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Calendrier, perception des cycles du temps

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Présentation du calendrier milésien au Jardin Planétaire, juin 2016, Sassetot en Auge

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Calendrier, perception des cycles du temps

  1. 1. Miletus SARL Calendrier, perception des cycles du temps Intervention au Jardin Planétaire de l’Université Tapovan 21 sextème 2016 / 11 juin 2016 Sassetot en Auge Louis-Aimé de Fouquières
  2. 2. Maîtrisez-vous le temps ? 2 Quelle phase de lune aujourd’hui ? Quel jour sera le 15 août 2017 ? Quand le Ramadan se termine-t-il ? Combien de temps dure le jour aujourd’hui ? 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps
  3. 3. Les unités essentielles  Le jour : unité physiologique  Le mois (lunaire) : repère partagé  La semaine : cycle social simple 321 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps
  4. 4. Représenter le cycle des saisons  Pas de marque immédiatement visible  Pas de cycle simple  Enjeu du développement de l’agriculture 4 => Emergence des astrologues pontifes 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps
  5. 5. Les innovations de Jules César  Des règles algorithmiques plutôt que l’arbitraire des pontifes  L’appui des meilleurs scientifiques  Le calage durable et simple au cycle de l’année tropique 521 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps
  6. 6. Les faiblesses du calendrier romain 6  Des compromis dictés par la tradition et la superstition 2x5 mois alternés 31-30-31-30-31 + 2 mois irréguliers  Début d’année migré de mars à janvier  Pas de synchronisation des mois aux solstices et équinoxes 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps
  7. 7. La réforme grégorienne Avantages  Précision par rapport à l’année tropique  Règles d’intercalation solaire fondées sur un cycle de 400 ans Inconvénients  Maintien de l’irrégularité des mois romains 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 7
  8. 8. L’expérience sans lendemain du calendrier révolutionnaire français Avantages  Début d’année calé à l’équinoxe  Mois (trop) réguliers Inconvénients  Cassure de la semaine  Règle d’intercalation ambigüe et malcommode 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 8
  9. 9. Le calendrier milésien 921 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps  Représentativité des saisons  Régularité des mois et groupes de mois (bimestres)  Universalité des noms de mois  Convertibilité avec calendrier mondial  Précision des dates  Respect de la semaine  Facilité calculs de semaine et de lune
  10. 10. L’intercalation postfixe intégrale 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 10 1 bimestre (ordinaire) = 2 x 30 + 1 = 61 j 1 année (cave) = 6 x 61 – 1 = 365 j 4 années = 4 x 365 + 1 = 1 461 j 1 siècle (cave) = 25 x 1 461 – 1 = 36 524 j 4 siècles = 4 x 36 524 + 1 = 146 097 j 1 ère = 8 x 146 097 – 1 = 1 168 775 j
  11. 11. Suivi de l’azimut de coucher solaire 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 11
  12. 12. Phénomènes saisonniers: la calotte glaciaire arctique – en grégorien 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 12
  13. 13. Phénomènes saisonniers: la calotte glaciaire arctique – en milésien 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 13
  14. 14. Le cadran des saisons 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 14 Solstice d’été Solstice d’hiver Équinoxe d’automne Équinoxe de printemps 16h 15h 14h 13h 11h 9h 10h 8h -4mn -3mn -2mn -1mn +1mn +2mn +3mn +4mn 112 11 10 9 2 3 4 5 67 8
  15. 15. Shakespeare et Cervantès morts le 23 avril 1616 ? 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 15 Miguel de Cervantès  2 5m 1616 William Shakespeare  12 5m 1616
  16. 16. Le lever héliaque de Sirius 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 16 Vers -3200 : 16 juillet (julien) Vers -50 : 19 juillet (julien) 29 6m 26 7m Dérive : 3 jours 28 jours ! Sirius, ou la « petite chienne » (canicula) apparaît juste avant le lever du soleil, annonçant la crue du Nil.
  17. 17. Le calendrier perpétuel 21 sextème 2016 Le calendrier et les cycles du temps 17 Chaque année • Jour clé • Epacte En 2016: • Lundi • 10 (19,5) Toute date: • Jour de semaine • Âge de lune Reprendre la maîtrise des cycles

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