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Seminar on 
programmed 
instruction ,SDL, CAL, 
and CAI 
Presented by: Ligi Xavier 
First Year MSc Nursing 
Govt. College ...
Programmed instruction 
Definitions 
• Programmed learning is a systematic, step by step, self-instructional 
programme ai...
Characteristics 
• It is a method of individualised instruction. 
• Instructional material is logically sequenced and brok...
Fundamental principles 
• Principles of small steps 
• Principles of active responding 
• Principles of reinforcement 
• P...
Stages in the development of 
Programmed instruction 
• 1.Preparation 
– (a) Select a unit or Topic 
– (b) Prepare a conte...
• 2. Writing the programme 
– (a)Present the material in the frames 
– (b) Provide for active student Response 
– (c) Prov...
Types of programmed 
instruction 
• Linear or extrinsic programming 
• Branching or intrinsic programming 
• Mathetics pro...
Chief features of linear 
programme 
• Every learner follows the same path. 
• Programme is composed of small steps 
• Onl...
Linear programme 
Merits 
• Greatly motivating and releases 
anxiety. 
• It facilitates the reinforcement. 
• Repetitions ...
Limitations 
• Subject matter is broken into very 
small pieces. 
• Responding is more restrictive 
• Restricts the imagin...
Techniques in branch 
programme 
Backward branching 
• The learner goes from first frame to second frame 
only if he makes...
Forward branching 
• In this type, whether the learner is 
making correct response or wrong 
response from page to page. W...
Merits of programmed 
instruction 
• A well programmed instruction is a great thrust in the 
direction of individualised i...
Limitations 
• Restricts the the learner’s freedom 
of choice. 
• Teacher student relationship is 
completely lost. 
• It ...
Personalized System of 
Instruction(PSI) 
• Also known as the “Keller Plan”1960s, 
Fred Keller, built on earlier models of...
Steps 
• Instructor designs course policy statement . 
• Instructor breaks content into topical chunks Or units 
instructo...
CONTD………………. 
• Students complete a unit, they are tested 
• Immediate feedback is provided by 
proctor with an opportunit...
SELF directed 
LEARNING(SDL)
What is Self-Directed 
Learning (SDL)? 
• Self-directed learning (SDL) involves initiating 
personally challenging activit...
DEFINITIONS 
• Self directed learning (SDL) views learners as responsible 
owners and managers of their own learning proce...
Characteristics 
• Learning based on learner’s interests, 
attitudes, values and abilities 
• Central / key position to th...
Importance of sdl 
• It helps people who take initiative in 
learning. 
• Working collaboratively with others(people 
and ...
Cognitive Actions That Promote 
Self-Directed Learning 
 Challenge something 
 Make an observation 
 Draw a conclusion ...
CONTD……… 
 Separate causes from symptoms 
 Identify the primary and secondary causes of a problem 
 Adapt something for...
Indicators of SDL 
• Students who are self-directed learners 
might display some of the following 
behaviours: 
• Construc...
PRINCIPLES OF SELF 
LEARNING 
• Understanding comes from our interaction 
with the environment. 
• Cognitive conflicts sti...
CONTD…….. 
• Positive feedback has got impact on 
self learning. 
• Subject matter has importance and 
relevance for him. ...
The 4 tiers of self directed 
learning 
• Tier I. Learning by Preparing: Exploring interests, extending 
knowledge, creati...
Specific approaches to 
SDL 
1.Offer students a choice for topic 
2. Vary the scope and depth of topics to be 
covered 
3....
Advantages 
• Self-directed learning allows learners to be more effective 
learners and social beings 
• Self-directed lea...
Powerpoint Templates 
Page 34 
• Computer assisted 
instruction and learning
PURPOSE OF USING COMPUTER 
IN EDUCATION 
– Instructional/learning 
– Curriculum development 
– Educational administration ...
