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instruction ,SDL, CAL,
Presented by: Ligi Xavier
First Year MSc Nursing
Govt. College Of Nursing,Kottayam
• Programmed learning is a systematic, step by step, self-instructional
programme aimed to to ensure the learning of stated
behaviour.(Dale, Edgar 1962)
• Programmed instruction is a method of designing reproducible
sequence of instructional events to produce a measurable
consistent effect on a behaviour of each and every acceptable
• Programmed instruction is a method of individualised instruction
where each individual learns by himself at his own rate.
Programmed learning consists of elements of new knowledge called
‘steps’ which are arranged in a sequence in such a way that a
student can learn by himself.(Das, R.C 1993)
• It is a method of individualised instruction.
• Instructional material is logically sequenced and broken into
suitable small steps or segments of subject matter called
• In actual operation the beginning is made by presenting a
frame, the learner is required to read or listen and respond
• Programmed instruction system has an adequate provision
• The interaction between the learner and the learning
material or programme is very important.
• It provides self pacing to learner.
• Provides for continuous evaluation.
• Principles of small steps
• Principles of active responding
• Principles of reinforcement
• Principles of self packing
• Principles of student- Evaluation or
Stages in the development of
– (a) Select a unit or Topic
– (b) Prepare a content outline
– (c) Define your objectives in
– (d) Construct a test of Terminal
• 2. Writing the programme
– (a)Present the material in the frames
– (b) Provide for active student Response
– (c) Provide for confirmation or
correction of student response
– (d)Use prompts to Guide Student
– (e) Providing careful sequencing of
3. Try-out Revision
Types of programmed
• Linear or extrinsic programming
• Branching or intrinsic programming
• Mathetics programming
• Rules system of programming
• Computer assisted instruction
• Learner controlled instruction
Chief features of linear
• Every learner follows the same path.
• Programme is composed of small steps
• Only one response is required.
• Prompts or cues are given in the earlier frames
to minimise the probability error.
• Every student works at his own speed and
follows the frame in the same order.
• Feedback or reinforcement is quick.
• Response asked for requires a critical
observation and comprehension of the frame
• Greatly motivating and releases
• It facilitates the reinforcement.
• Repetitions strengthens the response
and ensues the learning
• Subject matter is broken into very
• Responding is more restrictive
• Restricts the imagination of the
• Encourages the guessing
• Does not develop the discriminating
power of the students
Techniques in branch
• The learner goes from first frame to second frame
only if he makes correct response. If he makes an
error, he is led to a remedial frame where he is given
some more help in understanding the concept and in
solving the solution by a better logic. He will then be
directed to original frame number one. He reads again,
answers correctly in the light of remedial material
received earlier. So the learner goes through the same
frame twice, once before the remedial material and
secondly after the remedial material
• In this type, whether the learner is
making correct response or wrong
response from page to page. When he
makes a wrong choice, he is directed
to a remedial frame where his
mistakes are fully explained,
probably followed by another parallel
question, from which he goes to next
frame in the main stream.
Merits of programmed
• A well programmed instruction is a great thrust in the
direction of individualised instruction.
• It permits individual learner to progress at his own speed.
• It reduces the inertia and passivity from the part of learner
• Learning becomes more interested and learner is motivated.
• Programmes are developed by experts.
• Learner is immediately reinforced and maintains motivation
• The programmed instruction has been used more successfully
in teaching logic of various disciplines and inspiring students to
creative thinking and judgement.
• Programmed instruction enables the teacher to diagnose the
problems of the individual learner.
• Restricts the the learner’s freedom
• Teacher student relationship is
• It is not effective in language
• Programmed instructional material is
Personalized System of
• Also known as the “Keller Plan”1960s,
Fred Keller, built on earlier models of
personalized instruction .The
Personalized System of Instruction
is a mastery learning model which
seeks to promote mastery of a pre-specified
set of objectives from
each learner in a course. Students
work through a series of self-paced
• Instructor designs course policy statement .
• Instructor breaks content into topical chunks Or units
instructor develops study guides for each unit .
• Study guides include: objectives, study procedures,
questions self-paced, individual work through guides.
• PSI study guides were historically print-based, although
they may take different forms today from computer-based
to internet-based instruction.
• Students work through modules at their own pace.
• Students complete a unit, they are tested
• Immediate feedback is provided by
proctor with an opportunity to review and
• Student move on to new units after they
master previous, prerequisite units, self-pacing
through course lectures limited,
provide for interaction and motivation
more than content-dispensing
What is Self-Directed
• Self-directed learning (SDL) involves initiating
personally challenging activities and developing
personal knowledge and skills to pursue the
challenges successfully (Gibbons, 2002).
