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Der Wert der Wissensallmende

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Vortrag im Rahmen der 10. Berliner Rechtspolitische Konferenz der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung „Eigentum - Was ist es uns wert? Herausforderungen für den Schutz nach Artikel 14 Grundgesetz“

, 6. November 2015, Berlin

Published in: Law
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Der Wert der Wissensallmende

  1. 1. DER WERT DER WISSENSALLMENDE Leonhard Dobusch „Eigentum - Was ist es uns wert? Herausforderungen für den Schutz nach Artikel 14 Grundgesetz“
 10. Berliner Rechtspolitische Konferenz der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung
 6. November 2015, Berlin
  2. 2. #0 PROLOG
  3. 3. 2 Abs. 2 URHEBERRECHTSGESETZ: Werke im Sinne dieses Gesetzes sind nur persönliche geistige Schöpfungen. §»
  4. 4. Jedes auch noch so kreative Werk enthält Teile von Rohmaterial, das dessen Schöpfer zuerst in Werken anderer vorgefunden haben. » Nur weil wir eine Allmende haben, können Urheber das grelle Licht einer Suche nach Ursprünglichkeit meiden und die Fiktion aufrecht erhalten, dass es sich allein um ihre eigene Schöpfung handelt. nach: Litman (1990): The Public Domain.
  5. 5. #1 WAS IST (IN DER) WISSENSALLMENDE?
  6. 6. ALLE RECHTE VORBEHALTEN
  7. 7. ALLE RECHTE VORBEHALTEN IDEEN ! ! ! FRIST-
 ABLAUF ! ! ! AMTL.
 WERKE SCHRANKEN OFFENE LIZENZEN
  8. 8. IDEEN ! ! ! FRIST-
 ABLAUF ! ! ! AMTL.
 WERKE ALLE RECHTE VORBEHALTEN
  9. 9. Tragödien der Anti-Allmende
  10. 10. Stärke des Urheberrechts Effekt auf Angebot und Nutzung kreativer Güter Eindeutig positiv Eindeutig negativ Tragödien der Allmende Tragödien der Anti-Allmende
  11. 11. Stärke des Urheberrechts Effekt auf Angebot und Nutzung kreativer Güter Eindeutig positiv Eindeutig negativ Tragödien der Allmende Tragödien der
 Anti-Allmende
  12. 12. #2 SCHUTZFRISTEN
  13. 13. Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Old_book_- _Basking_Ridge_Historical_Society_(1).jpg Mehrheit aller Werke ist 10 Jahre nach Erscheinen nicht mehr kommerziell verwertbar. 100% dieser Werke sind noch Jahrzehnte geschützt. Sáenz-Arroyo et al. (2005: 1957; eigene Übersetzung)
  14. 14. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2266 New Editions from Amazon by Decade Fiction & Non- Fiction Books Quelle: Heald, P. (2013), http://ssrn.com/abstract=2290181 Verfügbare Bücher nach Erscheinungsjahr 
 (Zufallsstichprobe von 2.266 Büchern bei Amazon) LÜCKE DES 20. JAHRHUNDERTS
  15. 15. ALLMENDE#FAIL: SCHUTZFRISTEN BIBLIOTHEKEN: können nicht digitalisieren LESER: kein Zugang zu digitalen Büchern AUTOREN: verdienen nichts an Büchern VERLAGE: verdienen nichts an Büchern
  16. 16. Bild: Bjørn Erik Pedersen, CC-BY 2.5, https://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fil:Nasjonalbiblioteket_i_Oslo.jpg BOKHYLLA »Extended Collective Licensing«
  17. 17. Stand 2014: 160.000 Bücher verfügbar, 3.000 Opt-outs» Endausbau 2017: 250.000 Titel, erschienen bis Jahr 2000 Vergütung: 0,04 Cent/Seite; Endausbau: 0,37 EUR/Bürger BOKHYLLA
  18. 18. #3 SCHRANKEN
  19. 19. SCHRANKENKATALOG
 (teilweise pauschalvergütet)
  20. 20. 21 OPTIONALE SCHRANKEN 28 EU-MITGLIEDSSTAATEN 2.097.152WEGE, DIE RICHTLINIE UMZUSETZEN
  21. 21. FAIR USE
 (unvergütet)
  22. 22. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u66d9NbPFZ4
  23. 23. ALLMENDE#FAIL: SCHRANKEN MASHUP GERMANY: kann Songs nicht verbreiten RADIOS: können Songs nicht spielen FANS: können Songs nicht kaufen ANDERE KÜNSTLER: verdienen an Songs nichts
  24. 24. #4 OFFENE LIZENZEN
  25. 25. ©Automatisch: Alle Rechte vorbehalten NORMALES 
 URHEBERRECHT Manche Rechte vorbehalten CREATIVE COMMONS
  26. 26. ALLMENDE#FAIL: OFFENE LIZENZEN LEHR- & LERNMATERIALIEN FORSCHUNGSERGEBNISSE ÖFFENTLICHER RUNDFUNK
  27. 27. ALLMENDE#FAIL: OFFENE LIZENZEN LEHR- & LERNMATERIALIEN FORSCHUNGSERGEBNISSE ÖFFENTLICHER RUNDFUNK öffentlich finanziert,
 kein öffentlicher Zugang
  28. 28. #5 FAZIT
  29. 29. ANTI-URHEBERRECHTSEXTREMISMUS #1 OHNE ALLMENDE KEIN URHEBERRECHT #2 STATUS QUO: ANTI-ALLMENDE-PROBLEME #3 KOLLEKTIVE LIZENZEN, SCHRANKEN & CC
  30. 30. #6 EPILOG
  31. 31. the growth of intellectual property in recent years has been uncontrolled to the point of recklessness. (p. 147) » The [copyright] law seemed suddenly to metastasize. (p. 153) The field of intellectual property can begin to resemble a game of conceptual Pac Man in which everything in sight is being gobbled up. (p. 156) David Lange (1981): Recognizing the Public Domain, In: Law and Contemporary Problems, 147
  32. 32. SHIFTING BASELINE Im Zuge von Generationen wandelte sich die Wahrnehmung dessen, was als „normal“ gilt, dermaßen, dass Geschichten vergangener Reichhaltigkeit nicht mehr geglaubt werden. Sáenz-Arroyo et al. (2005: 1957; eigene Übersetzung) »
  33. 33. KONTAKT E-Mail: 
 Leonhard.Dobusch@fu-berlin.de ! Twitter: @leonidobusch ! Homepages:
 http://wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/dobusch 
 http://www.dobusch.net ! Blog:
 http://www.governancexborders.com

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