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# Using Sorting Strategy in Qualitative Analysis

Using Sorting Strategy in Qualitative Analysis

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### Using Sorting Strategy in Qualitative Analysis

1. 1. Using Sorting Strategy in Qualitative Analysis Moving from Codes to Categories & Themes PhilipAdu,Ph.D. Methodology Expert National Center forAcademic & Dissertation Excellence (NCADE) The Chicago School of Professional Psychology padu@thechicagoschool.edu @drphilipadu
2. 2. 8 Steps Step 1: Assess the characteristics of each code Step 3: Put the 1st and 2nd dominant codes into clusters 1 and 2 respectively Step 2: Determine the dominant codes Step 4: Explore potential relationship between the dominant codes and other codes Step 5: Put the selected codes into their respective clusters. Step 6: Put the remaining codes in clusters based on their relationships Step 7: Label the clusters Step 8: Sum up the code frequencies under each cluster (category or theme)
3. 3. Below are examples of the codes created based in the relevant information selected from the transcripts. …
4. 4. When moving from codes to categories and themes, you could…
5. 5. Its meaning What it represents Its frequency Its generality Assess the characteristics of each code in terms of:
6. 6. Its meaning What it represents Its frequency Its generality If you were to explain what the code is about to the research community, what would you say? In simple and practical terms, what does it the code mean? Assess the characteristics of each code in terms of:
7. 7. Its meaning What it represents Its frequency Its generality What kind of participants’ response does the code represent? At this stage, you could revise the code (i.e. label given to the relevant information in the data) if needed. Assess the characteristics of each code in terms of:
8. 8. Its meaning What it represents Its frequency Its generality How many ‘chunks’ of relevant information are assigned to the code? Assess the characteristics of each code in terms of:
9. 9. Its meaning What it represents Its frequency Its generality Based on the significant information coded, how many participants are connected to the code? The number of sources of the significant information under each code Assess the characteristics of each code in terms of:
10. 10. Its frequency Its generality How many ‘chunks’ of relevant information are assigned to the code? AND Determine the dominant codes by looking at: Based on the significant information coded, how many participants are connected to the code? The number of sources of the significant information under each code
11. 11. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? 11 Codes were generated 2nd dominant code: ‘Helpful course materials’ Two potential dominant codes were identified 1st dominant code: ‘Improves engagement’ AND Code Generality (out of 10 participants) Frequency Helpful course materials 5 7 Improves engagement 5 8 Increases motivation 2 3 Increases performance 3 4 Increases students' satisfaction 1 1 Increases value on learning activities 2 2 More prepared for lessons in class 3 3 Perceived students' learning 1 3 Positive view of the course taken 2 2 Promotes active learning 2 3 Reduces stress 1 1
12. 12. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? Put the 1st and 2nd dominant codes into clusters 1 and 2 respectively Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Clusters 4 1. Improves engagement 1. Helpful course materials
13. 13. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? Explore potential relationship between the dominant codes and other codes Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Clusters 4 1. Improves engagement 1. Helpful course materials Code Generality Frequency Helpful course materials 5 7 Improves engagement 5 8 Increases motivation 2 3 Increases performance 3 4 Increases students' satisfaction 1 1 Increases value on learning activities 2 2 More prepared for lessons in class 3 3 Perceived students' learning 1 3 Positive view of the course taken 2 2 Promotes active learning 2 3 Reduces stress 1 1
14. 14. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? Put the selected codes into their respective clusters Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Clusters 4 1. Improves engagement (8) 2. Increases motivation (3) 3. Promotes active learning (3) 4. More prepared for lessons in class (3) 1. Helpful course materials (7) 2. Increases value on learning activities (2) Code Generality Frequency Helpful course materials 5 7 Improves engagement 5 8 Increases motivation 2 3 Increases performance 3 4 Increases students' satisfaction 1 1 Increases value on learning activities 2 2 More prepared for lessons in class 3 3 Perceived students' learning 1 3 Positive view of the course taken 2 2 Promotes active learning 2 3 Reduces stress 1 1
