73. They are immediately scored, can see how their peers answer the same question, are presented with a concise explanation and on their way in 3 to 5 minutes.
  74. 74. Reps said: “I feel this is an awesome way to review and continue to maintain our knowledge. 5 Star rating.” “Great reminders of important points to make for the supplemental calls.” “I enjoy the challenge.” “Love the concept. Keeps me up to date. Thanks!” “It gives us a chance to really think and confirm what we know, what we really need to know, and where to expand our knowledge.”
  75. 75. ExactTarget is a global marketing organization focused on digital marketing tools – email, mobile, and web and was recently purchased by Salesforce.com. ExactTarget is a leading cloud marketing platform used by more than 6,000 companies including Coca-Cola, Gap and Nike.
  76. 76. Introducing a new product, MobileConnect and wanted to bring the sales force up-to-speed on the features and functionality of the product.
  77. 77. “I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another game solution.” “The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.” “I’m a pretty competitive person so challenging myself to get one of the top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect product.” “The game was a fun way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the scenario-type questions, which put it all into context.” Player Results
  78. 78. Business Results Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product. First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%. Of all the launches done in the previous two years prior to MobileConnect, the sales team built the quickest pipeline for this product.
  79. 79. Then wanted to demonstrated content gamification.... Of course, we’ve seen this already.
  80. 80. It was a little like déjá vu ….this content gamification…..
  81. 81. It has elements of story, characters and content that was altered to be more game-like…
  82. 82. Here is an example of Content Gamification. Zombies Sales Apocalypse
  83. 83. Case Study: SUSTAINED ENGAGEMENT AND FEEDBACK SUPERCHARGES PERFORMANCE @ AGERIS The Challenge Maintaining high levels of employee focus and motivation in an outsourced contact center Before Gamification Monetary bonuses, unmotivating competitions and monthly employee performance reviews With Gamification Employees bet on their targets. Daily learning & challenges. Automated immediate feedback Productivity Absenteeism Knowledge & Compliance +9% -10% x2 Sweden Here is an example of Performance Gamification. And more on this in a bit.
  84. 84. It doesn’t all have to be electronic.... Cards can be a powerful learning tool for gamification.
  85. 85. This mystery of interactive learning was starting to take shape…
  86. 86. Ivan had another question for me…I was the one who was supposed to be ask’n questions…. Fact or Fishy?: Learners remember facts better when presented in a bulleted list or when presented in a story?
  87. 87. Research shows humans have an inclination toward stories
  88. 88. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list.
  89. 89. Now get out of here…
  90. 90. This mystery of interactive learning was starting to take shape…
  91. 91. Let’s brief the boss on what we know so far…
  92. 92. So what have we learned?
  93. 93. So far, so good. Follow the next clue on the matchbook I found in my desk drawer….
  94. 94. I arrived at the place on the matchbook, as shady as a clump of oaks caught in an eclipse…
  95. 95. Enter Question TextWhat could this location and clue mean??? Tell me. Does engaging instruction start with…
  96. 96. Action draws in the learner and encourages further engagement.
  97. 97. Make the learner do something Answer a question Role Play Make a decision. Solve a mystery. Confront a challenge. Solve a Problem. Bet on Performance Hands On Play a game.
  98. 98. Create Open Loops Law & Order
  99. 99. Here are some more matches for your boss. She smokes a lot. She shouldn’t smoke.
  100. 100. Put the learner at risk. or Let the learner safely explore the environment.
  101. 101. No risk, or danger equal no skin in the game. Get the learner emotionally involved by putting him or her at “mock” risk.
  102. 102. Losing (points, game) Not Solving the Problem Social Credibility More Work Then they mysterious stranger started talking about what learners can “risk”… Starting Over Multiple Lives
  103. 103. In games, failing is allowed, it’s acceptable, and it’s part of the process.
  104. 104. Time for a recap with the boss… she looked a little frazlled…she needed to know one more thing.
  105. 105. I want to know one more thing. What did you detectives learn about gamification?
  106. 106. What are some gamification practices that can engage learners?
  107. 107. Great stuff, you folks really seemed to have cracked the case as to what makes engaging learning.
  108. 108. Mystery solved, just in time for the weekend. I was anxious to get some rest…
  109. 109. But…to my surprise as the Boss was driving away, she threw yet another matchbook….
  110. 110. Unfortunately, we’ll have to leave that mystery for later today….
  111. 111. The End
  112. 112. Credits: Detective Artwork Courtesy of Vanessa Bailey Flow Diagram by Kristin Bittner Typewriter and Mysterious Eyes are Clip Art Audience Response by Poll Everywhere Demo of Gamification Software by MindTickle
  113. 113. Now for the Takeaway Challenge HO Page: 1-9
  114. 114. Now for the Takeaway Challenge 1) Story/Characters 2) Polling/Audience Input 3) Winners/Teams 4) Mystery/Curiosity 5) Blend story/instruction 6) Suprise 7) Humor
  115. 115. Don’t need to have a detective. You can be more realistic.
  116. 116. I have a problem that needs to be solved.
