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concept of resilience and self healing in smart grid

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concept of resilience and self healing in smart grid

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concept of resilience and self healing in smart grid

  1. 1. concept of resilience and self healing in smart grid KUNDAN KUMAR 12EBKEE047
  2. 2. What is Smart Grid  Smart Grid is simply a communications system overlay on the existing electrical grid to make the electrical grid more controllable and much more efficient in the delivery of energy. The communications systems will be connected to strategically placed sensors throughout all four segments of the electrical grid: Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Consumers.  A smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses analog or digital information and communications technology to gather and act on information - such as information about the behaviours of suppliers and consumers - in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the smart grid.
  3. 3. Key defining Functions  Enable Active Participation by Customers  Accommodate All Generation and Storage Options  Enable New Products, Services, and Markets  Provide Power Quality for the Digital Economy  Optimize Asset Utilization and Operate Efficiently  Anticipate and Respond to System Disturbances  Operate Resilienntly Against Attacks and Natural Disasters.
  4. 4. Self-Healing - What is it?  Self-healability is the property that enables a system to perceive that it is not operating correctly and, without human intervention, make the necessary adjustments to restore itself to normality.  Dependable systems: Systems that are globally trustworthy with respect to their ability to always deliver its service. Fault-tolerant systems: Systems in which faults may occur but do not affect the performance of the system. Resilient systems: Systems that could reconfigure to harness disturbances. As oppose to these three definitions that specify the goals but not the means, self-healability aims at correcting or put right undesirable system situations. That is an active approach that operationalize the definitions stated above
  5. 5. Self-Healing Grid - Vision  A self-healing grid is expected to respond to threats, material failures, and other destabilizing influences by preventing or containing the spread of disturbances. This requires the following capabilities:  Timely recognition of impending problems  Redeployment of resources to minimize adverse impacts  A fast and coordinated response to evolving disturbances  Minimization of loss of service under any circumstances  Minimization of time to reconfigure and restore service
  6. 6. Definition: Resilience  The capability of a strained body to recover its size and shape after deformation caused especially by compressive stress  An ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change  Resilience is the property of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically and then, upon unloading to have this energy recovered. In other words, it is the maximum energy per volume that can be elastically stored. It is represented by the area under the curve in the elastic region in the Stress‐Strain diagram.
  7. 7. Grid Components Generation Transmission Distribution
  8. 8. Transmission – Approaches  Optimal Routing/Rerouting  Multiple transmission lines - balanced routing  Adaptive active islanding  Priority of Loads (Hospitals Vs. Houses)
  9. 9. Graph theoretical approach  The grid is represented as a directional weighted graph.  The nodes of the graph are generators, storage, interconnects or demand units.  The edges of the graph, namely the connections between the nodes, are transmission lines.
  10. 10. Graph theoretical approach (2)  The Grid can be represented as a multi-weighted directed graph G = (N, L, C, D) consisting of N ={n1, n 2, … , nN} nodes, L={l1, l 2, … , l N} links of lengths D={d1,d 2,…, nN} and capacities C={c1 , c 2 , … , c N }  Node strength:  Impedance:  Clustering co-efficient, community structures, cascading models, resiliency
  11. 11. Distribution – Approaches  Automatic Meter Reading.  Shedding with priorities.  Consumer based; e.g., Hospitals / Offices Vs. Houses.  Service based; e.g., lights Vs. Air Conditioning.  Dynamic Pricing.
  12. 12. Automatic Meter Reading Process – Preparation Phase. Asset Codification Asset GIES Mapping Network Planning
  13. 13. Automatic Meter Reading Process Network Rollout MDMS (Mapped Distribution Management System) DT AMR Residential Costumer AMR Industrial Costumer AMR Broadband Over Power Line Fiber Optics Wireless
  14. 14. Automatic Meter Reading Process MDMS Snapshots
  15. 15. Automatic Meter Reading Process Network Analytics Consumer Profiling Billing and Collection Report Generation Network Planning Theft identification and Avoidance Complaint management and Log
  16. 16. Automatic Meter Reading – The whole process data acquisition Server Web Server Database Data Analysis Server Consumer Profiting Billing and Collection Network Loss Manage Report Generation Supplier Profiting Network Planning Theft Identification Data Analysis Database Management •Connection related •Theft ManagementLine Men •Bill delivery to consumers •Spot bill collection Accounts •Network design •Load analysis Engineering
  17. 17. Summary  Self-healing has to be a critical characteristic of Smart Grid  Has to be incorporated and supported by all components (Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Consumers)  Several ongoing studies lead by EPRI
  18. 18. The Self‐Healing Grid
  19. 19. Challenges  Management of Precursors and their Signatures (Identifying & Measuring Precursors), including DDRs, WAMS.  Fast look‐ahead simulation and modelling capability.  Adaptive and Emergency Control; Rapid Restoration.  Impact of all pertinent dynamic interactive layers including.  Fuel supply (Oil & Gas), Information, Communication and Protection layes.  Electricity Markets and Policy/Regulatory layers.
  20. 20. Conclusions  Utility systems are tempting targets.  Cyber attacks are very probable.  We know what we need to do to prevent & mitigate attacks.  The industry and government are working on solutions, and a lot remains to be done.

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