Couple the desire to become a critical thinker with opportunities to think critically.. Now you have something!
Giving students the opportunities to think critically is just as important as giving them the tools. When we don’t give them opportunities to think, we fall into the trap of false learning. It seems like they are learning things. They can explain concepts to us and solve problems. But if they have not thought about the content on a deeper level, they haven’t learned it at all. It will not be remembered. Paul and Elder maintain that without critical thinking guiding the process of learning, rote memorization becomes the primary recourse with students forgetting at about the same rate they are learning. Gerald Nosich proposes that students forget 90% of what they have ‘learned’ three months after the class has ended. This is the premise of Guido Sarducci’s five-minute university.
Spence Rogers – PEAK Learning System givesSix motivational standards for a learning environment: 1)Safety; 2) Success; 3) Fun & Enjoyment; 4) Freedom & Independence; 5) Valued Purpose; 6) Love & BelongingStudents who have not had good educational experiences in the past and lower SES students have a greater need for feelings of safety and love and belonging. (Maslow hierarchy of needs)If you want students to think critically, they must know that Everyone’s opinion/viewpoint is respected by everyone – including the instructor ASK: How do you create a safe environment in your classroom?
Model one strategyIndex cards. Partner - record name, institution. Share one point in the reading that could change the way you structure a class.Conrad & Donaldson identified Phases of Engagement: phase/professor role/activitiesNewcomer –social negotiator – Interactive get to know each otherCooperator – Social engineer – peer reviewsCollaborator – Facilitator – Problem solve, reflectInitiator/partner – Community member, challenger – learner designed, learner-led, learner-facilitated discussions
Dee Fink – Do not go over reading. Use class time for conversation, class activities, and real-world applications.. Quiz – (individual, then group)ASK: How would this be of benefit to students with learning disabilities?
Online: Unlock course material based upon successful completion of quiz or other assignment that assesses reading comprehension.No reading assignment? How about five minutes to reflect on what was learned in a lecture or presentation the day before. Provide a prompt that asks an essential question.Consider Individual – then group
Online: Provide interactive tutorials, videos, discussions, real-world application assignments, team projects, research, and other activities that veer from all-reading components. (WebQuests)Preview & ReviewLecture (20%)Real world (20%) – guest speaker, case study, current eventsExercise (20%) ApplicationConversation (20%)AssignmentsQuiz & evaluation.Remember phases of engagement. Give them a chance to be a cooperator (peer reviews) and a collaborator (problem solving, reflection)Professor is social engineer/facilitator
Involve all students in discussionsPut student’s names on index cards Combine that with the interactive model – State (in your own words)Elaborate (say in different words)Example (give an example – within the content – within life experience)Illustrate (draw an analogy, metaphor, chart, diagram, cartoon)How would this method help/hinder feelings of belonging and caring and emotional safety?
Example of chemical elements assignment.Types of Essential QuestionsAnalytic – questioning the structure of thinkingEvaluative – determining value, merit, worthQuestioning within academic disciplines – questioning to understand the foundations of disciplinesQuestioning for self-knowledge and self-development – questioning ourselves as learnersOnline interactive model.Phases of engagement: initiator/partner. Faculty role – community member, challenger. Learner-designed, learner-led activitiesConsidering what we know of phases of student engagement, how can one effectively engage students in content the first day?
Online: Have students submit “final paper” assignment in a series of drafts. Return drafts with feedback and questions in the margins through Microsoft Word tracking, Google Docs. Narrate feedback using Adobe insert comments or Jing. Jing Link http://www.screencast.com/t/Jtem6qXau Probing with a purpose to clarify in their own minds, to think critically.Raises basic issues Probes beneath the surface of things Pursues problematic areas of thought Helps students discover the structure of their own thought Helps students develop sensitivity to clarity, accuracy, relevance, and depth Helps students arrive at judgments through their own reasoning Helps students analyze thinking – its purposes, assumptions, questions, points of view, information, inferences, concepts, and implications
Online: Give as an individual or team assignment for particularly poignant readings, rather than whole-class Discussion Forum. Then, follow-up with peer evaluation. (Blog)
Keep returning to chapter 1.How/where does this fit in with our field of study?How does this topic relate to other topics we have studied?What information are we still missing?What information do we need next?Nosich – Exercises at the end of a chapter typically include three distinct sections.First, there are questions that require pure recall of terms or roteapplication of a procedure; they are to be answered by direct reference tothe text (usually only to boldfaced terms, and usually only to terms or calculationsfrom that particular chapter). Students completing these exercisesare not required to process the meaning of a term or procedure, or the relationor link with concepts from other chapters, let alone concepts fromother courses.
NISOD Presentation - Gail Lancaster
Overview of Critical Thinking and Strategies to Teach for Critical Thinking<br />June 1, 2011<br />Gail O. Lancaster<br />
Consider Elements, Standards and Intellectual Traits identified by Paul and Elder<br />Ten Strategies to Teach for Critical Thinking<br />Game Plan<br />
Paul and Elder<br />Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. <br />(Foundation for Critical Thinking 2009)<br />
Paul and Elder: The underlying Principles of Critical Thinking<br />
9. Ask students to write the logic of an article or paragraph or chapter in the text<br />
10. Relate the current topic or course to the whole (system, discipline)<br />
References<br />Conrad, R., & Donaldson, J.A. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.<br />Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. New York: D. C. Heath.<br />Ellis, D. B., Toft, D., Mancina, D., McMurray, E. L., & Mooney, K. (2006). Master student course manual. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.<br />Ennis, R. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory Into Practice, 32(3). Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database.<br />Fink, L. D., & Ebooks Corporation. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.<br />Foundation for Critical Thinking (2009). Our Concept of Critical Thinking. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from http://www. criticalthinking.org/aboutCT/ourConceptCT.cfm<br />
References<br />Johnson, S. (1998). Skills, Socrates, and the Sophists: Learning from history. British Journal of Educational Studies 46(2). Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JSTOR database.<br />Nosich, G. “Facilitating Critical and Creative Thinking.” A QEP workshop for Eastern Kentucky University presented on 9-10 March 2006 at Richmond, KY<br />Nosich, G. M. (2005). Problems with two standard models for teaching critical thinking. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2005(130), 59-67. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.<br />Paul, Richard, & Elder, Linda. (2005). A guide for educators to critical thinking competency standards. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. <br />Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006b). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.<br />Pedersen, O. (1997). The first universities: Stadium Generale and the origins of university education in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.<br />Rogers, S., Ludington, J., & Graham, S. (1999). Motivation & learning: A teacher's guide to building excitement for learning & igniting the drive for quality. Evergreen, CO: Peak Learning Systems.<br />