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AQA A Level PE Section C, section 2


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The Olympic ideal and modern sport

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AQA A Level PE Section C, section 2

  1. 1. Objectives:• Describe the stages of how sports developed from the 18thand 19th Centuries to the recognisable forms we have today – toinclude: popular recreation, industrialisation, rational recreationand post-industrialisation• Explain how the British way of playing fair and to the letter ofthe law (i.e. the ethics of sport came about)• Explain Olympism and the intentions of the modern Olympics• Explain the contract to compete and relate to recent times
  2. 2. •Popular recreation = recreation for thepopulace•Feature of life way before industrialisation•Different classes – different forms ofrecreation•Upper classes – real tennis, fencing•Working classes (peasants) – mob-games• Peasants – rural life – dictated to byseasons•Time for recreation came from holy daysand religious festivals•Result – popular recreation were occasionalhappenings•Early games had no clear rules – free for all!Pre-industrialisation
  3. 3. •For 1860 onwards – society started to change as did sport•Industrial Revolution in full swing – machines carrying out work previously done by people•Factories – employing 1000s – need to live close to work – terrace housing built in cities•Terraces – little or no space for recreation•Long shifts – 12hrs – 6 days a week (Up to 72hr working weeks to start with)•Leisure time scarce – only Sunday and this was a day of rest – Church had big influence•Only effects working class – upper and middle classes continued to play their sport –unaffected by URBANISATION (Development of cities caused by movement of populationfrom rural areas (where jobs were disappearing because of mechanisation) to towns(where new jobs created in factories)).Urbanisation affected sportRural life – seasons – space – local rivalry.Move to towns – no space – sport had to changeParticipation in sport expensive – working class poorly paidLack of facilities for working classesFactory owners established sports clubs to raise morale & loyalty improvehealth and social control – some provided land to play on6 day week reduced to 5.5days eventually – Saturday pm sportSpace premium only a few could play – spectators main involvementChurch – imp provider of land and organiser of teamsIndustrialisation
  4. 4. As wages increased – more couldafford to watch or play sportRailway developed – travel easierCommunication also developedFixtures, leagues, cups competitions– easier to organiseEst. more and more clubs – spectatorsport grew and grewComps grew in size – morespectators – leading toprofessionalism and more mediainterestMiddle classes controlled sportThey dictated hours – long and tiringWomen and children used as cheap labour – malnutrition and diseasecommonWorking classes – very little disposable income if anyInitially no parks – street games declared illegal (damage to shops andonlookers)Pubs were central to culture – sports developed to suit
  5. 5. o In Victorian era – traditional aspects of popular sport (revelry, debauchery, gamblingand drunkenness) became less of a forceoDue to moralising influence of middle classes – via traditions of public schooleducationoMiddle classes – added fair play to their sport – strict regulation of rules and strictamateur ethosoMiddle classes played sport for pleasure – character buildingoThree major contributions to emergence of rational recreation:oCodificationoCompetitionsoOrganisationsEmergenceof rationalrecreationFair play – allowingequal chance ofsuccess and treatingother performerswith respect
  6. 6. Task – Invent a gameEquipment: Tennis ball – 2 binsChoose an area to playDiscuss with other players –limits to playing area – methodof scoring, the limitations ofmovement with a ball – whatconstitutes a foulNow play!You have just been through the process ofCODIFICATIONCODIFICATION – the gradual organisationand defining of rules for the actual playingof the sport and the conduct andbehaviour of participants
  7. 7. Without rules – sport could not existRules allow participants to compete on equal terms and apply to all levels ofinvolvementMajor influence – public schoolsPublic schools – sport provided discipline to boysSchools encouraged formation of a code of conduct for such activitiesBoys took their rules to university and armed forces and established clubsInfluential members of these clubs – agreed standardised set of rulesLed to development of NGBsNGBs development regional and local organisations - with comps to allow moreteams to play matches
  8. 8. Public School influence of sport and thegentleman amateuro Victorian society – class orientated –reflected in education systemoPublic school – fee paying – middle/upperclassesoAimed at producing future leaders to guideUK and the Empire - captains of industry!oQualities such asleadership, loyalty, courage, discipline andcommitment were encouragesoSchools saw potential in developing thesecharacteristics through sportoThe cult of athleticism developedoMany public school sportsmen went touniversities and following graduation manyreturned to teach or enter clergyoThey encourages more to play sportoBy 1890 most sports were played in anorganised wayAthleticism – afanaticaldevotion tosport thatdeveloped thephysical, socialand moralaspects ofyoung men
  9. 9. Amateurs – aperson whoplays sport forfun and for nofinancial gainProfessional –sportsperformer whois paid to playtheir sportGentleman Amateur – asportsman who, because of hissocial position and financialsituation, had no need formonetary reward fromparticipation in sportProfessional or amateur?Some keen to maintain class divideAnd use sport as a means of socialcontrol – maintaining a clear differencebetween amateurs and professionals‘Not playing the game’ – expressiondescribing spirit playedProfessionals paid to play – workingclass – talentedSome sports remained amateur –refused to change – exclude workingclasses – rowing, athleticsCricket maintained its amateur andprofession divide until the 1960sUpper classes manage to play the waythey wanted and keep working classesout