For students engaged in self-directed learning,
there will be:
• Ownership of Learning
• Management and Monitoring of Own Learning
• Extension of Own Learning
• Self directed learning (SDL) views learners as responsible
owners and managers of their own learning process. Self
directed learning integrates self management (Management
of context, including the social setting, resources and
action) with self monitoring (the process whereby the
learners monitor, evaluate and regulate their cognitive
» -Bolhuis, 1996 & Garrison, 1997
• SDL is an increase in knowledge ,skill, accomplishment or
personal development that an individual selects and brings
about by his or her own efforts using any methods in any
circircumstance at any time.
• Learning based on learner’s interests,
attitudes, values and abilities
• Central / key position to the learner
• Self learning
• Learner manages learning process
• Learner centered curriculum, methods and
• Immediate evaluation and feedback
• Less teacher influence
Importance of sdl
• It helps people who take initiative in
• Working collaboratively with others(people
• Selecting strategies skilfully and with
• Helps to gain new skills, knowledge and
attitudes to improve their work
Cognitive Actions That Promote
Make an observation
Draw a conclusion
Revise a question based on observation & data
Transfer a lesson or philosophical stance from one situation
Improve a design
Identify a cause and effect
Compare and contrast two or more things
Test the validity of a model
Separate causes from symptoms
Identify the primary and secondary causes of a problem
Adapt something for something new
Make a prediction and observe what occurs
Narrate a sequence
Study and visually demonstrate nuance
Identify and explain a pattern
Study the relationship between text and subtext
Elegantly emphasize nuance
Critically evaluate a socially-accepted idea
Extract a lesson from nature
Take & defend a position
Record notes during and after observation of something
Form a theory & revise it based on observation and/or data
Indicators of SDL
• Students who are self-directed learners
might display some of the following
• Construct 1: Ownership of Learning
• Construct 2: Management and Monitoring
of Own Learning
Construct 3: Extension of Own Learning
PRINCIPLES OF SELF
• Understanding comes from our interaction
with the environment.
• Cognitive conflicts stimulate learning.
• High level of motivation is needed.
• Learner has fully responsibility.
• Involvement and participation are necessary
• Positive feedback has got impact on
• Subject matter has importance and
relevance for him.
• Learner seems himself different as a
result of learning experiences.
• Transfer of learning occurs when the
problem has resemblance to real life
The 4 tiers of self directed
• Tier I. Learning by Preparing: Exploring interests, extending
knowledge, creating ideas, envisioning possibilities.
• Tier II. Learning by Doing: Conducting activities, developing
skills, overcoming obstacles, achieving goals.
• Tier III. Learning by Reflecting on Doing: recording project
history, analyzing the process employed, reflecting on personal
performance, assessing success.
• Tier IV. Learning by Moving Forward: Celebrating success.
Considering “Where am I now?” Imagining possible futures.
Selecting personal and process features to develop. Moving
Specific approaches to
1.Offer students a choice for topic
2. Vary the scope and depth of topics to be
3.Provide alternative method for learning
4.Provide students with a problem to solve
5.Consider using self instructional course units
6.Provide opportunities for self assessment
7.Get to know your student
• Self-directed learning allows learners to be more effective
learners and social beings
• Self-directed learners are curious and willing to try new things.
• They can view problems as challenges, desire change, and enjoy
• Self-directed learners are motivated and persistent, independent,
self-disciplined, self-confident and goal-oriented.
• self-directed learners demonstrate a greater awareness of their
responsibility in making learning meaningful and monitoring
• Self-directed learning encourages students to develop their own
rules and leadership patterns.
• Computer assisted
instruction and learning
PURPOSE OF USING COMPUTER
– Curriculum development
– Educational administration and management
– Educational documentation
– Educational documentation
– Educational planning
– Educational test construction
Computer Based Education (CBE)
and Computer Based Instruction
• These are broadest terms and can refer to
virtually any kind of computer use in educational
settings, including drill and practice, tutorials,
simulations, instructional management,
supplementary exercises, programming,
database development, writing and using word
processors and other applications. These terms
may refer either to stand – alone computer
learning activities or to computer activities
which reinforce material introduced and taught
• Is defined as learning activities in which
• 1) Generated data at the students’ response
to illustrate relationships in models of social
or physical reality.
• 2) Execute programmes developed by the
students or 3) provide general enrichment in
relatively unstructured exercise designed to
stimulate and motivate students
Computer Managed Instruction
Can refer either to the use of computers by
school staff to organize data and make
instruction decisions or to activities in
which the computer evaluates students’
test performance, guides them to
appropriate instructional resources, and
keeps records to their progress
• Includes assisting, augmenting and delivering
instructions/courses through the application of
• Computer Assisted Instruction
(CAI) is most often refers to drill
and practice, tutorial, or simulation
activities offered either by
themselves or as supplements to
traditional teacher directed
Modes of CAI programmes
• The CAI software packages are
categorised into six modes as:
Tutor Mode, Drill and Practice
Mode, Simulation Mode, Problem
Solving Mode, Instructional
Games, Instructional Support
• Balance, which is a “a form of equilibrium with in a
composition that is used to provide for coherence of
all the other elements’
• Emphasis, which help the viewer identify the main
theme. Note that English speaking Americans are
accustomed to reading from left to right and from top
to bottom, but that order is not universally followed
• Simplicity, which make it easier for the viewer to
identify key elements.
