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Zwischen Gemeinheit und Gemeinwohl:
 Facetten digitaler Ökonomie am Beispiel der Share-Economy


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Vortrag im Rahmen des „Netzwerk Digitaler Wandel“ der AK Wien,
 20. August 2015

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Zwischen Gemeinheit und Gemeinwohl:
 Facetten digitaler Ökonomie am Beispiel der Share-Economy


  1. 1. Zwischen Gemeinheit und Gemeinwohl:
 Facetten digitaler Ökonomie am Beispiel der Share-Economy
 Leonhard Dobusch
 Vortrag im Rahmen des „Netzwerk Digitaler Wandel“ der AK Wien,
 20. August 2015 This work is licensed under a
 Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
  2. 2. Facetten digitaler Ökonomie Beispiel(e für) Share-Economy Externalitäten der Share-Economy
  3. 3. Facetten digitaler Ökonomie
  4. 4. <1>
 Netzwerkeffekte
  5. 5. Bild: Raul654, CC-BY-SA, http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Datei:Gutenberg_Bible.jpg „Denn wer da hat, dem wird gegeben, 
 dass er die Fülle habe.“
  6. 6. Bild: Shirky, C. (2008), S. 27 5 Mitglieder 10 Mitglieder 15 Mitglieder 10 Verbindungen 45 Verbindungen 105 Verbindungen
  7. 7. Pinguine und Lemminge
  8. 8. <2>
 Sinkende Transaktionskosten
  9. 9. „Peer-to-Peer“ Bild: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:P2P-network.svg
  10. 10. Kommodifizierung von Vertrauen Bild: http://blog.apptopia.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/better-camera-2.png
  11. 11. <3>
 Transformative Innovationen
  12. 12. „Zero Billion Dollar Company“
  13. 13. Bild: http://www.aachen-stadtgeschichte.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Kleinanzeigenteil-Aachener-Zeitung-1953-03.jpg
  14. 14. Bilder: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Encyclopedia_Britannica_series.JPG?uselang=de / http://coverlib.com/pub/Archiv/01910000/01909138.JPG Umsatz Reichweite, Umfang, Qualität (?)
  15. 15. Beispiel(e für) Share-Economy
  16. 16. <1>
 Primär nicht-marktliche Share-Economy
 (echtes „sharing“)
  17. 17. Ressourcenpool / Plattform Kein unmittelbar reziproker Austausch von Gegenleistungen
  18. 18. “Imagine a world in which every single human being can freely share in the sum of all knowledge.”
  19. 19. hospitality on Couchsurfing is free. A host should never ask a guest to pay for their lodging, and a guest should not offer. “
  20. 20. Ferner ist es Fahrer gesetzlich untersagt, durch das Mitnehmen von anderen Personen einen gewerbsmäßigen Gewinn zu erwirtschaften. “
  21. 21. 27 „Universelles Band des Teilens, das alles Menschliche verbindet Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Former_Ubuntu_logo.svg
  22. 22. <2>
 Primär marktliche Share-Economy
 („collaborative consumption“, „pseudo-sharing“)
  23. 23. Plattform Austausch von Gegenleistungen
  24. 24. Externalitäten der Share-Economy
  25. 25. <1>
 Ressourcenschonung?
  26. 26. Schätzungen zu Car2Go in Ulm: Quelle: Firnkorn, J., Müller, M. (2011): What will be the environmental effects of new free-floating car-sharing systems? The case of car2go in Ulm. Ecological Economics, 70, 1519-1528. 3.1), but as this effect is unlikely to be significant in Ulm in the period under review until 2014, vehicles other than cars are excluded from the analysis. Table 4 Forecast of changing emission effects per average car2go user [kg CO2/year] (N=256). Best case Most likely case Worst case Total emissions in 2009 (EM_total_2009) 2786 2787 2790 CO2 car2go +318 +392 +484 CO2 public transportation −16 −16 −16 CO2 borrowed car −149 −149 −149 CO2 private car −466 −466 −466 Total emissions in 2014 (EM_total_2014)a 2474 2549 2644 Net change (EM_delta_abs) −312 −238 −146 a Calculated on exact figures without rounding.
  27. 27. Schätzungen zu Car2Go in Ulm: Quelle: Firnkorn, J., Müller, M. (2011): What will be the environmental effects of new free-floating car-sharing systems? The case of car2go in Ulm. Ecological Economics, 70, 1519-1528. n d e size of 2.5 in the considered area corresponds to −232 kg CO2/year per person (Martin and Shaheen, 2010). However, even though the results . Table 5 Potential to reduce private vehicle ownership. Applies strongly Does not apply at all 1 2 3 4 5 If car2go proves itself in the next 5 years in Ulm, I could image forgoing the purchase of a car or of a replacement car in the future. (n=307) 14% 15% 14% 11% 46% If car2go proves itself in the next 5 years in Ulm, a car which I currently borrow is likely to be dispensed with, for example by a friend or family member. (n=294) 8% 11% 14% 12% 55% ~50%
  28. 28. <2>
 Zugang zu Wissen?
  29. 29. Bild: http://www.everythingisaremix.info/shop-now-open//
  30. 30. Reuse: Weiterverwendungsrecht1 Revise: Veränderungsrecht2 Remix: Rekombinationsrecht3 Redistribute: Weiterverbreitungsrecht4 4R
  31. 31. Offener Zugang Offene Lizenzen Offene Formate
  32. 32. <3>
 Umgehung von Regulierung und Lohndumping?
  33. 33. Vergleich Einnahmen Taxi vs. Uber: 
 (Daten von Uber)
  34. 34. <4>
 Wohnraumverknappung?
  35. 35. Quelle: http://www.airbnbvsberlin.de/, CC-BY AirBnB in Berlin:
  36. 36. Quelle: http://www.airbnbvsberlin.de/, CC-BY AirBnB in Berlin:
  37. 37. Quelle: http://www.airbnbvsberlin.de/, CC-BY
  38. 38. <5>
 Entstehung von Ökosystemen?
  39. 39. Rund um Airbnb entstehen neue Start-ups, die Management-Services und das Führen eines kleinen Hotels für jeden noch einfacher machen. Dienstleistungen rund um Sharing-Plattformen Abbildung: http://de.slideshare.net/WHYownit/sharing-economy-mit-uber-zu-airbnb-oder-wer-braucht-knftig-noch-hotels, Folie 28
  40. 40. Es gibt nicht „die“ Share-Economy Es gibt positive und negative Externalitäten von Share-Economy Regulierung an Gewerbsmäßigkeit und Scheinselbstständigkeit orientieren Fazit
  41. 41. Kontakt E-Mail: 
 Leonhard.Dobusch@fu-berlin.de " Twitter: @leonidobusch " Web:
 wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/dobusch
 dobusch.net

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