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Presentation Matter In Our Surroundings

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PPT on matter in our surroundings chapter1 for the class 9th ncert books

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Presentation Matter In Our Surroundings

  1. 1. Anything which have mass and occupy space is known as matter.
  2. 2. 1) Matter is made up of particles. 2) The particlesof matter are very tiny. 3) The particlesof matterhave space between them. 4) The particlesof matter are continuously moving. 5) The particlesof matter attract eachother.
  3. 3. Activity :-Take some water ina beaker and note its level. Dissolve some salt or sugar in it with the help of a glass rod. The salt dissolves in the water but the level of water does not change. This is because the particles of water get into the space between the particles of water. This showsthat matter is made up of particles.
  4. 4. Activity :- Dissolve 2 – 3 crystals of potassium permanganate in 100ml of water in a beaker.Take 10ml of this solution and dissolve in 100ml of water. Take 10ml of this solution and dissolve in 100ml of water. Repeat this process 5 – 6 times. This showsthat a fewcrystals of potassium permanganate can colour a large volume of water because there are millions of tiny particles in each crystal. I00ml 10ml 100ml 100ml 10ml 10ml 100ml
  5. 5. Activity:- Take some waterin a beaker and note its level. Dissolve some salt or sugar in it withthe help of a glass rod. The salt dissolves in thewater but the level of water does not change. This is because the particles of salt get into the space between the particles of water.
  6. 6. Activity :- Take some water in a beakerand put a drop of blue or red ink slowly along the sides of the beaker. Leaveit undisturbed for a few hours. The ink spreads evenly throughout thewater due to the movementof the particles of water and ink. The intermixing of two or moredifferent types of matter on their own is called diffusion.
  7. 7. Activity :- Take an iron nail, a piece of chalk and a rubber band. Try breaking them by hammering, cutting or stretching. It is moreeasier to break the chalk, less easier to break the rubber band and difficult to break the iron nail. This is because the particles in the iron nail are held together with greater force than in the rubberbandor chalk.
  8. 8. Matter is classified into three states- 1-Solid State 2-Liquid State 3-Gases State
  9. 9. The properties of Solid Stateare- 1) Solids have definiteshapes and fixedvolume. 2) The space between the particle is minimum. 3) The force of attraction between the particles is maximum. 4) The movement of the particles is minimum. 5) They are least compressible. 6) Their rate of diffusionis least.
  10. 10. 1) Liquids have no definite shape but have fixed volume. Liquids take the shape of the container. 2) The space betweenthe particles is intermediade. 3) The force of attraction betweenthe particles is intermediate. 4) The movementof the particles is intermediate. 5) They are less compressible. 6) Their rate of diffusion is more than solids.
  11. 11. 1) Gases have no definite shape or fixed volume. Gases occupy the wholespace of the container. 2) The space betweenthe particles is maximum. 3) The force of attraction betweenthe particles is minimum. 4) The movementof the particles is maximum. 5) They are most compressible. 6) Their rate of diffusion is more than solids and liquids.
  12. 12. Whena solid is heated it changes into liquid.When a liquidis heated it changes into gas. When agas is cooled it changes to liquid.Whena liquidis cooled it changes into solid. Eg:- If iceis heated it changes into water. If wateris heated it changes into steam. Ifsteam is cooledit changes intowater. If water is cooled it changes into ice. Heat Heat Cool Cool Solid state Liquid state Gaseous state
  13. 13. The process of convertingsolid stateinto liquid stateon heatingis known as melting(fusion). LatentHeat Of Fusion-Latentheat of fusion is the amount ofheat energyrequiredto change1 kgof solidinto liquidat itsmelting point is known as latentheat of fusion.
  14. 14. The Heatwhich gets used up in overcoming in changingthe state by overcoming theforces of attractionbetweentheparticles. As this heatenergy is absorbed by ice withoutshowing any rise in temperature.it is considered thatit gets hidden into the contentsof thebeaker and is known as LatentHeat. Ice Water
  15. 15. The process of converting liquidintogases state on heating is knownas boiling. Latent Heat Of Vaporisation- The heat energy requiredto change 1 kg ofliquidinto gasat atmospheric pressure at its boilingpointis knownas Latent heat of vaporisation.
  16. 16. A change directly from solid to gas without changing into liquid state(or viceversa)is called Sublimation. Example- If solid camphor or ammonium chloride is heated, it changes into vapour. If the vapours are cooledit changes into solid.
  17. 17. Ammonium chloride solidified ina dish Cotton Inverted funnel Ammonium chloride vapours Burner Ammonium chloride
  18. 18. Whenpressure is applied on gas the particles come closer and the gas changes into liquid. We can liquefy gases by applying pressure andreducing the temperature. Compressed solid carbon dioxide is called dry ice. If the pressure is reducedit changes directlyto gas without coming into liquidstate. So solid carbon dioxide is known adry ice.
  19. 19. Solid Gas Liquid Vaporisation Condensation
  20. 20. Evaporation-The change ofa liquid into vapour at any temperature below its boiling point is called evaporation. Evaporation is a surfacephenomenon.Particles from the surface gain enoughenergyto overcomethe forcesof attraction and changesto vapour state. Factors Affecting Evaporation-The rate of evaporation dependsupon surface area, temperature,humidityand wind speed. Increase in the surfacearea increases the rate of evaporation. Increase in temperature increases the rate ofevaporation. Increase in humidity decreasesthe rate ofevaporation. Increase in wind speedincreases the rate ofevaporation.
  21. 21. When a liquid evaporates, the particles of the liquid absorb heat from the surroundings and evaporates. So the surroundings become cold. Eg :- People sprinklewater on the roof or open ground because during evaporation water absorbs heat makes the hot surface cool. During summer we sweat more because during evaporation the sweat absorbs heat from our body makingthe body cool. Wearing cotton clothes insummer keeps us cool because cotton absorbs sweat and whenthe sweat evaporates it absorbs heat from our body makingthe body cool.
  22. 22. Shivam Piyush Pavan Ajeet Class-9TH d

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