Computer Based Education (CBE) 
and Computer Based Instruction 
(CBI 
• These are broadest terms and can refer to 
virtual...
Computer Enriched 
Instruction (CEI) 
• Is defined as learning activities in which 
computers 
• 1) Generated data at the ...
Computer Managed Instruction 
(CMI 
Can refer either to the use of computers by 
school staff to organize data and make 
i...
Computer assisted 
learning(CAL) 
• Includes assisting, augmenting and delivering 
instructions/courses through the applic...
• Computer Assisted Instruction 
(CAI) is most often refers to drill 
and practice, tutorial, or simulation 
activities of...
Modes of CAI programmes 
• The CAI software packages are 
categorised into six modes as: 
Tutor Mode, Drill and Practice 
...
Principles 
• Balance, which is a “a form of equilibrium with in a 
composition that is used to provide for coherence of 
...
Ten tips to develop a 
cal module 
• For this, we need to organize the various frames-the 
texts, sounds, videos, animatio...
4.Develop CAL sequence in the form of frames 
– Each frame is an entity. it may consist of text, 
sound, graphics, an anim...
5) Write down each frame on a card and number them 
6) Decide the sequencing of I, L and T frames, either in a 
linear or ...
Advantages 
1. It provides individualized, self paced 
instruction. 
2. Improves the level of student performance. 
3. Cre...
LIMITATIONS 
• 1.Less effective in the case of development 
of psychomotor domain. 
• 2 Content: all topics are not suited...
CONTD………………… 
• 6.others 
– It does not solve psychological or educational 
problems 
– Computer fails to appreciate the e...
E- learning 
• One form of distance learning, a type of 
educational situation in which the instructor 
and students are s...
CONTD………. 
• Allows participants to acquire knowledge, 
to construct personal meaning, and to grow 
from the learning expe...
Advantages 
• Flexibility, convenience and the ability to work at any place where 
an internet connection is available and...
Different forms of E-learning 
• MULTIMEDIA - The term Multimedia describes the presentation of 
information using a combi...
CONTD……………. 
• VIRTUAL REALITY - (VR) is a 
technology which allows a user to 
interact with a computer-simulated 
environ...
COMPUTER CONFERENCING 
• “Uses the computer to establish a network 
on a main frame or file server in which an 
unlimited ...
VIDEO CONFERENCING 
• - A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) 
is a set of interactive telecommunication...
OTHER E-LEARNING 
SITUATIONS 
• MP3 Players 
• Web-based teaching materials, 
• Multimedia CD-ROMs, 
• Web sites, 
• Inter...
Bibliography 
• 
• K. Sampath A,A Panirselvam,introduction to educational 
technology pp;273--306 
• Aggarwal J.C (2001) p...
Contd…………. 
• Francis M Quinn.The principles and practice of 
nursing education,pp:212-213 
• www.google.com-competcncy- b...
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  1. 1. Seminar on programmed instruction ,SDL, CAL, and CAI Presented by: Ligi Xavier First Year MSc Nursing Govt. College Of Nursing,Kottayam
  2. 2. Programmed instruction Definitions • Programmed learning is a systematic, step by step, self-instructional programme aimed to to ensure the learning of stated behaviour.(Dale, Edgar 1962) • Programmed instruction is a method of designing reproducible sequence of instructional events to produce a measurable consistent effect on a behaviour of each and every acceptable student.(Susan Markle,1969) • Programmed instruction is a method of individualised instruction where each individual learns by himself at his own rate. Programmed learning consists of elements of new knowledge called ‘steps’ which are arranged in a sequence in such a way that a student can learn by himself.(Das, R.C 1993)
  3. 3. Characteristics • It is a method of individualised instruction. • Instructional material is logically sequenced and broken into suitable small steps or segments of subject matter called frames. • In actual operation the beginning is made by presenting a frame, the learner is required to read or listen and respond actively. • Programmed instruction system has an adequate provision for feedback • The interaction between the learner and the learning material or programme is very important. • It provides self pacing to learner. • Provides for continuous evaluation.