  117. 117. Suddenly, your boss calls you and your colleague into her office. Ito and Jasmine come into my office.
  118. 118. Boosts and Triggers in Action HO Page: 1-20
  119. 119. Need to Know: Basic Game Lingo Game goal what player(s) have to do to win. No goal. No game. Core Dynamic what game play is about; what you have to do to win. Pick a dynamic to design around; it’s easier to get started that way. Mechanics rules for players; rules for system. Rules define how people achieve the goal. Don’t make too hard or too easy. Game Elements Features that help immerse you in game play Tinkering with one feature can entirely change play experience HO Page: 1-21-24
  120. 120. Need to Know: Basic Game Lingo Game Space environment in which the action of the game takes place. Impacts experience, mood and sense of “world” in game. Balance adjusting elements so game is at the right level of challenge, fairness and punishment/ reward Balance a game to develop the desired experience. Feedback natural and artificial instructions, hints and indicators to players. Feedback should not interrupt the game play. Rewards and Achievements elements of a game used to provide motivation through the game and to quantity ending. Tinkering with one reward can entirely change play experience. HO Page: 1-21-24
  121. 121. Need to Know: Basic Game Lingo Lose State the condition under which one or more players is unsuccessful at completing the game. Win State the condition under which one or more players achieves success. HO Page: 1-21-24
  122. 122. Need to Know: Basic Game Lingo Game goal what player(s) have to do to win. No goal. No game. Core Dynamic what game play is about; what you have to do to win. Pick a dynamic to design around; it’s easier to get started that way. Mechanics rules for players; rules for system. Rules define how people achieve the goal. Don’t make too hard or too easy. Game Elements Features that help immerse you in game play Tinkering with one feature can entirely change play experience HO Page: 1-21-24
  123. 123. Core Dynamics = How you achieve a game goal. HO Page: 1-22
  124. 124. Core Dynamics • Race to the Finish – Fastest person. – Mario Kart, Gran Turismo
  125. 125. Core Dynamics • Territory Acquisition – Acquire – or take – land or resources, typically to create an empire or own the most of something – Risk. Age of Empires. Aldrich, C. (2005) Learning by Doing.
  126. 126. Core Dynamics • Exploration – Wander around and check out various aspects of the game world to see if you can find things of value. – Clue, Infinite Sky
  127. 127. Core Dynamics • Collecting – Find and get specified objects/people. – Trivial Pursuit.
  128. 128. Core Dynamics • Rescue or Escape – Get out of a situation/place you are in. – Forbidden Island. Escape Rooms.
  129. 129. Core Dynamics • Alignment – Arrange game pieces in a particular order. – Connect Four, Candy Crush
  130. 130. Core Dynamics • Forbidden Act – Get fellow players to break the rules, make a wrong move, or do something they shouldn’t. – Cards Against Humanity.
  131. 131. Game Dynamics • Construction or Build – Create something using specified resources. – Minecraft. Jenga
  132. 132. Core Dynamic • Outwit – Use specialized knowledge or skill to defeat an opponent. – Chess, Stratego.
  133. 133. Game Dynamics • Solution – Solve a problem or a puzzle. – Puzzle Games. Five Nights at Freddy’s
  134. 134. Game Dynamics • Matching – Match physical items or match agains criteria. – Codenames. Guess Who?
  135. 135. Question: What Kind of Core Dynamics Do You Like Best?
  136. 136. Things to Consider Game component Things to evaluate Game Goal Is it challenging? Do you like it? Core dynamic(s) How do you achieve the goal…collecting things, exploration, racing to the finish, territory acquisition? Is THAT fun? Game mechanics Do the rules contribute to your enjoyment? Are they too complex? Too easy? Game elements What game elements are part of this game and how do they enhance it? Feedback How do I know how I am doing? Is it effective?
  137. 137. Think about your gamified learning event over lunch to reach top of hierarchy.
  138. 138. Review of Gamification Project HO Page: 1-25, 1-8
  139. 139. Desirable Difficulty Desirable difficulties are desirable because responding to the challenges they create requires encoding and/or retrieval activities that support learning. There can be other types of difficulties in learning (non-desirable difficulties) but the key is the process of encoding the information to be learned. Term coined by Robert and Elizabeth Bjork HO Page: 1-26-29
  140. 140. Manipulations that speed the rate of acquisition during instruction can fail to support long-term retention and transfer, whereas other manipulations that appear to introduce difficulties and slow the rate of acquisition learner can enhance post-instruction recall and transfer.
  141. 141. What creates Desirable Difficulty? • Testing • Spaced Practice (rather than blocking) • Switching Between Topics (Interleaving) • Freedom to Fail (learning from errors) • Organizing Unfamiliar Information • Generating Ideas (instead of reading or watching) • Self Feedback • Vary Conditions of Practice or Learning • Transfer Knowledge to New Situations • Solving Multiple Types of Problems at Once • Allow for Confusion • Kobayashi Maru (seemingly impossible challenge)
  142. 142. How We Learn • Do not learn by making a literal copy of information. – Learn by encoding and storing new information – Relating it to what we already know. • Mapping new information onto current information and link our new information with existing information.
