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Europe in the
Renaissance &
Reformation
1350-1600A History of World Societies
Chapter 15
HI 101
The Italian Renaissance
• Renaissance  rebirth
• Italian Renaissance  rebirth of ancient Greek
& Roman worlds
• Characte...
Origins of the Renaissance
• 1. European trade with Asia increased during
the 1300s.
• 2. Italian merchants organized much...
Origins of the Renaissance (cont)
• 5. Florence became a center for banking, art,
culture, and literature.
• 6. Cosimo de’...
Important City-States of the
Renaissance
• Florence
• Rome
• Venice
• Genoa
• Milan
Genoa Towers,
Palazzo
Contarini
del Bo...
City State Populations
Italian City States – Not yet the nation of ITALY
Italian Trade Routes – Notice the impact on Italy
Each Italian
city-stat...
Florence
• Center of art, literature,
and culture.
• Florence became wealthy
from the manufacturing
of wool.
• Later Flore...
Florence
• The Renaissance
started in Florence and
spread throughout
Europe.
• Competition between
the Italian city-states...
Medici Family
• Ruled Florence, 13th  17th Centuries
• Aimed to make Florence the most beautiful city in
the world – Beca...
Rome
• Home of the Catholic
Church
• Popes commissioned
famous artists and
architects to beautify
Rome. Michelangelo,
Raph...
Rome• The popes employed the best artists &
architects of the Renaissance to build and decorate the
most opulent churches ...
Venice
• Venice was the wealthiest city-
state of the Renaissance.
• It was a port city on the
Mediterranean.
• Venice mai...
Genoa
• Genoa is located on the
Mediterranean.
• Genoa was one of two
main port cities in Italy
during the Renaissance.
• ...
Milan
• Milan dominated the inland trade
routes because it was the gateway
to Italy from the north.
• Milan is the site of...
Niccolo Machiavelli
• Italian philosopher, diplomat, poet,
musician, playwright..
• Best known for The Prince – book of re...
Renaissance Society
• Strict Class society
– Nobility – most powerful, but smallest group
• Strict rules and expectations
...
The Intellectual and Artistic
Renaissance
Italian Renaissance Humanism
• Stressed that man was the center of the universe and
had dignity and value
• Humanism – int...
Petrarch: “Father of Humanism”
• Petrarch was a scholar and poet who
was responsible for the recovery of
manuscripts and w...
Dante Alighieri
• “Father of the Italian Language”
• Wrote The Divine Comedy.
• The Divine Comedy is considered
one of the...
The Artistic Renaissance in Italy
• Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the 1500s.
– Pope Alexander VI: most noto...
New Artistic Techniques
• Fresco – watercolor
on fresh plaster
• Law of Perspective
• Study of human
anatomy
• GOAL – imit...
Leonardo da Vinci
• Master of realism &
perspective
• Studied human
anatomy (cadavers) to
be as accurate as
possible
• Scu...
Leonardo da Vinci
The Last Supper
A page from one of da Vinci’s
notebooks, he “coded” his work
by writing backwards. He co...
Raphael Santi
• 1 of the top Renaissance painters
• Especially known for his “Madonna's” –
paintings of Mary the mother of...
Raphael Santi
School of
Athens -
fresco in
the
Apostolic
Palace in
the Vatican.
Thought to
be
Raphael’s
masterpiece
.
Michelangelo Buonarroti
• Painter, sculptor and architect
• Most famous for work in Vatican City
Vatican City
St. Peter’s ...
Michelangelo
Well known for his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel.
The ceiling illustrates the stories of the Book of
Genesis...
Michelangelo, the sculptor
The Pieta –
marble statue
of a crucified
Jesus being
held by his
mother Mary.
In St. Peter’s
Ba...
Michelangelo, the sculptor
David – carved from
one piece of marble
from 1501 to 1504.
Said to be
proportionally perfect,
t...
Northern Italian Renaissance
• Centered in Low Countries – Belg, Lux, Neth
• Due to weather- few frescoes
– Stained glass,...
Albrecht Durer
• German
• 1 of greatest Northern
Renaissance artists
• Revolutionized woodcuts
• Studied in Italy on sever...
Architecture
• Architectural design returns to
the classical styles of Rome and
Greece.
• Public buildings, homes and
vill...
Brunelleschi
The Basilica di
Santa Maria
del Fiore,
Florence, also
called the
Duomo.
The Printing Press
• Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468)
was a German goldsmith and
printer.
• Gutenberg was the first to
devel...