15. 15. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? Review the remaining codes to determine whether there are potential relationships among them. Put the codes in clusters based on their relationships Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Clusters 4 1. Improves engagement (8) 2. Increases motivation (3) 3. Promotes active learning (3) 4. More prepared for lessons in class (3) 1. Helpful course materials (7) 2. Increases value on learning activities (2) 1. Increases performance (4) 2. Perceived students' learning (3) 1. Increases students' satisfaction (1) 2. Positive view of the course taken (2) Code Generality Frequency Helpful course materials 5 7 Improves engagement 5 8 Increases motivation 2 3 Increases performance 3 4 Increases students' satisfaction 1 1 Increases value on learning activities 2 2 More prepared for lessons in class 3 3 Perceived students' learning 1 3 Positive view of the course taken 2 2 Promotes active learning 2 3 Reduces stress 1 1
16. 16. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? Create a cluster for the code which doesn’t have any connection or relationship with the clusters Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Clusters 4 Cluster 5 1. Improves engageme nt (8) 2. Increases motivatio n (3) 3. Promotes active learning (3) 4. More prepared for lessons in class (3) 1. Helpful course materials (7) 2. Increases value on learning activities (2) 1. Increases performa nce (4) 2. Perceived students' learning (3) 1. Increases students' satisfactio n (1) 2. Positive view of the course taken (2) Reduces stress (1) Code Generality Frequency Helpful course materials 5 7 Improves engagement 5 8 Increases motivation 2 3 Increases performance 3 4 Increases students' satisfaction 1 1 Increases value on learning activities 2 2 More prepared for lessons in class 3 3 Perceived students' learning 1 3 Positive view of the course taken 2 2 Promotes active learning 2 3 Reduces stress 1 1
17. 17. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? Examine the codes in each cluster. Label the clusters Cluster 1: Improves students engagement Cluster 2: Increases value on learning activities and course materials Cluster 3: Increases academic performance Clusters 4: Increases students' satisfaction Cluster 5: Reduces stress 1. Improves engagement (8) 2. Increases motivation (3) 3. Promotes active learning (3) 4. More prepared for lessons in class (3) 1. Helpful course materials (7) 2. Increases value on learning activities (2) 1. Increases performance (4) 2. Perceived students' learning (3) 1. Increases students' satisfaction (1) 2. Positive view of the course taken (2) Reduces stress (1) Note: Be creative and flexible in this process. You could use one of the codes to label the cluster if it best represents the codes in the cluster. You could call the cluster categories or themes. If there are a lot of clusters, you could do further analysis to generate themes.
18. 18. What are students’ benefits of a flipped classroom? Sum up the code frequencies under each cluster (category or theme) Cluster 1: Improves students engagement (17) Cluster 2: Increases value on learning activities and course materials (9) Cluster 3: Increases academic performance (7) Clusters 4: Increases students' satisfaction (3) Cluster 5: Reduces stress (1) 1. Improves engagement (8) 2. Increases motivation (3) 3. Promotes active learning (3) 4. More prepared for lessons in class (3) 1. Helpful course materials (7) 2. Increases value on learning activities (2) 1. Increases performance (4) 2. Perceived students' learning (3) 1. Increases students' satisfaction (1) 2. Positive view of the course taken (2) Reduces stress (1)
19. 19. Summary Step 1: Assess the characteristics of each code Step 3: Put the 1st and 2nd dominant codes into clusters 1 and 2 respectively Step 2: Determine the dominant codes Step 4: Explore potential relationship between the dominant codes and other codes Step 5: Put the selected codes into their respective clusters. Step 6: Put the remaining codes in clusters based on their relationships Step 7: Label the clusters Step 8: Sum up the code frequencies under each cluster (category or theme)
20. 20. Philip Adu, PhD. Methodology Expert National Center forAcademic & Dissertation Excellence (NCADE)The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Ncade.me@thechicagoschool.edu You could reach me at padu@thechicagoschool.edu and @drphilipadu on twitter. To cite this document,copy the following: Adu, P. (2017, August 27). Using Sorting Strategy in Qualitative Analysis. Retrieved August 26, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/kontorphilip/using-sorting-strategy-in-qualitative-analysis