AGRICULTURE EXTENSION AND
AMAT REVIEW 2015 (ver1.2)
By. M.L. Edullantes
Chapter 1: AGRICULTURE EXTENSION
AND EXTENSION EDUCATION
• Encompasses teaching and learning specific
• The imparting of knowledge, good judgment
• The act process or art of imparting knowledge
• Learning that takes place in schools or school-
like environments (formal education) at large.
Formal, Informal and Non-formal
The hierarchically structured,
chronologically graded education system,
running from primary school through
university. In addition to general academic
studies, a variety of specialized programs and
institutions for full-time technical and
• Informal education. The truly lifelong
process whereby every individual acquires
attitude, values, skills and knowledge from
daily experience and the educative influences
and resources in his or her environment.
• Non-formal education. Any organized
educational activity outside the established
formal system-whether operating separately
or as important feature of some broader
activity that is intended to serve identifiable
learning clientele and learning objectives.
Table 1. Formal education versus Non-formal education
• It is the practice of teaching and educating
• Extension of educational opportunities to
those adults beyond the age of general public
education who feel a need for further training
of any sort, is also known as continuing
• it has also been referred to as
The term extension was first used to
describe adult education programs in England
in the second half of the 19th century. These
programs helped to expand- or extend- the
work of Universities beyond the campus and
into the neighboring community.
Definition of extension.
Extension is an informal educational
process directed toward rural population. This
process offers advice and information to help
them solve their problems. Extension also
aims to increase the efficiency of the family
farm, (as agriculture extension), increase
production and generally increase the
standard of living of the farm family
Four main elements of extension:
– Knowledge and skills
– Technical advice and information
– Farmers’ organization
– Motivation and self-confidence
–It involves offering advice, helping farmers
to analyze problems and identify
opportunities, sharing information,
supporting group formation and facilitating
–They aimed to deliver information and new
technologies to farmers in order to raise
Importance, scope & objectives of Extension
– Extension uses democratic methods in educating the
– Extension Helps in adoption of innovations.
– Extension helps in studying and solving the rural
– Extension increases farm yields and improve the
standard of living of farmers
– Extension makes good communities better and
– Extension contributes to national development
– It includes all activities of rural development. So
extension programs should be dynamic and flexible.
The areas indicating scope of Extension are listed
– Increasing efficiency in agricultural production.
– Increasing efficiency in marketing, distribution
and utilization of agricultural inputs and outputs
– Conservation, development and use of natural
– Proper farm and home management
– Better family living.
– Youth development.
– Leadership development.
– Community and rural development.
– Improving public affairs for all round development.
–To raise the standard of living of the rural
people by helping them in right use of their
–To help in planning and implementing the
family and village plans for increasing
production in various occupations.
–To provide facilities for better family living.
Chapter 2: HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF
The term "extension"
It was not until 1867 that a first practical
attempt was made in what was designated
"university extension," but the activity
developed quickly to become a well-
established movement before the end of the
century. Initially, most of the lectures given
were on literary and social topics, but by the
1890s agricultural subjects were being
covered by peripatetic lecturers in rural areas
Towards the Modern Era
– Between 1300 and 1700, European society
became transformed from its medieval feudal
forms into recognizably modem social systems. It
was a period of complex, multistranded
– By the mid-eighteenth century, throughout much
of Europe, progressive landowners (frequently
aristocrats) and their agents and a few similarly
minded farmers were being known as
In Europe, agricultural science was
evolving rapidly by the 1840s, with notable
strides being made in Germany by Justus von
Liebig at Giessen, and with the establishment
of agricultural experiments at Rothamsted in
England in 1843 by John Bennet Lawes and
The birth of modern agricultural extension
– The first agricultural extension service of a
modem kind came into existence as the result
of a crisis and the initiative of the occupant of
a high office of authority.