Impact of Printing Press
• Much easier to publish
books
• Increased literacy
• 1450-1500, 20 million
books printed coverin...
Writers of the Renaissance
• With the printing press. books become more
affordable and more people (mostly wealthy)
learn ...
Contributions of the Renaissance
• Invention of the Gutenberg Printing Press
• The banking industry
• Exploration, coloniz...
The Italian Wars (1494-1559)
• Powerful Italian leaders & foreign countries (Spain,
France, Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Emp...
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
• Religious reforms dividing western Christianity
• Roman Catholic Church criticized for abuse ...
Desiderius Erasmus 1466-1536
• Erasmus was a Dutch scholar, humanist,
and theologian.
• Erasmus was ordained a Catholic pr...
Calls to Reform the Church
• In Praise of Folly - by Erasmus
– Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550)
– Erasmus wa...
Why reform?
• Popes corrupted by power & lost focus of
spiritual leadership
• Scientific advances contradicted the Church
...
What was the Protestant Reformation?
• Prior to the Reformation all Christians were Roman Catholic
• The [REFORM]ation was...
MARTIN LUTHER
• German Priest
• Saw problems in the Church
• Church believed salvation gained
from faith + good work
– Lut...
The Reformation Begins
• By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from Church
• Wanted German princes to overthrow Papal power i...
Lutheranism
• Followers of Luther’s religious practices
• Gained support of many German princes
• 1524, German peasants re...
Protestantism Spreads - Zwingli
• Ulrich Zwingli – priest in Zurich, Switzerland
• Zwinglian Reformation
– Banned all reli...
Protestantism Spreads - Calvin
• John Calvin replaced Zwingli (killed in religious war)
• French, fled for safety to Switz...
Reformation in England
• Political, not religious motives for reform
• Henry VIII – King of England
– Needs a male heir to...
Reformation in England (cont)
• The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too
political (King of Eng vs. Holy Roman
Emperor...
Henry & his wives
• Henry was desperate
for a son. So much so
he married 6 times!!
• The saying goes…
Divorced, Beheaded,
...
The Church of England
• 1547 – Henry died
– His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne
• The Church of England- aka An...
The Catholic Reformation
• Protestantism spreading rapidly through Europe
• Church sees need to reform
– Raises the standa...
The Papacy
• Corruption had to be
addressed
• Pope Paul II led papal
reform
– Oversaw the creation of
the Jesuit order
– O...
The Jesuits
• Most significant agency of
Catholic reform
• Founded by Ignatius of
Loyola
– Spanish soldier
– Injured in ba...
Role of Jesuits
• Missionaries
– Convert former and non-Catholics
• Urged the religious education of
children
• Devoted to...
Council of Trent
• Met over 18 year period (1545-63)
• Reaffirmed Catholic teaching
– Including 7 sacraments
– Maintained ...
The Inquisition
• Church’s way to
suppress heresy
• Infamous for its
cruelty
• Followed strictly in
Spain, Portugal and
Ro...
Renaissance and reformation
Renaissance and reformation
Renaissance and reformation
Renaissance and reformation
Renaissance and reformation
Renaissance and reformation
Renaissance and reformation
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Renaissance and reformation

HI 101

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Renaissance and reformation

  1. 1. Europe in the Renaissance & Reformation 1350-1600A History of World Societies Chapter 15 HI 101
  2. 2. The Italian Renaissance • Renaissance  rebirth • Italian Renaissance  rebirth of ancient Greek & Roman worlds • Characteristics – Secular Urban society (City-states) – Age of Recovery – New view of human ability & worth
  3. 3. Origins of the Renaissance • 1. European trade with Asia increased during the 1300s. • 2. Italian merchants organized much of this trade. • 3. Trade cities in Italy grew wealthy. • 4. They competed to create works that would increase the prestige of their cities. Venice Genoa Milan
  4. 4. Origins of the Renaissance (cont) • 5. Florence became a center for banking, art, culture, and literature. • 6. Cosimo de’ Medici wanted to make Florence the most beautiful city. • 7. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe.
  5. 5. Important City-States of the Renaissance • Florence • Rome • Venice • Genoa • Milan Genoa Towers, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Venice Façade and bell tower, Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Comune gi Milano, Milan
  6. 6. City State Populations
  7. 7. Italian City States – Not yet the nation of ITALY Italian Trade Routes – Notice the impact on Italy Each Italian city-state had its own wealthy ruler.