• Unity, which provides for ‘continuity of thought and
ideas through over lapped images
Ten tips to develop a
• For this, we need to organize the various frames-the
texts, sounds, videos, animation and the sequence in
which they appear. The ten steps are
1. Choose a relevant topic
2. Decide the cognitive level aimed at, viz., knowledge,
understanding or problem solving.
3. Decide the CAL MODE, viz., drill and practice,
tutorial, case simulation or knowledge based “expert”
4.Develop CAL sequence in the form of frames
– Each frame is an entity. it may consist of text,
sound, graphics, an animation sequence or a
combination of these elements.
– I-Frame or introductory frame gives directions
to the learner
– L-frame or learning frame presents the matter
to the learnt
– T-frame or test frame tests the learner and
gives appropriate feed back
5) Write down each frame on a card and number them
6) Decide the sequencing of I, L and T frames, either in a
linear or branched manner. The progress should be
written down on the frame cards. Alternatively, a flow
chart can be prepared
7 Pre validates CAL by sharing with peers and students
to get the feedback. Too easy, rigid, difficult or
boring parts need to be revised
8) Get CAL module converted to a computer programme
9) Do post validation (“beta testing”) of CAL programme
and make corrections if needed
10) Release CAL unit for learners to use and learn
1. It provides individualized, self paced
2. Improves the level of student performance.
3. Creates interest in learning.
4. Immediate feedback.
5. Reduce the number of teachers.
6. Can store a large amount of information.
7. It can easily evaluate learning and is not
affected by human weaknesses
• 1.Less effective in the case of development
of psychomotor domain.
• 2 Content: all topics are not suited for CAL.
• 3 Program development: it is time
• 4 Faculty involvement: it is limited to
• 5 Not standardized evaluaton
– It does not solve psychological or educational
– Computer fails to appreciate the emotions of
– With self-access programs, learners can be left on
their own too much
– and may feel overwhelmed by the information and
• One form of distance learning, a type of
educational situation in which the instructor
and students are separated by time,
location, or both.
• E-Learning typically involves the use of the
– access learning materials;
– interact with the content, instructor, and
– obtain support during the learning process
• Allows participants to acquire knowledge,
to construct personal meaning, and to grow
from the learning experience.
• Computer enhanced learning
• Medium of instruction is computer
• Using electronic, technical devices for
instruction & learning
• Flexibility, convenience and the ability to work at any place where
an internet connection is available and at one’s own pace.
• Allows learners to participate and complete coursework in
accordance with their daily commitments. (e.g. disability)
• Greater adaptability to learner’s needs.
• More variety in learning experience with the use of multimedia
and the non-verbal presentation of teaching material.
• Provides visual and audio learning that can be reviewed as often as
• For organizations with distributed and constantly changing
learners e-learning has
• Assist formal instruction, informal learning, etc.
Different forms of E-learning
• MULTIMEDIA - The term Multimedia describes the presentation of
information using a combination of communication elements such as
text, sound, graphics, animation and video.
• M-LEARNING - The term covers: learning with portable
technologies, where the focus is on the technology (which could be in
a fixed location, such as a classroom);
• learning across contexts, where the focus is on the mobility of the learner,
interacting with portable or fixed technology;
• learning in a mobile society, with a focus on how society and its
institutions can accommodate and support the learning of an increasingly
• VIRTUAL REALITY - (VR) is a
technology which allows a user to
interact with a computer-simulated
environment, be it a real or imagined
one. Virtual University - Virtual
Global University in Germany,
Canadian Virtual University, Virtual
University of Jones International,
Michigan Virtual University, African
Virtual University, etc
• “Uses the computer to establish a network
on a main frame or file server in which an
unlimited number of individual can
communicate with each other using
personnel computers linked by a local or
wide area network or modem” (
Hastead,Hayes,Reising and Billings)
• - A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference)
is a set of interactive telecommunication strategies which
allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video
and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been
called visual collaboration. Video conferencing can transmit
pictures as well as voices through video cameras and
• One way video
• 2 way video
• One way audio
• 2 way audio
• MP3 Players
• Web-based teaching materials,
• Multimedia CD-ROMs,
• Web sites,
• Interactive boards,
• Text chat,
• computer aided assessment,
• Simulations & games, etc
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• Francis M Quinn.The principles and practice of
• www.google.com-competcncy- based education
• Journal of Advanced Nursing Volume 43, Issue,
pages 62–70, July 2003
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