– The crisis was the outbreak of potato blight in
Europe in 1845. In Ireland its effects were
particularly severe because the predominantly
peasant population relied on potatoes in their
diet, and "the potato famine" persisted until
–By the close of the nineteenth century,
agricultural extension systems modelled to
a considerable extent on the
GermanWanderlehrer had spread: to
Denmark from 1870 onwards;
–the Netherlands, where a few extension
workers (wandelleraren) had been
appointed by agricultural societies in the
late 1840s and 1850s, but had then
disappeared before being revived as a
government system in the 1890s;
–Italy, where the first itinerant agricultural
teacher (cattedra ambulante di
agricoltura) was appointed in 1886 at
Rovigo, near the estuary of the River Po,
with many others following in the next
decade and funded largely by public
–Meanwhile, in France the first national,
wholly state-funded agricultural extension
service was established in 1879.
–The growth of agricultural education and
extension work in continental Europe was
to have a strong impact on the emergence
of comparable activity in the United
Kingdom. An official commission on
technical education in the early 1880s
included a detailed review of the European
developments (Jenkins, 1884).
Modern agricultural extension
–In the early years of this century, extension
services were in their formative stage; they
were relatively small in scale and limited in
the scope of their work and contact with
farmers, and their organization was often
somewhat haphazard even though based
– During the past quarter century, the work of
extension services has often become more
diversified. In the less developed countries,
the main focus remains on agricultural (mainly
food) production, but there has been a
growing recognition of the need to reach,
influence, and benefit the multitudes of small,
The future of agriculture extension
– The need for agricultural and rural information
and advisory services is likely to intensify in the
foreseeable future. In much of the world,
agriculture faces the challenge of keeping pace
with rapidly increasing population with few
reserves of potentially cultivable land. Farmers will
have to become more efficient and specialized.
– From government perspectives, whatever priority
is given to production, extension will remain a key
policy tool for promoting ecologically and socially
sustainable farming practices.
ASIA: Four Generations of Extension
1. Colonial Agriculture
– Experimental stations were established in many
Asian countries by colonial powers.
– The focus of attention was usually on export crops
such as rubber, tea, cotton and sugar.
– Technical advice was provided to plantation
managers and large landowners
– Assistance to small farmers who grew subsistence
crops was rare, except in times of crisis.
2.Diverse-Top Down Extension
– After Independence, commodity-based extension
services emerged from the remnants of the
colonial system, with production targets
established as part of five year development
– In addition, various schemes were initiated to
meet the needs of small farmers, with support
from foreign donors.
3. Unified top-down extension
– During the 1970’s and ‘80’s, the training and visit
system (T&V) was introduced by the World Bank.
– Existing organizations were merged into single
– Regular messages, were delivered to groups of
farmers, promoting the adaption of the “green
4. Diverse bottom-up extension
– When World Bank funding ended, T&V system
collapsed in many countries, leaving behind
patchwork of programs and projects funded from
various other sources
– The decline of central planning, combined with a
growing concerned for sustainability and equity,
has resulted in participatory methods gradually
replacing top-down approaches.
Evolution of Agriculture
• Prehistory and Pre-Agriculture
• Human gatherer
• Little or no villages
• End of ice age
• Burst of new vegetation
• Follow herds
• “Agriculture Revolution”
• Many civilization began
• Three of the main were:
– Nile river in Africa
– Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia
• Planted by hand
• Stick for plows
• Flint sickle to harvest
• Wheat grinding stone
• Historical Agriculture
2500 B.C. to 500 A.D.
– Little change in agriculture, still subsistence farming
– Few technologies developed:
• Metal tools
• Irrigation in flood plains- China, Egypt, Near East
• Fertilizer- manure and fodder
– Use of plow animal power:
– Grow more food
– Cities grew
– Civilization expanded
– Population increased
• Feudal Agriculture
500 A.D. to 1600 A.D.
– Still much of the world is subsistence farming
– Egyptians utilized more land with irrigations
– Europeans implemented crop rotation
• Scientific Agriculture
1600 A.D. to present
– Many technical advances in agriculture
– Cities grew much larger
– Rural population decreased
– Sanitation increased life expectancy
– Technological advances:
• Metal added to wooden plow (mid 1600’s)
• Jehtro Tull’s seed drill(early 1700’s)
• Use of limestone (late 1700’s)
• Cast-iron molboard plow (1797)
• John Deere’s steelpow (1830’s)
• Cyrus McCormick reaper (1831)
• Steam power replaced horsepower (late1800’s)
• Training and Visit System
The Training and Visit system was
developed by World Bank Expert Daniel Benor.