  4. 4. Fundamental principles • Principles of small steps • Principles of active responding • Principles of reinforcement • Principles of self packing • Principles of student- Evaluation or Student Testing
  5. 5. Stages in the development of Programmed instruction • 1.Preparation – (a) Select a unit or Topic – (b) Prepare a content outline – (c) Define your objectives in Behavioural Terms – (d) Construct a test of Terminal behaviour
  6. 6. • 2. Writing the programme – (a)Present the material in the frames – (b) Provide for active student Response – (c) Provide for confirmation or correction of student response – (d)Use prompts to Guide Student Responses – (e) Providing careful sequencing of frames 3. Try-out Revision
  7. 7. Types of programmed instruction • Linear or extrinsic programming • Branching or intrinsic programming • Mathetics programming • Rules system of programming • Computer assisted instruction • Learner controlled instruction
  8. 8. Chief features of linear programme • Every learner follows the same path. • Programme is composed of small steps • Only one response is required. • Prompts or cues are given in the earlier frames to minimise the probability error. • Every student works at his own speed and follows the frame in the same order. • Feedback or reinforcement is quick. • Response asked for requires a critical observation and comprehension of the frame
  9. 9. Linear programme Merits • Greatly motivating and releases anxiety. • It facilitates the reinforcement. • Repetitions strengthens the response and ensues the learning •
  10. 10. Limitations • Subject matter is broken into very small pieces. • Responding is more restrictive • Restricts the imagination of the learner • Encourages the guessing • Does not develop the discriminating power of the students
  11. 11. Techniques in branch programme Backward branching • The learner goes from first frame to second frame only if he makes correct response. If he makes an error, he is led to a remedial frame where he is given some more help in understanding the concept and in solving the solution by a better logic. He will then be directed to original frame number one. He reads again, answers correctly in the light of remedial material received earlier. So the learner goes through the same frame twice, once before the remedial material and secondly after the remedial material
  12. 12. Forward branching • In this type, whether the learner is making correct response or wrong response from page to page. When he makes a wrong choice, he is directed to a remedial frame where his mistakes are fully explained, probably followed by another parallel question, from which he goes to next frame in the main stream.
  13. 13. Merits of programmed instruction • A well programmed instruction is a great thrust in the direction of individualised instruction. • It permits individual learner to progress at his own speed. • It reduces the inertia and passivity from the part of learner • Learning becomes more interested and learner is motivated. • Programmes are developed by experts. • Learner is immediately reinforced and maintains motivation • The programmed instruction has been used more successfully in teaching logic of various disciplines and inspiring students to creative thinking and judgement. • Programmed instruction enables the teacher to diagnose the problems of the individual learner.
  14. 14. Limitations • Restricts the the learner’s freedom of choice. • Teacher student relationship is completely lost. • It is not effective in language learning. • Programmed instructional material is very costly
  15. 15. Personalized System of Instruction(PSI) • Also known as the “Keller Plan”1960s, Fred Keller, built on earlier models of personalized instruction .The Personalized System of Instruction is a mastery learning model which seeks to promote mastery of a pre-specified set of objectives from each learner in a course. Students work through a series of self-paced modules.
  16. 16. Steps • Instructor designs course policy statement . • Instructor breaks content into topical chunks Or units instructor develops study guides for each unit . • Study guides include: objectives, study procedures, questions self-paced, individual work through guides. • PSI study guides were historically print-based, although they may take different forms today from computer-based to internet-based instruction. • Students work through modules at their own pace.