  8. 8. Florence • Center of art, literature, and culture. • Florence became wealthy from the manufacturing of wool. • Later Florence became the banking center of Italy. • The Medici family were the greatest bankers in Florence.
  9. 9. Florence • The Renaissance started in Florence and spread throughout Europe. • Competition between the Italian city-states led to advances in literature, architecture, art, music, science, and education.
  10. 10. Medici Family • Ruled Florence, 13th  17th Centuries • Aimed to make Florence the most beautiful city in the world – Became Patrons of the Arts. Commissioned artists (incl. da Vinci, Raphael & Michelangelo) • Lorenzo Medici (The Magnificent) – created peace among Italian states, ended w/his death
  11. 11. Rome • Home of the Catholic Church • Popes commissioned famous artists and architects to beautify Rome. Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli all produced major works in Rome.
  12. 12. Rome• The popes employed the best artists & architects of the Renaissance to build and decorate the most opulent churches in in the world. • Michelangelo designed the finest example of Renaissance architecture in Rome, the Piazza del Campidoglio (bottom left). He also designed the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica (bottom right).
  13. 13. Venice • Venice was the wealthiest city- state of the Renaissance. • It was a port city on the Mediterranean. • Venice maintained hundreds of merchant ships and warships, and thousands of sailors.
  14. 14. Genoa • Genoa is located on the Mediterranean. • Genoa was one of two main port cities in Italy during the Renaissance. • Genoa was one of the wealthiest city-states of the Renaissance. • Dominated trade in the Mediterranean Genoa Harbor
  15. 15. Milan • Milan dominated the inland trade routes because it was the gateway to Italy from the north. • Milan is the site of Santa Maria delle Grazie, the cathedral where Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper in the dining hall.
  16. 16. Niccolo Machiavelli • Italian philosopher, diplomat, poet, musician, playwright.. • Best known for The Prince – book of realist politics – Rulers should behave like a lion (aggressive and powerful) and at other times like a fox (cunning and practical) – “The Ends Justify the Means” – “It was better to be feared than to be loved” – All this done to keep peace and stabilize power – Seen as the first modern guide to politics • 1st to publicly suggest immoral behavior for gov’t stability
  17. 17. Renaissance Society • Strict Class society – Nobility – most powerful, but smallest group • Strict rules and expectations • Born not made or earned – Townspeople • Wide range of wealth, from rich to poor • Provide goods & services – Peasants – weakest, but largest group • More freedoms as serfdom decreased • Mainly lived in rural areas, so were least impacted by Renaissance
  18. 18. The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance
  19. 19. Italian Renaissance Humanism • Stressed that man was the center of the universe and had dignity and value • Humanism – intellectual movement based on the classics – Study – grammar, rhetoric (debate), poetry, philosophy & history (the Humanities) • Ren Educations – based on humanism – Goal – create complete citizens • Vernacular Literature – written in common language – Dante, Chaucer
  20. 20. Petrarch: “Father of Humanism” • Petrarch was a scholar and poet who was responsible for the recovery of manuscripts and works of Greek and Roman writers. • He traveled throughout Europe recovering manuscripts of Cicero and other Roman authors that had been lost in monastery libraries. • Petrarch, like other writers of the time, wrote in Latin. Francesco Petrarch
  21. 21. Dante Alighieri • “Father of the Italian Language” • Wrote The Divine Comedy. • The Divine Comedy is considered one of the greatest works of Italian and world literature. • Dante was first to write in the vernacular, the language used in everyday life. Until his time, all European literature was written in Latin. Dante Alighieri
  22. 22. The Artistic Renaissance in Italy • Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the 1500s. – Pope Alexander VI: most notorious of the Renaissances popes; spent huge sums on art patronage. • 3 Masters of the High Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci – Michelangelo – Raphael • Sculpture & Architecture are include in Renaissance Art, both drew from Greek & Roman influences
  23. 23. New Artistic Techniques • Fresco – watercolor on fresh plaster • Law of Perspective • Study of human anatomy • GOAL – imitate nature From Michelangelo’s Sketch Book
  24. 24. Leonardo da Vinci • Master of realism & perspective • Studied human anatomy (cadavers) to be as accurate as possible • Sculptor, painter, astronomer, inventor – a true “Renaissance Man”
  25. 25. Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper A page from one of da Vinci’s notebooks, he “coded” his work by writing backwards. He could read it, but most other people would need a mirror to read it.