It has a simple organization and infra structure
with defined objectives. It is based on regular
visit to the farmers and periodical trainings to
the extension workers. It has wide popularity
because it provides problems oriented
guidance, flexible management and
continuous feed back from the farmers.
The Green Revolution
– Transformation of agriculture that began in 1945
– The term ”Green revolution” was first used in 1938 by
former USAID director- William gaud
– Period to describe between the 1960’sto 1990’s. there
was a tremendous boom in agricultural productivity in
the developing world.
– In many regions, especially in Asia and Latin America,
the yield of major cereals such as rice, wheat and
maize --more than doubled.
– Green revolution refers to the renovation of
agricultural practices begum on 1940’s at Mexico, its
beginning are often attributed to Norman Borlaug, an
American Scientist interested in agriculture.
– An American scientist who is considered the
father of the green revolution who started
working on high-yield wheat varieties in Mexico
on 1940’s. In 1960’s, rough combined agricultural
practices and HYV on introduced by Borlaug,
Mexico begun to be an exporter of wheat in the
– In 1963, through the aid of the Rockefeller and
Ford foundation, the International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMNYT) was
established in Mexico.
Chapter 3: EXTENSION AGENT: ROLES
Three factors involved in the change process:
– The message
• -it includes the technology or recommended practices
to be introduced.
– The clientele or end-user
• The one who is going to accept and use the message of
– The change agent
• The one which exerts all the effort and means to induce
desirable changes in people and in the community.
The Extension worker/ Change agent
–Educational Qualifications and Professional
Requirements of Change agents
An extension or change agent should
preferably be a bachelor’s degree holder in
any technical or social science field. He/She
must have necessary knowledge, skills and
experiences to become a credible source if
technical information and technology being
introduced in the village or rural community.
Personal qualities of a extension or change
– Possesses empathy
– Genuity (trueness)
– Dedication to service
Four main areas:
• Technical. The agent must be adequately trained
in the technical aspect of his work.
• Rural life. This includes anthropological and
sociological studies of the rural area of the
• Policy. Includes the policies and legislation of the
government or other institution policies which
affects the rural area.
• Adult Education. The agent must be familiar with
the approaches to adult education, group
dynamics and developing participation among
• Commitment. The agent must have a sense of
dedication and determination to achieve the
goals of the extension project.
• Reliability. The agent must carry genuinely the
tasks with lesser no supervision from the
• Humility . The agent must be sensitive to the
wishes and feeling of the farmers.
• Confidence. the agent must believe in his
abilities and knowledge to achieve something.
Roles and Functions of the Change Agent
Specific functions of the extension/change
–Gathering of data or information above the
community and its constituents
–Identifying priority areas, problems, needs
and interests of people in the community.
–Establishing rapport with the client system
–Selecting and formulating appropriate
– Translating technical information with farmers
– Choosing using suitable approaches and extension
– Disseminating new information and technology
– Conducting extension education activities
– Recognizing and guiding the phase of the change
– Undertaking auxiliary extension functions
– Contributing to the professional development of
Role of the change agent
According to Mojica and Mojica (1991) are
some roles of the extension worker:
– A teacher
– A mobilize of resources
– A developer of potential leader
– A catalyst of developmental change
– A go-between researchers and farmers
– A system manager
– A system linker
Principles of Extension Education
A principle is a statement of policy to guide
decision and action in a consistent manner
A principle is a universal truth that has
been observed and found to be truth and a
settled rule of action.
The principles of extension education are given
1. Principle of cultural difference:
– People differ in thinking, living and culture.
– Extension education methods should be in line
with these differences.
2. Principle of cultural change:
– Culture undergoes change due to extension.
– Change occurs otherwise also.
– Extension Workers should gain the confidence of
people.. Extension workers should organize result
3. Principle of grass-root organization:
– Extension workers should pay attention to all the
groups’ needs and interests.
– Imposed innovations have no relevance to groups.
– People will accept the innovations only when they
find those useful.
