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The introduction and applications of        TOTAL STATION       (Leica TS02/06/09)            LUONG BAO BINH     Dept. of ...
Contents• Introduction  – Fundamental measurements  – Why is the total station?  – Modern technologies• Basic functions  –...
Contents (cont.)• Applications  –   Surveying & Traverse  –   Stake out  –   Free station  –   Reference line & Reference ...
Fundamental measurementsAngle with theodolites      Leveling with levels                         Distance with tape or EDM...
Why is the total station?• Problem: in practice, not only individual  measurements but also the combinations  of measureme...
Advantages of total station• All-in-one instrument for multi-task• Reliable and highly accurate• Integrated applications a...
Accuracy and range   Prism mode                     7
Accuracy and range Non-prism mode                     8
Modern technologies• Reflectorless (non-prism mode)• Integrated GPS (smart station)• Auto tracking (robotic)              ...
Integrated GPS                 10
Integrated GPS                 11
Basic functions•   Target offset•   Height transfer•   Hidden point•   Check tie                                12
Target offsetDetermines the target point P2 from:_ the offset point P1 and_ two distances: traverse offset and length offs...
Cylinder offsetDetermines the center P1and radius R from_ three points on the border                                 14
Height transferDetermines the instrument height at P0 from:_ the point(s) Pi with known height(s)                         ...
Hidden pointDetermines the hidden point P1 from:_ two points 1 and 2, and_ distances d1 & d2 on the rod         16
Check tieCalculates from 2 measured points P1 & P2::_ slope and horizontal distance_ azimuth_ grade_ height difference_ co...
Applications•   Traverse and Surveying•   Stake out•   Free station•   Reference line & Reference arc•   Area and volume• ...
Traverse• Helmet transformation• Adjustment• Checking point and tolerance• Start the traverse with or without known  backs...
Traverse           20
Traverse           21
Stake outPolar mode   Orthogonal mode   Cartesian mode                                            22
Free stationDetermines the instrument position P0 from at least 2 known points Pi                                         ...
Reference line• Reference Line is an application that facilitates  the easy stake out or checking of lines, for  example, ...
Base lineBase line is defined by 2 pointswhich can be:_ measured, or_ entered / selected from memory                      ...
Reference lineReference line is created by:_ parallel / longitudinal offset_ rotatedfrom base line / base point           ...
Line & offset to calculate: _ offsets _ height difference of target point relative to ref. line                           ...
Stake outGrid stake out                 Point stake out   28
Line segmentation stake out                              29
Reference arc• Line & offset• Stake out:  – Point  – Arc  – Chord  – Angle                             30
Reference arc                31
Line & offset                32
Stake out (point & angle)                            33
Stake out (arc & chord)                          34
Tie distancePolynomial method                    35
Tie distanceRadial method                36
Area       37
Volume     38
Remote height       to compute points (without prism)          directly above the base prism                              ...
Geometry calculations•   Inverse and Traverse•   Intersection•   Offset•   Extension                                40
Inverseto calculate:_ distance_ direction_ height difference_ gradebetween 2 known points                                 ...
Traverse           to calculate the position           of a new point using:           _ distance           _ bearing     ...
IntersectionsBearing-Bearing              Bearing-Distance   (2 lines)                 (a line & a circle)                ...
Intersections                            By PointsDistance-Distance      (4 points on 2 lines)    (2 circles)             ...