  26. 26. Raphael Santi • 1 of the top Renaissance painters • Especially known for his “Madonna's” – paintings of Mary the mother of Jesus • A major artist in the Vatican Madonna of the Meadows Madonna del Granduca
  27. 27. Raphael Santi School of Athens - fresco in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. Thought to be Raphael’s masterpiece .
  28. 28. Michelangelo Buonarroti • Painter, sculptor and architect • Most famous for work in Vatican City Vatican City St. Peter’s Bascillica (large domed building) – designed by Michelangelo
  29. 29. Michelangelo Well known for his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. The ceiling illustrates the stories of the Book of Genesis The Creation of Adam The Last Judgement On the Alter Wall of the Sistine Chapel.
  30. 30. Michelangelo, the sculptor The Pieta – marble statue of a crucified Jesus being held by his mother Mary. In St. Peter’s Basilica.
  31. 31. Michelangelo, the sculptor David – carved from one piece of marble from 1501 to 1504. Said to be proportionally perfect, though David is 17 feet tall
  32. 32. Northern Italian Renaissance • Centered in Low Countries – Belg, Lux, Neth • Due to weather- few frescoes – Stained glass, wooden panels, canvas • Jan van Eyck – Flemish, perfected use of oil paints – Oils allow greater variety of color & detail Portrait of a Man in a Turban , probably a self-portrait, painted 1433
  33. 33. Albrecht Durer • German • 1 of greatest Northern Renaissance artists • Revolutionized woodcuts • Studied in Italy on several different occasions
  34. 34. Architecture • Architectural design returns to the classical styles of Rome and Greece. • Public buildings, homes and villas are designed using Greek and Roman architectural styles. • Renaissance buildings feature columns, domes, and vaulted ceilings. • Brunelleschi designs the first domed building. • Perspective becomes important in architecture.
  35. 35. Brunelleschi The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, also called the Duomo.
  36. 36. The Printing Press • Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468) was a German goldsmith and printer. • Gutenberg was the first to develop movable type. This allowed for mass production of books. • Gutenberg’s invention revolutionized book-making in Europe. • Gutenberg was the key figure in spreading the Renaissance. • His invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history.
  37. 37. Impact of Printing Press • Much easier to publish books • Increased literacy • 1450-1500, 20 million books printed covering 35,000 topics • Vernacular Literature – written in common language – Dante, Chaucer, Shakespeare
  38. 38. Writers of the Renaissance • With the printing press. books become more affordable and more people (mostly wealthy) learn to read • Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli were all important writers of the time
  39. 39. Contributions of the Renaissance • Invention of the Gutenberg Printing Press • The banking industry • Exploration, colonization of world • Expansion of trade • Humanism, individual is the center of the universe • Reintroduction of Greek and Roman knowledge and philosophy • Gateway to modern art forms • Expansion of Greek and Roman architecture and sculpture • Increased scientific knowledge, and desire to know more
  40. 40. The Italian Wars (1494-1559) • Powerful Italian leaders & foreign countries (Spain, France, Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Emp…) vied for control • Charles I of Spain allowed sack of Rome (May 5, 1527) – Pope Clement forced to flee – Aftermath: • End of Roman Renaissance • Damaged Papal prestige • Spain dominant power in Italy • Charles V given freedom to act on Reformation in Germany
  41. 41. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION • Religious reforms dividing western Christianity • Roman Catholic Church criticized for abuse of power and corruption • Christian Humanists–wanted to reform Church – Believed through reason, and studying the classics one could become more pious (Christ-like) – Desiderius Erasmus–father of Christian Humanism • Suggested reforming from within the Church
  42. 42. Desiderius Erasmus 1466-1536 • Erasmus was a Dutch scholar, humanist, and theologian. • Erasmus was ordained a Catholic priest, but never practiced priestly duties. • Instead, he studied theology and classical Greek at the universities of Paris and Cambridge. • Erasmus was critical of some of the practices and doctrines of the Catholic Church. • Education was key to moral improvement, true Christianity was an inner attitude, not outward displays/actions • Erasmus sought to reform the Catholic Church. Desiderius Erasmus
  43. 43. Calls to Reform the Church • In Praise of Folly - by Erasmus – Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550) – Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it – Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy – The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther
  44. 44. Why reform? • Popes corrupted by power & lost focus of spiritual leadership • Scientific advances contradicted the Church • People wanted to know how to save souls • Indulgences –a release of a soul from purgatory for monetary donation – a HUGE abuse of Church power!