4. Principle of interests and needs:
– People and extension workers should work
– Co-operation and help of each other needed for
5. Principle of interests and needs:
– People should voluntarily participate.
– Work should start from interests and needs of
6. Principle of participation:
– Attachment will not develop by offering ready
– Participation develops leadership and increases
confidence.. Involving leaders
7. Principle of adaptability in the use of
– People differ in knowledge and understanding.
– Method should vary accordingly.
8. Principle of leadership:
– Extension workers should utilize local leadership
for increasing speed of work
– Identification, training and encouragement of
leaders is necessary.
9. Principle trained specialists:
– Agricultural and other sciences are developing
– Maintaining competency in any of these sciences
is a continuous process.
10. Principle of satisfaction:
– The extension program should give satisfaction to the
– People will not participate if they do not get
11. Principle of whole family approach:
– Extension work should reach all the family members.
– Neglecting any member may result in rejection of
innovations e.g. Hybrid maize in U.P.
12. Principle of evaluation:
– Determining the research results in unbiased way is
– Intermittent review of progress is necessary.
13. Principle of applied Science and Democracy:
– People have freedom to accept or reject the
– Applied agricultural Science is a two way process.
14. Principle of Learning by doing:
Some more Other Principles:
1. The citizen is the Sovereign (Supreme) in the democracy.
2. Home is the fundamental unit of civilization.
3. Family is the first training group of the human race and
4. Average farm is endowed with great resources and facilities
Definition of Teaching Methods:
“Teaching methods may be defined as the
devices or tools used to create learning
situation in which effective communication
can take place between the teacher and the
Functions of Extension Teaching Methods
1. To provide communication so that the learner
may see, hear and do the things to be learnt.
2. To provide stimulation that causes the desired
mental or physical action on the part of learners.
3. To take the learner through one or more steps
of teaching, learning process e.g. Awareness,
Interest, Evaluation, Trial, Adoption.
While using the foregoing methods the extension
worker uses these methods independently or takes
the help of certain audio-visual aids. The word audio-
visual comprises three words namely:
– Audio – refers to sense of hearing,
– Visual – refers to sense of seeing and Aid – instructional
Definition of Extension methods
–The ways or techniques used by an
extension system to influence its target
–The extension-teaching methods are tools
and techniques used to create situations in
which communication can take place
between rural people and extension
Classification of Extension teaching methods
A. According to use and nature of contact- whether
they are used for contacting people
individually, in groups or masses.
– mass contact method
B. According to form- extension-teaching methods
are also classified according to their forms
– It is the process of arranging situations in which the
important things learned are called to the attention of
the learners, their interest developed, desire aroused,
and action promoted.
Extension Teaching Requires Specific and Clearly
– While deciding the objectives of teaching, following
aspects are to be considered:
a. People to be taught.
b. Behavioral changes to be developed in
c. Content or subject matter to bring the
desired change in behavior.
d. The life situation in which the action is
going to take place.
–It is the process by which an individual,
through his own efforts and abilities,
changes his behaviors.
Objectives of Rural Development
1. Changes in what people know their knowledge
of themselves of their society and of their
2. Changes in what people can do their skills,
mental and physical.
3. Changes in what people think and feel their
attitude towards themselves towards their
society and towards their physical environment.
4. Changes in what people actually do their actions
related to factors determining their own
Training approach to Rural Development
– The training approach is considered to be
related to the extension approach. But it has a
different basic educational tradition and
philosophy, closely related to institutionalized
schooling. It emphasis more systematic and
deeper learning of specific basic skills and
Cooperative Self Help Approach to Rural
–The cooperative self-help approach starts
with the assumption that the complex
process of rural transformation must begin
with changes in the rural people
Integrated Rural Development Approach
–The integrated development approach
emphasis is the need of coordinating
different agencies under a single
management system of essential
components (including education) required
to get agricultural or rural development
Extension communication is purposive. It
concerns with the eliciting behavioral
changes from the extension clientele:
–What they know (knowledge)
–What they feel (attitude)
–What they do (practice)
Definition of Communication
Comes from the Latin word “communis”--
to make common or to establish
commonness among two or more people.
