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Vaults

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krishnakanth

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Vaults

  1. 1. ABHISHEK G DIVYASHREE M Y KRISHNAKANTH M PRANEETH ASHWINAY SANJANA N SHARANYA H B SRUJANA G R VAULTS
  2. 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION - WHAT IS A VAULT ?  HISTORY OF VAULTS  ELEMENTS OF VAULT  TYPES OF VAULT  MATERIALS  ADVANTAGES & DIS-ADVANTAGES OF VAULT  EXAMPLES OF VAULT : TRADITIONAL AND MODERN  ANALYSIS OF STUDY  TREATMENT OF JOINTS  ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VAULTS  DURABILITY  CASE STUDY: OSTYER BAY
  3. 3. VAULT An arched structure , usually of masonry , used as ceiling or canopy or as a support for the roof. Masonry walls are composed of wedge shaped pieces called voussiors , which are held in place by the pressure of the neighbouring pieces. A temporary supporting structure must be erected within the vaulted area during the construction
  4. 4. HISTORY OF VAULTS • In ancient Egypt vaulting was used, chiefly for drains • The Chaldaeans and Assyrians used vaults for the same purpose • Roman and Romanesque styles of vaulting started in the first century. • Casting concrete in one solid mass, the romans created vaults of perfect rigidity, devoid of external thrust and no butresses • Roman vaults were the basis on which complex and varied forms were developed in the middle ages • Greeks made no use of vaults.
  5. 5. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DOMES AND VAULTS DOMES VAULTS A DOME IS AN ELEMENT OF ARCHITECTURE THAT RESMBLES THE HOLLOW UPPER PART OF A SPHERE. A VAULT IS A CEILING OF BRICK , CONCRETE, STONE , TIMBER ,ETC BUILT IN PRINCIPLE OF ARCH AN ARCH ROTATED AROUND ITS CENTRAL AXIS. A MASONRY DOME PRODUCES AN THRUST DOWNWARD AND OUTWARD . DOMES CAN BE SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS OR PIERS. IT CANNOT BE LIGHTED EXCEPT AT THE ENDS WITHOUT BEING STRUCTURALLY WEAKENED MUST BE BUTTRESSED ALONG ITS ENTIRE LENGTH BY HEAVY WALLS .
  6. 6. TYPES OF VAULTS • Barrel vault • Groin vault • Rib vault • Cloister vault • Fan vault • Net vault • Annular vault • Rampant vault • Catalan vault
  7. 7. BARREL VAULT
  8. 8. BARREL VAULT • Barrel vault is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance. • A barrel vault is generally semi-circular in cross section . • The barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault ,effectively a series of arches placed side by side, i.e., one after another.
  9. 9. HISTORY OF BARREL VAULTS • Barrel vaulting was known and employed by early civilizations, including Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. • The earliest known example of a vault is a tunnel vault found under the Sumerian ziggurat at Nippur in Babyloni a, ascribed to about 4000 BC, which was built of burnt bricks amalgamated with clay mortar. The earliest tunnel vaults in Egypt are found at Requagnah and Denderah, from around 3500 BC; these were built in sun- dried brick in three rings over passages descending to tombs: in these cases the span of the vault was only two metres.
  10. 10. • ANCIENT ROMANS INHERITED THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF BARREL VAULTING FROM ETRUSCANS. • ROMANS WERE FIRST TO USE THIS BUILDING METHOD EXTENSIVELY ON LARGE SCALE PROJECTS ‘ HOWEVER ROMANS GRADUALLY BEGAN TO PREFER THE USE TO GROIN VAULT . • IN EARLY ROMANESQUE PERIOD A RETURN TO STONE BARREL VAULTS WAS SEEN FOR THE FIRST GREAT CATHEDRALS . ONE OF THE LARGEST AND THE MOST FAMOUSE CHURCH ENCLOSED FROM THE BARREL VAULT IS CHURCH OF CLUNY ABBEY BETWEEN 11TH AND 12 TH CENTURIES . • IN 13 TH CENTURY THE CONSTRUCTION OF BARREL VALTS ALMOST BECAME EXTINCT WITH ADVANCE OF NEW GOTHIC STYLE . • HOWEVER IN THE RENAISSANCE AND THE BOROQUE STYLE WHICH GAVE INTREST IN ANTIQUE ART AND ARCHITECTURE , BARREL VAULTIN WAS REINTRUDUCED.
  11. 11. Elements of vaults • ABUTMENT A structure built to support the lateral pressure of an arch or span, e.g. at the ends of a bridge • IMPOST Top course of a pillar or a wall that supports the arch or vault. • INTRADOS Inner curve of an a arch or vault. • VOUSSIOR A wedge shaped or tapered stone used to construct an arch or a vault .