OffsetsDistance-offset      Set point   Plane offset                                          45
Extensionto calculate the extended point    from a known base line                                      46
Road 2D      47
Road 3DQuadratic Parabola                           48
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Total station

  1. 1. The introduction and applications of TOTAL STATION (Leica TS02/06/09) LUONG BAO BINH Dept. of Geomatics Engineering University of Technology, HCMC, VN
  2. 2. Contents• Introduction – Fundamental measurements – Why is the total station? – Modern technologies• Basic functions – Target offset – Height transfer – Hidden point – Check tie 2
  3. 3. Contents (cont.)• Applications – Surveying & Traverse – Stake out – Free station – Reference line & Reference arc – Tie distance – Area and volume – Remote height – Coordinate geometry calculations – Road 2D and 3D 3
  4. 4. Fundamental measurementsAngle with theodolites Leveling with levels Distance with tape or EDMShould we combine them in an instrument? 4
  5. 5. Why is the total station?• Problem: in practice, not only individual measurements but also the combinations of measurements and the calculations are required for many tasks.• Solution: the total stationElectronic Total + EDM + Firmware =theodolite station 5
  6. 6. Advantages of total station• All-in-one instrument for multi-task• Reliable and highly accurate• Integrated applications available for many common tasks• Automatic and easy in data storage and transfer• A complete procedure from surveying to map plotting is available with appropriate softwares 6
  7. 7. Accuracy and range Prism mode 7
  8. 8. Accuracy and range Non-prism mode 8
  9. 9. Modern technologies• Reflectorless (non-prism mode)• Integrated GPS (smart station)• Auto tracking (robotic) 9
  10. 10. Integrated GPS 10
  11. 11. Integrated GPS 11
  12. 12. Basic functions• Target offset• Height transfer• Hidden point• Check tie 12
  13. 13. Target offsetDetermines the target point P2 from:_ the offset point P1 and_ two distances: traverse offset and length offset 13
  14. 14. Cylinder offsetDetermines the center P1and radius R from_ three points on the border 14
  15. 15. Height transferDetermines the instrument height at P0 from:_ the point(s) Pi with known height(s) 15
  16. 16. Hidden pointDetermines the hidden point P1 from:_ two points 1 and 2, and_ distances d1 & d2 on the rod 16
  17. 17. Check tieCalculates from 2 measured points P1 & P2::_ slope and horizontal distance_ azimuth_ grade_ height difference_ coordinates diference 17
  18. 18. Applications• Traverse and Surveying• Stake out• Free station• Reference line & Reference arc• Area and volume• Remote height• Coordinate geometry calculations• Road 2D & 3D 18
  19. 19. Traverse• Helmet transformation• Adjustment• Checking point and tolerance• Start the traverse with or without known backsight• Measure sideshot 19
  20. 20. Traverse 20
  21. 21. Traverse 21
  22. 22. Stake outPolar mode Orthogonal mode Cartesian mode 22
  23. 23. Free stationDetermines the instrument position P0 from at least 2 known points Pi 23
  24. 24. Reference line• Reference Line is an application that facilitates the easy stake out or checking of lines, for example, for buildings, sections of road, or simple excavations. It allows the user to define a reference line and then complete the following tasks with respect to that line: – Line & offset – Point & Grid stake out – Line segmentation stake out 24
  25. 25. Base lineBase line is defined by 2 pointswhich can be:_ measured, or_ entered / selected from memory 25
  26. 26. Reference lineReference line is created by:_ parallel / longitudinal offset_ rotatedfrom base line / base point 26
  27. 27. Line & offset to calculate: _ offsets _ height difference of target point relative to ref. line 27
  28. 28. Stake outGrid stake out Point stake out 28
  29. 29. Line segmentation stake out 29
  30. 30. Reference arc• Line & offset• Stake out: – Point – Arc – Chord – Angle 30
  31. 31. Reference arc 31
  32. 32. Line & offset 32
  33. 33. Stake out (point & angle) 33
  34. 34. Stake out (arc & chord) 34
  35. 35. Tie distancePolynomial method 35
  36. 36. Tie distanceRadial method 36
  37. 37. Area 37
  38. 38. Volume 38
  39. 39. Remote height to compute points (without prism) directly above the base prism 39
  40. 40. Geometry calculations• Inverse and Traverse• Intersection• Offset• Extension 40
  41. 41. Inverseto calculate:_ distance_ direction_ height difference_ gradebetween 2 known points 41
  42. 42. Traverse to calculate the position of a new point using: _ distance _ bearing from a known points 42
  43. 43. IntersectionsBearing-Bearing Bearing-Distance (2 lines) (a line & a circle) 43
  44. 44. Intersections By PointsDistance-Distance (4 points on 2 lines) (2 circles) 44
  45. 45. OffsetsDistance-offset Set point Plane offset 45
  46. 46. Extensionto calculate the extended point from a known base line 46
  47. 47. Road 2D 47
  48. 48. Road 3DQuadratic Parabola 48
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