  17. 17. CONTD………………. • Students complete a unit, they are tested • Immediate feedback is provided by proctor with an opportunity to review and re-test • Student move on to new units after they master previous, prerequisite units, self-pacing through course lectures limited, provide for interaction and motivation more than content-dispensing
  18. 18. SELF directed LEARNING(SDL)
  19. 19. What is Self-Directed Learning (SDL)? • Self-directed learning (SDL) involves initiating personally challenging activities and developing personal knowledge and skills to pursue the challenges successfully (Gibbons, 2002). For students engaged in self-directed learning, there will be: • Ownership of Learning • Management and Monitoring of Own Learning • Extension of Own Learning
  20. 20. DEFINITIONS • Self directed learning (SDL) views learners as responsible owners and managers of their own learning process. Self directed learning integrates self management (Management of context, including the social setting, resources and action) with self monitoring (the process whereby the learners monitor, evaluate and regulate their cognitive learning strategies). » -Bolhuis, 1996 & Garrison, 1997 • . • SDL is an increase in knowledge ,skill, accomplishment or personal development that an individual selects and brings about by his or her own efforts using any methods in any circircumstance at any time.
  21. 21. Characteristics • Learning based on learner’s interests, attitudes, values and abilities • Central / key position to the learner • Self learning • Learner manages learning process • Learner centered curriculum, methods and evaluation • Immediate evaluation and feedback • Less teacher influence
  22. 22. Importance of sdl • It helps people who take initiative in learning. • Working collaboratively with others(people and resources) • Selecting strategies skilfully and with initiative. • Helps to gain new skills, knowledge and attitudes to improve their work performance
  23. 23. Cognitive Actions That Promote Self-Directed Learning  Challenge something  Make an observation  Draw a conclusion  Question something  Revise a question based on observation & data  Critique something  Observe something  Revise something  Transfer a lesson or philosophical stance from one situation to another  Improve a design  Identify a cause and effect  Compare and contrast two or more things  Test the validity of a model
  24. 24. CONTD………  Separate causes from symptoms  Identify the primary and secondary causes of a problem  Adapt something for something new  Make a prediction and observe what occurs  Narrate a sequence  Study and visually demonstrate nuance  Identify and explain a pattern  Study the relationship between text and subtext  Elegantly emphasize nuance  Critically evaluate a socially-accepted idea  Extract a lesson from nature  Take & defend a position  Record notes during and after observation of something  Form a theory & revise it based on observation and/or data
  25. 25. Indicators of SDL • Students who are self-directed learners might display some of the following behaviours: • Construct 1: Ownership of Learning • Construct 2: Management and Monitoring of Own Learning Construct 3: Extension of Own Learning
  26. 26. PRINCIPLES OF SELF LEARNING • Understanding comes from our interaction with the environment. • Cognitive conflicts stimulate learning. • High level of motivation is needed. • Learner has fully responsibility. • Involvement and participation are necessary for learning.
  27. 27. CONTD…….. • Positive feedback has got impact on self learning. • Subject matter has importance and relevance for him. • Learner seems himself different as a result of learning experiences. • Transfer of learning occurs when the problem has resemblance to real life situations
  28. 28. The 4 tiers of self directed learning • Tier I. Learning by Preparing: Exploring interests, extending knowledge, creating ideas, envisioning possibilities. • Tier II. Learning by Doing: Conducting activities, developing skills, overcoming obstacles, achieving goals. • Tier III. Learning by Reflecting on Doing: recording project history, analyzing the process employed, reflecting on personal performance, assessing success. • Tier IV. Learning by Moving Forward: Celebrating success. Considering “Where am I now?” Imagining possible futures. Selecting personal and process features to develop. Moving forward
  29. 29. Specific approaches to SDL 1.Offer students a choice for topic 2. Vary the scope and depth of topics to be covered 3.Provide alternative method for learning 4.Provide students with a problem to solve 5.Consider using self instructional course units 6.Provide opportunities for self assessment 7.Get to know your student
  30. 30. Advantages • Self-directed learning allows learners to be more effective learners and social beings • Self-directed learners are curious and willing to try new things. • They can view problems as challenges, desire change, and enjoy learning • Self-directed learners are motivated and persistent, independent, self-disciplined, self-confident and goal-oriented. • self-directed learners demonstrate a greater awareness of their responsibility in making learning meaningful and monitoring themselves • Self-directed learning encourages students to develop their own rules and leadership patterns.