  12. 12. BARREL VAULTS • THE BAREL VAULT IS THE MOST STRAIGHT FORWARD SINGLE CURVATURE SHELL CONSTRUCTION. • ANY NUMBER OF CONTINIUOUS SPANS ARE POSSIBLE BUT SUFFICIENT GAPS SHOULD BE GIVEN . • TWO TYPES OF BARREL VAULTS : 1. LONG SPAN BARREL VAULTS 2. SHORT SPAN BARREL VAULTS
  13. 13. LONG SPAN BARREL VAULTS SHORT SPAN BARREL VAULTS • LONG SPAN BARREL VAULTS ARE THOSE VAULTS IN WHICH THE SPAN IS LARGER THAN ITS WIDHT. • SHORT SPAN BARREL VAULTS ARE THE VAULTS IN WHICH THE SPAN IS SHORTER THAN ITS WIDTH .
  14. 14. CONSTRUCTION OF BARREL VAULTS
  15. 15. GROIN VAULT
  16. 16. GROIN VAULTS The word “groin” refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults. A Groin vault is created by two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles. The arches of vaults are rounded or pointed. A Groin vault also known as a Double Barrel vault.
  17. 17. Renaissance groin vault loggia at the Palladio’s Palazzo della Ragione, Vicenza. Santa Maria Maggiore at Guardiagrele in Abruzzo
  18. 18. Characteristics of Groin vault • Sometime the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round. • The groin vault required great skills in cutting stone to from a neat arris. • Difficult to construct neatly because of the geometry of cross groins. • In comparison with a barrel vault, a groin vault provides good economies of material and labour. • The construction of groin vault can be understood most simply by visualizing two barrel vault section at right angles merging to form a squarish unit.
  19. 19. Arris in Groin vault • Arris is the sharp edge formed by the intersection of two surfaces, such as the corner of a masonry unit. • An arris rail is a structural element, whose cross section is a 45 degree isosceles right angled triangle. • Arris rails are usually made of wood, and are manufactured by cutting a length of square-section timber lengthwise diagonally.
  20. 20. RIB VAULT
  21. 21. RIB VAULTS Ribbed vault is defined as the intersection of two or three barrel vaults. Rib vaults is reinforced by masonry ribs. Types of Rib vault: There are two types of rib vault. • Quadripartite rib vault : When two masonry ribs dividing into 4 sections. • Sexpartite rib vault: When three masonry ribs dividing into 6 sections.
  22. 22. Characteristics of Rib vault • When the Ribbed vault are edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns. • Some ribbed vaults even have six section in each bay. • It is best for roofing purpose. • In eleventh centaury there was a new technique introduced as Leta, which became an example of Ichoir side aisles at Durham cathedral.
  23. 23. Comparative study
  24. 24. Cathedral of Reims, France Lierne vault of the nave of Chester Cathedral
  25. 25. FAN VAULT
  26. 26. FAN VAULT • Definition : A fan vault is a form of vault used in the Gothic style, in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly, in a manner resembling a fan.
  27. 27. • Structure : • The ribs of a fan vault are of equal curvature and rotated at equal distances around a central (vertical) axis, forming the conoid shape which gives rise to the name. In between sequences of conoids, flat central spandrels fill the space.
  28. 28. • Examples : King's College Chapel, Cambridge Bath Abbey, South aisle
  29. 29. CLOISTER VAULT
  30. 30. • Definition : In architecture, a cloister vault or domical vault is a vault with four concave surfaces (patches of cylinders) meeting at a point above the centre of the vault.
  31. 31. • Structure: • It can be thought of as formed by two barrel vaults that cross at right angles to each other: the open space within the vault is the intersection of the space within the two barrel vaults, and the solid material that surrounds the vault is the union of the solid material surrounding the two barrel vaults. In this way it differs from a groin vault, which is also formed from two barrel vaults but in the opposite way: in a groin vault, the space is the union of the spaces of two barrel vaults, and the solid material is the intersection.
  32. 32. Maple leaf gardens ,Torrent ( interior view ) ( Vault under construction ,1931 )
  33. 33. CATALAN VAULT
  34. 34. Catalan Vault • The Catalan vault consists of plain bricks that form a low arch. • It is also known as the Catalan turn, Timbrel vault, or Tile vaulting. It is widely used in Catalonia from which it derives its name. • It is traditionally constructed by laying bricks lengthwise over a wood form or "centring", making it a much gentler curve than has generally been produced by other methods of construction. • Builders have to use a fast setting mortar to allow the brick to hold itself after being tapped into place. • This technique was by Catalan people with layers of thinner, lighter bricks to create a ceiling not only light but also very strong.
  35. 35. Catalan vault • Tile vaulting uses much less material and can be built much more quickly. • Because the thin bricks are laid flat, with their narrow edges in contact, the total thickness of the vault is less than conventional masonry, and therefore the self- weight and corresponding horizontal thrust values are reduced. • Tile vaulting can be constructed with minimal or no formwork. • Gypsum plaster is used to hold the tile.
  36. 36. • Catalan vaults consist of a single or series of arches on the ceiling which create a shell structure. • Resource efficiency: • Since this technique was popular among common people, the material had to be easy to make and affordable. • Also, compared to making the same ceiling with a solid design, Catalan vaults costs less and do not require elaborate falsework.