  143. 143. How We Learn • Act of retrieving information is itself a potent learning event. • Retrieved information becomes more recallable in the future than it would have been otherwise. • Using our memories, in effect, alters our memories.
  144. 144. Your goal as a designer of instruction… Create conditions that foster storage and enhance later retrieval in multiple contexts. Source: https://bjorklab.psych.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2016/07/RBjork_inpress.pdf The conditions of learning need to induce encoding and retrieval processes that are substantial and varied, and incorporating desirable difficulties helps to induce those processes.
  145. 145. In an experiment on a group of college students to examine the effects of testing on fact memorization and language learning..(Swahili & English) One group was asked to keep testing themselves on all items without dropping what they were getting right. The other group could drop the correctly recalled items.. The students who dropped items from testing remembered about 35% of the word pairs. Those who kept testing items even after they had learned them could recall 80 Source: https://www.goconqr.com/en/examtime/blog/testing-effect-how-self-testing-helps-memory-improvement/
  146. 146. In a study, immediate testing after reading a prose passage promoted better long-term retention than repeatedly studying the passage. This outcome occurred even though the tests included no feedback. In an experiment, students in a repeated-testing condition recalled much more after a week than did students in the repeated-study condition (61% vs. 40%), even though students in the repeated-testing condition read the passage only 3.4 times and those in the repeated-study condition read it 14.2 times had learned them could recall 80 http://psych.wustl.edu/memory/Roddy%20article%20PDF's/Roediger%20&%20Karpicke%20(2006)_PsychSci.pdf
  147. 147. Students who are tested over time have better recall than student who are simply asked to read. Participants who had been tested (rather than re- reading the material) outperformed the other students on two tests given 18 days later and again 5 weeks later Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4235419/
  148. 148. Soderstrom, NC, Kerr TK & Bjork RA. The Critical Importance of Retrieval –and Spacing– for Learning. Psychological Science, 2016;27(2):223-230.
  149. 149. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve Modified from: Bersin, J. (2017) The Disruption of Digital Learning: Ten Things We Have Learned. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/disruption-digital-learning-ten-things-we-have-learned-josh-bersin/ We discussed last time in microlearning.
  150. 150. Citation: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-interleaving-effect- mixing-it-up-boosts-learning/ Interleaving Mix up instruction rather than cover one topic completely before moving on to the other. Instead of the learning pattern looking like AAA, BBB, CCC. It looks more like ABC,BCA,ABC, CBA.
  151. 151. Citation: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-interleaving-effect- mixing-it-up-boosts-learning/ Interleaving Mix up instruction rather than cover one topic completely before moving on to the other. Instead of the learning pattern looking like AAA, BBB, CCC. It looks more like ABC,BCA,ABC, CBA. Learners should have familiarity with subject materials before interleaving begins (or the material should be fairly simple). Otherwise, interleaving can be more confusing than helpful.
  152. 152. Actionable Data: • Review incorrect questions • Track learner progress over time • Spot anomalies • Diagnose instructional issues • Identify areas of improvement Analytics HO Page: 1-30
  153. 153. • Transactional Data collection • “We need to track our activities…” Data • Viewing grouped, filtered and sorted data • “We need to see our data organized…” Reporting • Visual data display • “We need quick, visual view of data…” Dashboards • Data against critical business indicators • “We need to know when we hit a certain threshold…” Metrics • Predictive use of data to help take action • “We need to make data- driven decisions proactively…” Analytics Analytics Maturity Model SUBMITManagementCollection Contextualization Measurement Decision Making 1 2 3 4 5 SUBMITREACTIVEREACTIVE INFORMATIONAL TRANSITION PROACTIVE HO Page: 1-31
  154. 154. Overview of Analytics in Action HO Page: 1-32
  155. 155. Teaching Problem Solving HO Page: 1-33-35
  156. 156. Training • Course Objectives – Adhere to the proper policy for providing information to clients – Understand what is permissible to share with clients and what is not – Identify three methods of conducting an audit
  157. 157. You are gathering data during the first day of an audit. During lunch, Mary approaches you and tells you that she has something important to discuss. The two of you go to your office and she makes the accusation that the VP of Finance is hiding an account… What is the first thing you should do?
  158. 158. Here are three more tips to teach problem solving: - Multiple, Realistic Scenarios (case studies) - Provide a Question Protocol - Learning Documentary
  159. 159. Provide a list of prompts or questions to help trigger thoughts and question sets. Check out this folder.
  160. 160. Create a learning documentary of how to do a job, how decisions are made, how dots are connected. Show learners how experts think through problems and solve them. It’s a “think aloud.”
  161. 161. Questions, Follow Up, Action items. Stay in touch: Twitter: @kkapp Email: Karlkapp@gmail.com HO Page: 1-37

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  • mohammedabdelaty2010

    Nov. 25, 2018

Presentation illustrates value of games and gamification for learning and provides information on how to think like a game designer.

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