  31. 31. Powerpoint Templates Page 34 • Computer assisted instruction and learning
  32. 32. PURPOSE OF USING COMPUTER IN EDUCATION – Instructional/learning – Curriculum development – Educational administration and management – Educational documentation – Educational documentation – Educational planning – Educational test construction
  33. 33. Computer Based Education (CBE) and Computer Based Instruction (CBI • These are broadest terms and can refer to virtually any kind of computer use in educational settings, including drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, instructional management, supplementary exercises, programming, database development, writing and using word processors and other applications. These terms may refer either to stand – alone computer learning activities or to computer activities which reinforce material introduced and taught by teachers.
  34. 34. Computer Enriched Instruction (CEI) • Is defined as learning activities in which computers • 1) Generated data at the students’ response to illustrate relationships in models of social or physical reality. • 2) Execute programmes developed by the students or 3) provide general enrichment in relatively unstructured exercise designed to stimulate and motivate students
  35. 35. Computer Managed Instruction (CMI Can refer either to the use of computers by school staff to organize data and make instruction decisions or to activities in which the computer evaluates students’ test performance, guides them to appropriate instructional resources, and keeps records to their progress
  36. 36. Computer assisted learning(CAL) • Includes assisting, augmenting and delivering instructions/courses through the application of computer technology
  37. 37. • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is most often refers to drill and practice, tutorial, or simulation activities offered either by themselves or as supplements to traditional teacher directed instruction
  38. 38. Modes of CAI programmes • The CAI software packages are categorised into six modes as: Tutor Mode, Drill and Practice Mode, Simulation Mode, Problem Solving Mode, Instructional Games, Instructional Support and Dialogue
  39. 39. Principles • Balance, which is a “a form of equilibrium with in a composition that is used to provide for coherence of all the other elements’ • Emphasis, which help the viewer identify the main theme. Note that English speaking Americans are accustomed to reading from left to right and from top to bottom, but that order is not universally followed • Simplicity, which make it easier for the viewer to identify key elements. • Unity, which provides for ‘continuity of thought and ideas through over lapped images
  40. 40. Ten tips to develop a cal module • For this, we need to organize the various frames-the texts, sounds, videos, animation and the sequence in which they appear. The ten steps are 1. Choose a relevant topic 2. Decide the cognitive level aimed at, viz., knowledge, understanding or problem solving. 3. Decide the CAL MODE, viz., drill and practice, tutorial, case simulation or knowledge based “expert” mode
  41. 41. 4.Develop CAL sequence in the form of frames – Each frame is an entity. it may consist of text, sound, graphics, an animation sequence or a combination of these elements. – I-Frame or introductory frame gives directions to the learner – L-frame or learning frame presents the matter to the learnt – T-frame or test frame tests the learner and gives appropriate feed back
  42. 42. 5) Write down each frame on a card and number them 6) Decide the sequencing of I, L and T frames, either in a linear or branched manner. The progress should be written down on the frame cards. Alternatively, a flow chart can be prepared 7 Pre validates CAL by sharing with peers and students to get the feedback. Too easy, rigid, difficult or boring parts need to be revised 8) Get CAL module converted to a computer programme 9) Do post validation (“beta testing”) of CAL programme and make corrections if needed 10) Release CAL unit for learners to use and learn
  43. 43. Advantages 1. It provides individualized, self paced instruction. 2. Improves the level of student performance. 3. Creates interest in learning. 4. Immediate feedback. 5. Reduce the number of teachers. 6. Can store a large amount of information. 7. It can easily evaluate learning and is not affected by human weaknesses
  44. 44. LIMITATIONS • 1.Less effective in the case of development of psychomotor domain. • 2 Content: all topics are not suited for CAL. Eg: literature • 3 Program development: it is time consuming. • 4 Faculty involvement: it is limited to computer enthusiasts • 5 Not standardized evaluaton
  45. 45. CONTD………………… • 6.others – It does not solve psychological or educational problems – Computer fails to appreciate the emotions of students. 7. Expensive. – With self-access programs, learners can be left on their own too much – and may feel overwhelmed by the information and resources available • .
