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A. Endogenous processes
which occur beneath the surface
of the Earth.
B. Exogenous processes
which take place above the
Ea...
 Plate tectonics (from the Late
Latin tectonicus, from
the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to
building") is a scientific th...
 Pacific
 North American
 South American
 African
 Eurasian
 Antarctic
 Indo-Australian
 STRESS a force that acts on rock to
change its shape or volume.
Deformation: The Breaking,
Tilting, and Folding of rocks...
1.Tension – pulls
on the rocks of
the crust
stretching rocks
so that it
become thinner
in the middle.
Think: Divergent
2.Compression
– squeezes the
rocks of the
crust until it
folds or break. Think: Covergent
3. Shearing –
pushes a mass
of rock in two
opposite
directions.
Think: transform
Movements of plates
When the plates move and interact
with each other and bring about
1. DIASTROPHISM
2. VULCANISM
 Earth’s crust brought by
tectonic forces or the
movements of the
plates.
1.Faulting this movement refers to the
fracturing or breaking of
rock masses or the Earth’s
crust.
this usually happens wh...
1. Normal faults occur when tensional
forces act in opposite directions and
cause one slab of the rock to be
displaced up ...
2. Reverse faults develop when
compressional forces exist compression
causes one block to be pushed up and
over the other ...
3. Graben fault is produced when tensional
stresses result in the subsidence of a block
of rock. On a large scale these fe...
4. Horst fault is the development of
two reverse faults causing a block of rock
to be pushed up.
5. Strike slip or transform fault
are vertical in nature and are
produced where the stresses
are exerted parallel to each
...
Result of displacement of structures
on the earth’s crust.
2. Folding occurs when the
Earth’s crust is compressed
due to ...
1. Anticline – fold that forms an upward
arch.
2. syncline– fold that forms a downward
arch.
3. Monocline--fold involves a slight bend in
otherwise parallel layers of rock.
 Is another process that takes place
beneath the Earth’s crust.
This happen when molten materials
from the interior of t...
Magma is a molten materials that
still inside the Earth.
is a hot liquid rock below the
surface of the Earth
Lava--- once ...
 Fertile soils.
 Rich in sulphur deposits.
 Sources of geothermal energy.
Bring damage to man:
 Damage to human lives
...
1.Weathering– this refers to the breaking up
of solid rocks into fragments. It is also the
process that results in the che...
2. Chemical weathering
Is the breaking down of rocks and
minerals with a change in their
chemical composition.
Is also t...
Oxidation
Hydration
Hydrolysis
Carbonation
solution
2. Erosion– is the movement of weathered
materials like rock fragments and particles of
soil that have been broken down an...
THANK YOU
FOR
LISTENING
Helen de la cruz BEED 2-A…
SCULPTURING THE EARTH SURFACE
SCULPTURING THE EARTH SURFACE
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SCULPTURING THE EARTH SURFACE

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SCULPTURING THE EARTH SURFACE

  1. 1. A. Endogenous processes which occur beneath the surface of the Earth. B. Exogenous processes which take place above the Earth’s surface. Note: these two major are responsible in the changes of landscapes in the different regions of the world.
  2. 2.  Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motions of Earth's lithosphere.  The lithosphere is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven major plates and many minor plates.  Plates is made up of thick slabs of rocks. PLATES is composed of a continental crust and an oceanic crust is composed of a continental crust and an oceanic crust
  3. 3.  Pacific  North American  South American  African  Eurasian  Antarctic  Indo-Australian
  4. 4.  STRESS a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume. Deformation: The Breaking, Tilting, and Folding of rocks Prefix de = undo Form = shape or configuration
  5. 5. 1.Tension – pulls on the rocks of the crust stretching rocks so that it become thinner in the middle. Think: Divergent
  6. 6. 2.Compression – squeezes the rocks of the crust until it folds or break. Think: Covergent
  7. 7. 3. Shearing – pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions. Think: transform
  8. 8. Movements of plates When the plates move and interact with each other and bring about 1. DIASTROPHISM 2. VULCANISM
  9. 9.  Earth’s crust brought by tectonic forces or the movements of the plates.
  10. 10. 1.Faulting this movement refers to the fracturing or breaking of rock masses or the Earth’s crust. this usually happens when the rock masses are under tension due to plate movement.
  11. 11. 1. Normal faults occur when tensional forces act in opposite directions and cause one slab of the rock to be displaced up and the other slab down.
  12. 12. 2. Reverse faults develop when compressional forces exist compression causes one block to be pushed up and over the other block.
  13. 13. 3. Graben fault is produced when tensional stresses result in the subsidence of a block of rock. On a large scale these features are known as Rift Valleys.
  14. 14. 4. Horst fault is the development of two reverse faults causing a block of rock to be pushed up.
  15. 15. 5. Strike slip or transform fault are vertical in nature and are produced where the stresses are exerted parallel to each other.
  16. 16. Result of displacement of structures on the earth’s crust. 2. Folding occurs when the Earth’s crust is compressed due to plate movement. (into collision)
  17. 17. 1. Anticline – fold that forms an upward arch.
  18. 18. 2. syncline– fold that forms a downward arch.
  19. 19. 3. Monocline--fold involves a slight bend in otherwise parallel layers of rock.
  20. 20.  Is another process that takes place beneath the Earth’s crust. This happen when molten materials from the interior of the earth forced into the crust and even onto the Earth’s surface because of high pressures with the Earth. Is both constructive and destructive.
  21. 21. Magma is a molten materials that still inside the Earth. is a hot liquid rock below the surface of the Earth Lava--- once they are spewed out of the Earth’s surface and solidified. --- melted rock from a volcano.
  22. 22.  Fertile soils.  Rich in sulphur deposits.  Sources of geothermal energy. Bring damage to man:  Damage to human lives  Crops  Property  Faulting and folding
  23. 23. 1.Weathering– this refers to the breaking up of solid rocks into fragments. It is also the process that results in the chemical decay of soli rocks in place or near the surface of the Earth. Two kinds of Weathering 1.Physical or mechanical weathering Refers to the disintegration or breaking down of solid rocks into smaller fragments.
  24. 24. 2. Chemical weathering Is the breaking down of rocks and minerals with a change in their chemical composition. Is also the result of chemical reactions bet. The rock mineral and the moisture, rain water, sea water and organic acids produced by plants and animals.
  25. 25. Oxidation Hydration Hydrolysis Carbonation solution
  26. 26. 2. Erosion– is the movement of weathered materials like rock fragments and particles of soil that have been broken down and carried by the different agents of erosion. 3. Deposition– is the process of accumulation of soil particles and other materials carried by the agents of erosion.
  27. 27. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING Helen de la cruz BEED 2-A…

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