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Electrical safety & protection

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Electrical safety & protection

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Electrical safety & protection

  1. 1. Electrical Safety And Protection SYED LATEEF UDDIN B110877EE
  2. 2. Why Electrical Safety ? ▪ Sometimes it is easy to forget just how dangerous electricity can be. ▪ Electricity can cause serious injuries or even death. ▪ It takes very little electricity to cause harm. ▪ Lack of safety can cause serious electrical HAZARDS.
  3. 3. Effects on the Human Body Depends on: ▪ Current and Voltage ▪ Resistance ▪ Path through body ▪ Duration of shock
  4. 4. Electrical Dangers ▪ Electrical shock ▪ Electrocution (death due to electrical shock) ▪ Burns ▪ Falls ▪ Arc flash and Arc Blast ▪ Explosions ▪ Fires
  5. 5. Electrical Accidents - Statistics ▪ Almost 12 people die due to electrocution every day (Source- NCRB National Crime Records Bureau) ▪ 42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) ▪ 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity India
  6. 6. Electrical Accidents - Statistics ▪ 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA) ▪ 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) ▪ Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH ▪ Electrocution is the cause of 12% of all workplace deaths among young workers. United States
  7. 7. NFPA - NEC (1897) NESC (1913), from IEEE NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)-1970 OSHA (1970) NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA NESF(1994), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC
  8. 8. Electrical Safety Products ▪ Residual Current-Operated Circuit Breakers (RCCBs) ▪ Arc Fault Current Interrupters (AFCIs) ▪ Glowing Connection Detector (GCDs) ▪ Infra-Red Hotspot Detection Tool ▪ Thermography Surveys ▪ Automatic Defibrillators ▪ Complete Home ES Kit ▪ Automatic Fire Detection & Extinguishing System ▪ Electrical Product Safety Recalls ▪ Linear Heat Sensing Cables (LHSC)
  9. 9. Electrical Safety Products GFCIs RCCBs ▪ Used in wet and other high risky areas. ▪ Stops the flow of electricity when there is a difference between current leaving and returning from the outlet. ▪ Push test button and then reset button. ▪ RCCBs - 30, 100, 300 mA. ▪ Delayed tripping RCCBs (200 mS)
  10. 10. GFCI
  11. 11. Electrical Safety Products AFCIs – Arc Fault Current Interrupters • Arcs - temperatures up to 20,000°C,Sun’s outer temperature- 5000°C. • No material on earth can withstand arc temperature. • RCCBs cannot detect arcing faults. • AFCIs - the innovative ES device after RCCBs. • AFCIs detects arcing waveforms and trips. • AFCIs - mandatory in all US homes from 2002 January onwards
  12. 12. Electrical Safety Products GCDs – Glowing Connection Detectors • GCs are fires waiting to happen. • Loose connections at socket terminals will cause glowing connections. • Use of GCDs- recommended by Forensic engineers. • Glowing connections -will not detected by fuses, MCBs, RCCBs, AFCIs. • GCDs operate at 83 degree C. • Glowing connection hazards were detected by a underwriters laboratories study (Firefly GCD)
  13. 13. Electrical Safety Products Infra–Red Hotspot Detector ▪ Used as part of effective EPM (Electrical Preventive Maintenance). ▪ Hotspot surveys on critical, high capacity motor terminations, measurement of continuously running critical motors. ▪ Uses infra-red technology, with laser sighting. ▪ Does not penetrate glass, plastic. ▪ Interpretation of readings - very critical.
  14. 14. Electrical Safety Products HFFR Cables ▪ Halogen-Free Fire Retardant cables. ▪ Emits very low smoke, compared to PVC & even FRLS cables. ▪ Increasingly Used by many instead of FRLS (Fire Retardant low Smoke) cables.
  15. 15. Electrical Safety Products Thermography Surveys ▪ Part of predictive maintenance. ▪ In the De-Terrified scenario, may be offered by general insurance companies. ▪ Identification of potential survey points / equipment and interpretation - very crucial. ▪ NFPA 70 E recommends Thermographic surveys.
  16. 16. Electrical Safety Products AEDs – Automatic External Defibrillation ▪ 250,000 deaths every year due to sudden cardiac arrest. ▪ AEDs - to be part of Emergency Medical Kit. ▪ For every minute that passes without defibrillation, the chances of survival decreases by 10%. ▪ Has a voice prompt, cost USD 3000/- ▪ UK - not a legal requirement, but a Statutory requirement in US. ▪ No legal liability for deaths involving the use of AEDs.
  17. 17. Electrical Safety Products Linear Heat Sensing Cables ▪ Advantageous than detectors, more effective LHSC applications: ▪ Cable trays in cable galleries ▪ Transformers ▪ Switch gears
  18. 18. Electrical Safety Products Automatic Fire D&E System ▪ local flooding application inside electrical switch gears / power panels- detects heat and the heat - sensitive tube punctures, letting out Ozone- friendly fire extinguishing gas
  19. 19. Electrical Safety Products Non-Contact type voltage detector (magnetic field) Plug-In Wiring Checker ▪ detects 14 wiring defects, ideal for testing sockets, BS 1363, faulty N, missing E, reverse P& N
  20. 20. Home Electrical Safety Kit ▪ Surge protector ▪ GFCI ▪ AFCI ▪ MCBs
  21. 21. • Need for Electrical Safety is universal. • ES awareness is increasing. • Partnership between regulators, employers, manufacturers- growing. • Many injuries are prevented. • Learning from experience- very essential. • Innovative ES devices are being used by people. CONCLUSION MUCH MORE TO BE DONE IN THE FIELD OF ES IN INDIA
  22. 22.  www.wikipedia.org  www.osha.gov  www.aep.com  www.ulstandards.ul.com  www.standards.ieee.org/about/nesc
  23. 23. THANK YOU

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