MS LISA CHADHA
F. Y MSC NURSING
O “Emphasis on meaning, not facts”
O Memorization- Traditional method.
O Problem based learning – engages
students in structuring real life
O Discovery method of teaching by
John Dewey 1930
O Refined by Jerome Burner and
Jean Piaget 1960.
History on PBL
O 1916--John Dewey’s progressive movement
belief that teachers should teach by appealing to
students natural instincts to investigate and
O 1980--Howard Burrows, a physician and medical
educator, started using this approach to help
medical students better diagnose new illnesses
O 1985-High schools and Colleges start using this
O 1990-1991, Schools began developing PBL
movements to improve student performance in
science and other disciplines 4
OBarrows defined problem based
learning as the individualized
learning that results from
process involved in working
towards the solution of the
OThe problem serves as the
stimulus, as well as search for
OUnderstanding comes from our
interaction with the environment.
OCognitive conflicts stimulate
OKnowledge evolves through social
negotiation and evaluation of the
viability of individual understanding.
OTo gain an understanding of
principles that underline
OAims at training problem analyzing
skills in particular professional
OTo exercise that students learn to
take decisions independently.
OTo activate prior knowledge and
integrate that knowledge.
O Learning is student centered.
O Learning occurs in small student groups.
O Teachers are facilitators or guides.
O Problems form the organizing focus and
stimulus for learning.
O Problems are a vehicle for the
development of clinical problem-solving
O New information is acquired through self-
O Shifts away from short, isolated teacher
O Integrates real world issues and practices
O Teaches students to apply what they have
learned in university to life-long endeavors
Principles Behind PBL
OUnderstanding is built through what we
OMeaning is created from efforts to answer
our own questions and solve our own
OWe should appeal to students’ natural
instincts to investigate and create
OStudent-centered strategies build critical
thinking and reasoning skills and further
their creativity and independence 10
O In problem-based learning, the traditional
teacher and student roles change.
O The students assume increasing
responsibility for their learning, giving
them more motivation and more feelings of
accomplishment, setting the pattern for
them to become successful life-long
O The faculty in turn become resources,
tutors, and evaluators, guiding the
students in their problem solving efforts.11
O The group leader
O The scribe
O The group members
O The tutor
Process of PBL
O Students confront a problem.
O In groups, students organize prior knowledge
and attempt to identify the nature of the problem.
O Students pose questions about what they do not
O Students design a plan to solve the problem and
identify the resources they need.
O Arrange possible explanations and working
O Students begin to gather information as they
work to solve the problem.
O Report back, synthesize explanations, and apply
newly acquired information to the problem 14
Characteristics of the PBL process
Usually based on clinical cases.
Cases are characterized by “progressive
Students come in “cold” to the first tutorial
Students determine the learning issues
Sessions are open-ended to allow learning.
The tutor is a facilitator and not necessarily
Problem-solving vs. problem-based
- different but inter-related -
Problem-solving: arriving at decisions based on
prior knowledge and reasoning.
Problem-based learning: the process of acquiring
new knowledge based on recognition of a need
Of the group
Of the student
Of the tutor
Of the Content
1. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROBLEM
BASED LEARNING AMONG NURSING
O International Education Studies; Vol. 7
O ISSN 1913-9020
O Online Published: June 26, 2014
The purpose of this study is to examine the implementation
Problem Based Learning (PBL) among nursing students.
More specifically, it compares pretest and post test
scores of the implementation of PBL among third year
students. Convenient sample methods were chosen and
ninety four third year students participated from a private
nursing college, Johor Bahru,
Data of this study was analyzed using t-test. Findings
indicated significant differences in overall
scores of pretest and posttest among third year students.
The result also demonstrated that the students’ level of
satisfaction towards PBL correlated with the effectiveness of
PBL. From the finding, it has been concluded that
implementation of PBL can be further developed through
creative and innovative approach in the students’learning
2. Motivations for the Use of Problem-Based
Learning (PBL)for Preparation of
Undergraduate Nursing Students for
Professional Competences: A Literature
International Journal of Nursing Science 2012,
ISSN NO : 20120205.02
The goal of this study was to examine the meaning and
application of problem-based learning
Asystematic investigation of available literature was conducted
in regard to the meaning and advantages of problem-based
learning as well as the role of both the facilitator and the
students regarding problem-based learning processinG health
The target population for the concept “problem-based learning”
was the qualitative and quantitative studies on problem-based
learning in the field of education, health (medicine and nursing)
In the absence of local data on problem-based learning, a
series of searches of the EBSCO Host, and Medline data bases
were conducted. In addition, selected textbooks with definitions
and the uses for problem-based learning approached were
consulted. A purposeful sampling method was used.
Problem-Based Learning approach is worthy
implementing in undergraduate nursing
education.Problem-Based Learning approach
has proven to be an effective way of delivering
nursing education in a coherent, integrated way
and therefore offers more advantages over
traditional teaching methods
3.The problem-based learning
integrated with simulation to
improve nursing students’ self-
Open Journal of Nursing, 2013, 3, 95-100
Published Online March 2013
The purposes of this study were to describe the simulation
integrated with problem-based learning (SIM-PBL) module to
educate the nursing process for clients with hypertension and to
evaluate its effectiveness on nursing students’ self-efficacy (SE).
Methods: This study was a one group pre- and post- test design.
Twenty five students received a 5-hour SIM-PBL program focused
on nursing care of clients with hypertension.
A newly developed self-report questionnaire was used to assess
SE in four areas of the nursing process with a scale of 0 (not at all
confi- dent) to 10 (totally confident)
The SIM-PBL module was effective in improv- ing the students’
self-efficacy in the nursing process for patients with hypertension.
Further studies are recommended in developing SIM-PBL modules
for diverse nursing topics and evaluating their effective- ness in
various aspects of students’ competence
O Devi Sanatombi Elsa, Manipal Manual of nursing
Education, 1st edition, CBS publishers and
distributers, New Delhi, 2012, chapter 6,pg no—
181 – 188.
O Baswanthappa B.T., Nursing Education, 2nd
edition, Jaypee medical publishers, New Delhi,
2009, chapter 2, pg no-310-317.
O Internet Source- www.pitt.edu/~super7/32011-