  10. 10. Football was slightly different:1. Early administrators had toadmit better players couldn’tget time off to play2. Also – enough spectators socould afford to pay them toplay3. Amateur footballadministrators acceptedprofessionalism in 18854. Football league established!
  11. 11. From church teams:Fulham St Andrew’s Sunday SchoolVilla Cross Methodist ChapelChrist Church Sunday SchoolTrinity Church, BordsleyThey became:FulhamAston VillaBolton WanderersBirmingham CityWorkplaces:Yorkshire and Lancashire Railway CompanyThames IronworksThe Royal Arsenal, WoolwichSalters Spring WorksThey became:Man UtdWest Ham UtdArsenalWest Bromwich AlbionOld boys associations:Blackburn Grammar SchoolSt John’s Presbyterian and TottenhamGrammar SchoolSunderland and District Teachers AssocWyggeston SchoolThey became:Blackburn RoversTottenham HotspurSunderlandLeicester City
  12. 12. In this period……1. Difference between classes nevermore apparent – middle/upperclasses were increasing inaffluence but working classbecoming more impoverished2. Professional performer in 19thcentury had limited earnings butbetter than normal wage (workingclass)3. Middle/upper remainedentrenched in amateur ways4. Until late in 20th Century – broadgeneralisation –• players – working class• Agents, managers andpromoters – middle class• Sponsors and patrons – upper5. Increased media interest in sportand different income streams –most sports can supportprofessionals6. Nowadays a professional plays at ahigher level than an amateur7. Increased status of professionals now8. Young people aspire to beprofessionals9. Allows more social mobility now thanin the 19th Century
  13. 13. Olympism – competing in the spiritof sportsmanship with theemphasis on taking part rather thanwinning
  14. 14. More recently –•More money involved(TV rights – largeaudiences)•More importance onsporting successHost city – potential forsubstantial revenue –tourism, employment, prestige, facilities Media increasedearning potential ofsuccessful athletesMillions of poundsnow spent on gettingathletes to their peak!Olympics now elitist.Olympics - originally established byBaron Pierre de Coubertin – 1896To – bring nations together – allowyouth from across the world tocompete across national boundaries –increasing cross-cultural tolerancesGradually overtime –there has been anerosion of the amateurideals and the ideal ofcompeting fairly – Forexample: succeed fromown efforts – moneyavailable to supportathletes across theworld different – notequal!
  15. 15. Contract to competeAn unwritten codegoverning how to strive toplay fairly, within the rulesSportsmanshipConforming to the rules, spirit andetiquette of a sportBased on the C to C we expectperformers to:1. Try their best2. Show sportsmanship3. Respect rules and officialsThe spirit of thecontest Concept based on a deepUK culture – the Victorianideas of fair play,amateurism, athleticism,respect for opponent,taking part not winning etc
  16. 16. Fair playCharacterSportsmanshipThree components of morality insportAllowing all participants anequal chance – acting towardsother performers in anhonest, straightforward, dignified manner – assumes respect ofteam mates, opponents andofficialsRefers to values and habits thatdetermine the way a personreacts to fears, challenges, failuresand success – typically seen aspolite behaviours – helping anopponent up, shaking hands
  17. 17. Overtime a morenegative ethic hasinvaded sportinvolving for example:1. prize money,2. Gamesmanship3. The idea thatwinning iseverything4. The use of drugsGamesmanship – bending the rules – often seen as time wasting in somesports1. Pressure to win increased in moderntimes – pressures can lead to deviantbehaviour2. Sometimes performer lacks morals orethical restraints that might governtheir behaviour3. Pressure increase as the importance ofthe occasion increases4. Will also increase with age potentiallySome pressures are external –outside control of performer –demands from sponsors, theintrusion of media, expectationsof organisers/crowd, demandfrom coach/team mates
  18. 18. Functional actions in sport – within the contract to compete:1. Returning the ball to the opposition after aninjury break2. Clapping the opposition after losing3. ‘walking’ in cricket4. Clapping the opposition’s century5. Exhausting yourself in the attempt to win6. Lending the opposition a player if they areshort7. Admitting fouls
  19. 19. Dysfunctional actions in sport1. Arguing with the referee2. Appealing for a throw when you know it’s notyours3. Deliberately fouling to prevent good performance4. Diving in a game to gain a foul5. Tying laces to get a rest6. Using drugsReasons why this behaviour is contrary to the contract to compete:•Acts of violence is outside the rules of the activity and outside thecharacteristics, etiquette and ethics of the activity•In general violence will deprive the victim of free and fair opportunity to win•Violence is often against the law•Some games will allow violence if mutually agreed, accepted limits, and in somesports within the rules – e.g. boxing
  20. 20. Question 10 – June 2012Many of the sporting values and technical developments that underpin modernsport were established in the 19th century.15 How might a performer break the contract to compete during a sportingcontest?(3 marks)16 Explain the social factors that contributed to the emergence of mass spectatorsport in the 19th century. (4 marks)
  21. 21. Watching elite sport has become easier due to increasedmedia coverage andcommercialisation.In 2009, the Deputy Leader of the Secondary HeadteachersAssociation suggested that football should only be shownon television after the 9 o’clock watershed because of thebad example that it sets to children.1 4 Discuss the suggestion that there has been a declinein sportsmanship since the late 19th Century and outlinestrategies that the sporting authorities have used in anattempt to maintain high standards of behaviour. (14marks)