  45. 45. What was the Protestant Reformation? • Prior to the Reformation all Christians were Roman Catholic • The [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church • People like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore the people’s faith in the church • In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions • The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions
  46. 46. MARTIN LUTHER • German Priest • Saw problems in the Church • Church believed salvation gained from faith + good work – Luther thought faith alone gained salvation • Oct 31, 1517 – Posted 95 Theses on church door in Wittenburg, Ger – His criticisms of Church – 1000s of copies distributed through Germany
  47. 47. The Reformation Begins • By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from Church • Wanted German princes to overthrow Papal power in Germany & establish a German Church • By Jan 1521 – Luther excommunicated by pope – Summoned by Imperial Diet of Worms – Called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, wanted Luther to change his ideas, Luther – “NO” – Edict of Worms issued, making Luther an outlaw – Luther kept in hiding by his prince
  48. 48. Lutheranism • Followers of Luther’s religious practices • Gained support of many German princes • 1524, German peasants revolted & hoped Luther would support them, because Luther needed the princes’ support, he did not help the peasants • Germany in turmoil – Catholic? Lutheran? – To achieve peace Holy Roman Emperor Charles V accepted the Peace of Augsburg (allowed Germany princes to choose the faith of their region)
  49. 49. Protestantism Spreads - Zwingli • Ulrich Zwingli – priest in Zurich, Switzerland • Zwinglian Reformation – Banned all religious relics & images – Whitewashed all church interiors – No music in church services – Does not merge w/Luther b/c can’t agree on the meaning of communion
  50. 50. Protestantism Spreads - Calvin • John Calvin replaced Zwingli (killed in religious war) • French, fled for safety to Switzerland • 1536 – began reforming Geneva, Switz. – Created a church govt of elect & laity – Used consistory (moral police) • Sent missionaries thru Europe to convert Catholics • Ideas spread  France, Netherlands, Scotland… • Mid 16th Century – Calvinism more pop than Lutheranism
  51. 51. Reformation in England • Political, not religious motives for reform • Henry VIII – King of England – Needs a male heir to carry on the Tudor Dynasty – Married Catherine of Aragon (Aunt of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) – Have a daughter, Mary – No son, so Henry wants a divorce! In the Catholic Church, you need an annulment, granted by the Church. The Pope grants it for a King.
  52. 52. Reformation in England (cont) • The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too political (King of Eng vs. Holy Roman Emperor) • After a long argument, Henry decided to break from Catholic Church • Archbishop of Canterbury granted divorce • Act of Supremacy(1534) est Church of England – King control over doctrine, appointments, etc – Dissolves Catholic claims, sells land & possessions – Remained close to Catholic teachings
  53. 53. Henry & his wives • Henry was desperate for a son. So much so he married 6 times!! • The saying goes… Divorced, Beheaded, Died Divorced, Beheaded, Survived
  54. 54. The Church of England • 1547 – Henry died – His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne • The Church of England- aka Anglican Church – Became more Protestant – Angering Catholics • 1553 – Edward dies – His half-sister Mary (Catholic) takes throne – She wants to restore Catholicism – “Bloody Mary” has 300+ Protestants burned as heretics – Increases tensions between Protestants & Catholics
  55. 55. The Catholic Reformation • Protestantism spreading rapidly through Europe • Church sees need to reform – Raises the standards of the clergy – Inspired the Church with a renewed zeal and morale – Contributed significantly to producing the Catholic Church as we know it today. • Pillars of Catholic Reformation – 1. Reform of Papacy – 2. Society of Jesus (Jesuits) – 3. Council of Trent
  56. 56. The Papacy • Corruption had to be addressed • Pope Paul II led papal reform – Oversaw the creation of the Jesuit order – Opened the Council of Trent – Revived the Inquisition
  57. 57. The Jesuits • Most significant agency of Catholic reform • Founded by Ignatius of Loyola – Spanish soldier – Injured in battle • Had a conversion during recovery, dedicated himself to the Church
  58. 58. Role of Jesuits • Missionaries – Convert former and non-Catholics • Urged the religious education of children • Devoted to religious and secular education – Secondary schools – Colleges/Universities – Seminaries
  59. 59. Council of Trent • Met over 18 year period (1545-63) • Reaffirmed Catholic teaching – Including 7 sacraments – Maintained salvation was gained through faith and good works • More strict rules for clergy – Included more education for priests • Each diocese established a seminary • Banned indulgences!!
  60. 60. The Inquisition • Church’s way to suppress heresy • Infamous for its cruelty • Followed strictly in Spain, Portugal and Rome • Some countries, like France, refused

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