  46. 46. E- learning • One form of distance learning, a type of educational situation in which the instructor and students are separated by time, location, or both. • E-Learning typically involves the use of the internet to – access learning materials; – interact with the content, instructor, and other learners; – obtain support during the learning process
  47. 47. CONTD………. • Allows participants to acquire knowledge, to construct personal meaning, and to grow from the learning experience. • Computer enhanced learning • Medium of instruction is computer technology • Using electronic, technical devices for instruction & learning
  48. 48. Advantages • Flexibility, convenience and the ability to work at any place where an internet connection is available and at one’s own pace. • Allows learners to participate and complete coursework in accordance with their daily commitments. (e.g. disability) • Greater adaptability to learner’s needs. • More variety in learning experience with the use of multimedia and the non-verbal presentation of teaching material. • Provides visual and audio learning that can be reviewed as often as needed. • For organizations with distributed and constantly changing learners e-learning has • Assist formal instruction, informal learning, etc.
  49. 49. Different forms of E-learning • MULTIMEDIA - The term Multimedia describes the presentation of information using a combination of communication elements such as text, sound, graphics, animation and video. • M-LEARNING - The term covers: learning with portable technologies, where the focus is on the technology (which could be in a fixed location, such as a classroom); • learning across contexts, where the focus is on the mobility of the learner, interacting with portable or fixed technology; • learning in a mobile society, with a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support the learning of an increasingly mobile population. .
  50. 50. CONTD……………. • VIRTUAL REALITY - (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment, be it a real or imagined one. Virtual University - Virtual Global University in Germany, Canadian Virtual University, Virtual University of Jones International, Michigan Virtual University, African Virtual University, etc
  51. 51. COMPUTER CONFERENCING • “Uses the computer to establish a network on a main frame or file server in which an unlimited number of individual can communicate with each other using personnel computers linked by a local or wide area network or modem” ( Hastead,Hayes,Reising and Billings)
  52. 52. VIDEO CONFERENCING • - A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication strategies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called visual collaboration. Video conferencing can transmit pictures as well as voices through video cameras and computer modems. • One way video • 2 way video • One way audio • 2 way audio
  53. 53. OTHER E-LEARNING SITUATIONS • MP3 Players • Web-based teaching materials, • Multimedia CD-ROMs, • Web sites, • Interactive boards, • E-mail, • Text chat, • computer aided assessment, • Simulations & games, etc
  54. 54. Bibliography • • K. Sampath A,A Panirselvam,introduction to educational technology pp;273--306 • Aggarwal J.C (2001) principles methods and Techniques of Teaching (II nd edition) New Delhi, vikas, Publising House PVT LTD p 144-185 • Shankara narayanan, B Sindhu .B (2003 ) learning and Teaching nursing Calicut, Brainfill publication Pp :212-215 • Barbar A . Moyer and Ruth A. wittmann- Price (2008) Nursing Eductions, Foundations for practice Excellence ( New Delhi) Jaypee Brothers medical Publishers (P) LTD Pp:236
  55. 55. Contd…………. • Francis M Quinn.The principles and practice of nursing education,pp:212-213 • www.google.com-competcncy- based education • Journal of Advanced Nursing Volume 43, Issue, pages 62–70, July 2003 • Asian journal of paediatric practice , vol9, no.1 • ‘’Curriculam development and educational technology innovations in teaching learning’’Sterling publishers page no;144-185 • Elsa sanatombi Devi’’Manipal manual of Nursing Education’’ CBS publication page No:155-168

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