When we enter communication, we assume
that we have something to begin with:
– Common language
– Common symbols whose meaning are shared
Communication is a process which is a
Source sends a Message to a Receiver
through means of Channels in order to
produce a Response from the receiver in
accordance to the intention of the
Elements of communication
– The person who encodes the message, using such codes
such as verbal, nonverbal, visual, musical or any other
– It is used to convey the source’s meaning by means of any
– It is the method of carrying the source’s message using any
combination of basic senses.
– It is the object to whom the message is directed.
– It is the check on how successful we have been in
transferring our messages as originally intended.
Communication as a process
Any phenomenon which shows continues changes
in time the events and relationships among
elements are seen as:
– Dynamic- changing all the time. source-receiver
– On-going- continues and then.. .. there is feedback
– Interactive- components interact with one another
– Interrelated- interrelating with one another.
– Interdependent- any change in one component and
affect the other elements and the system as a whole
– Irreversible- no taking back once it has been said.
Purpose of communication
Specifically, we communicate to:
– Inform- aims at making the people aware and let
them know certain thing.
– Bring about greater understanding
– Motivate- is encourage or stimulate clientele into
– Persuade- aims at influencing the feeling, thoughts
and behavior of listeners
– Learn a new skills
– Change or adapt a new practice
– To entertain
Levels of communication
– Intrapersonal- communication with oneself.
– Interpersonal- is the interaction with two or more
– Organizational- when communication operates
within an organizational structure or bureaucracy.
– Mass- when message is channeled through public
forum and use of mass media.
When is communication effective?
Communication is said to be effective
when the receiver is in the accordance with
the intention of the source.
Chapter 8: THE DIFFUSION AND
ADOPTION OF INNOVATION
What is diffusion?
– It is the process by which an innovation is
communicated through certain channels over a
period of time among the members of a social system.
Four elements of diffusion:
– Communication channels;
– Time; and
– Social system
• The Innovation
– It is an idea, practice or object that is perceived as
new. What might seems familiar to some is new
to other innovations can be material or
Three types of Innovation:
• Continuous innovation
– it is the simple changing on improving of an already
existing product where the adopter still uses the product
• Dynamically continuous
– the innovation can be either a creation of a new product
or a radical change to a existing one (e.g. compact dics).
• Discontinuous innovation
– produces a totally new product in the market. Because of
the big change, its changes the consumers’ buying and
using patterns (e.g. typewriter replaced by computers).
Characteristics of Innovation:
• Relative advantage- the degree in which the
innovation is perceived as better than the idea
• Compatibility- the degree in which the innovation is
perceived as being consistent with existing values, past
experiences and needs of potential adopters.
• Complexity- the degree in which the innovation is
perceived as difficult to understand and use.
• Trialability- the degree in which the innovation may be
experimented on a limited basis.
• Obervability- the degree in which the innovation are
visible to others.
• Communication channels
– These are the means by which messages get from
one individual to another.
– The three factors are:
• Innovation-decision process
• Relative time with which an innovation is adopted by
an individual orgroup
• Innovation’s rate of adoption
Categories of Adopters
• Innovators (first 2.5 percent of adopters)
– Tend to be venturesome, cosmopolite with complex
technical knowledge however they do not significantly
affect the adoption process.
• Early adopters (next 13.5 percent of adopters)
– These people are respected and more local than
innovators. They are also venturesome,
sufficiently skeptical to recognize good innovations.
• Early majority (next 34 percent)
– Seldom hold positions of opinion leaders but have
strong connection within the system’s interpersonal
• Late majority (next 34 percent)
– Tend to adopt from economic/social necessity due
to diffusion effect.
• Laggards (final 16 percent)
– They are the most localite, suspicious of change
agents and innovations and have few resources to
• Social Systems
Social systems referred to the group
or groups of people that an innovation
diffuses to. It can be split into:
a. traditional and
b. modern .
--End of review of EXTN and COM—
Thank You !!! :D
AgriInfo.in(2013). Introduction to Extension Education.
Jones, G.W. (n.d.). The history, development and future
of agriculture extension.
Mojica (2012). Hand outs on Extension Education.
Cavite State University Indang, Cavite Ph.