  37. 37. RAMPANT VAULT
  38. 38. Rampant Vault • A continuous wagon vault, or cradle vault, whose two abutments are located on an inclined plane, such as the vault supporting a stairway, or forming the ceiling of a stairway. • The impost on one side is higher than the impost on the other side
  39. 39. Materials
  40. 40. Materials • Bricks , stone , timber , wood, Rcc are used generally. • In stone barrel vault due to the problem of fenestration , they provide a small window which restricts the more light. • Bricks are installed vertically ( not radially ) and are leaning at an angle. • Its construction doesn’t require centering.
  41. 41. Effects & solutions • Brick, stone and concrete are materials strong in compression, but weak in tension (if the structural breadth increases, the material has to be supported by many columns or it collapses). • Solution: • This problem is solved by steel structures or the use of steel reinforced concrete - the tensile strength of steel is significantly more than that of bricks, stone or plain concrete. • The technique was cheap, fast, ecological and durable.
  42. 42. Construction steps • Step 1:The wood is being constructed as a structure before bricks is laid. (Formwork)
  43. 43. Construction steps Step 3:The bricks with mortar are arranged from the edge of the vault until it reach at the thrust of the vault Step 2:Bricks are arranged using mortar
  44. 44. Timber vault
  45. 45. Brick vault
  46. 46. Durable and fire-proof • Cohesive construction made buildings durable & fire-proof. • Example: The Santa Maria del Mar in Barcelona, • Material: Built of stone. Which burned for 11 days during the Spanish Civil War, without collapsing or too much damage. • The magnificent baroque altar and all the images and historical archive were all destroyed. • Only the walls, columns and a few of the stained glass windows on the upper level were spared
  47. 47. The Santa Maria del Mar
  48. 48. COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND MODERN VAULTS
  49. 49. TRADITIONAL VAULT • VAULT IS ARCH SHAPED STRUCTURE , ITS USUALLY A MASONRY USED FOR CEILING AND OTHER ENCLOSED SPACE • MASONARY VALTS ARE USUALLY COMPOSED OF WEDGE-SHAPED PIECES CALLED VOUSSOIRS • WHICH ARE HELD IN PLACE LIKE THE STONES OF AN ARCH BY THE PRESSURE OF THE NEIGHBOURING PIELES • BECAUSE OF THE COMBINED PRESSURE OF ITS COMPONENTS AN ARC EXERTS AN OUTWARD PRESSURE AT ITS BASE
  50. 50. MODERN VAULTS • 20TH CENTURY FOUND GREAT ADVANCES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN .THE ADVENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND BETTER MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDING OF HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOIDS ALLOWED VERY THIN STRONG VAULTS TO BE CONSTRUCTED WITH PREVIOUSLY UNSEEN SHAPE
  51. 51. • VAULT- THE VAULT IS OF LOCALLY- MADE CLAY FUSE OVER THE CONCRETE SLAB , WHICH PROVIDES A NON- CONDITIONAL LAYER. WATER CASCADES ALSO PROVIDE INTERESTING VISUAL EXPERIENCES • VAULTED ROOF FORM – THE VENTILATING WINDOW AT UPPER VOLUME RELEASES THE ACCUMULATED HOT AIR THROUGH PRESSURE DIFFERENCES • THE STRUCTURE IS CLOSELY INTEGRATED WITH THE OUTDOOR SPACE
  52. 52. TRADITIONAL MODERN MOSTLY BARREL, SOME GROIN • ARCH TYPE ROUNDED SRCHES • ELEVATION HORIZONTAL , MODEST HEIGHT • EXTERIOR PLAN LITTLE DECORATION , SOLID • MOOD DARK , GLOOMY • EXAMPLES ST SERNIN , TOULOUSE, FRANCE GROIN – VAULTED CATHEDRALS POINTED ARCHES VERTICAL , SOARING MORE REALISTIC PROPORTIONS AND INDIVIDUALIZED FEATURES TALL , LIGHT-FILLED CHARTRES CATHEDRAL , FRANCE. NOTRE DAME, PARIS, FRANCE
  53. 53. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES • Gives more volume at a lower costs than adding floor area . • It looks good over other forms of construction . • Dead load can be reduced by economizing foundation and supporting system. • The curved shapes often used for concrete are naturally strong structures. • Using RCC as a building material reduces both material cost and the construction cost. • As concrete is relatively inexpensive and easily cast into compound curves • Increased cooling or heating costs . • Good labour and supervision necessary. • Raise of roofs may be a disadvantage . • Shuttering problem . • Since concrete is porous material, concrete vaults or domes often have issues with sealing. If not treated, rain water can seep through the roof and leak into the interior of the building.
  54. 54. Sources: • vault | architecture | Britannica.com • Vaults (Architecture) - Credo Reference • Vault (architecture) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia • Geometry and Construction Techniques of Gothic Vaults in Brabant ...
  55. 55. Thank you
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