Presentation given at WebVisions Portland. (for those that saw my SxSW presentation, presentation has been refined and updated)
More and more products and services are designed around motivating users and incentivizing change. Products and services in finance, health and the environment, among other areas, are increasingly designed around influencing behavior. Some are doing this better than others. There are useful academic models and patterns for applying persuasion techniques. However, these techniques tend to stand alone, separate from our proven methods and processes for designing for good user experiences.
ApplyingBehavior Designor Behavior: you’re soaking
in it.Chris Risdon @chrisrisdonWebVisions Portland#wvpdx Ive been a workaday practitioner for close to 15 years. While Ive done a lot of design research, I dont have a#behavior background in academic research. A lot of people, much, much smarter than me, have created the foundation for this topic. What I’ve been motivated to do the past 3–4 years is to understand how all that we’re learning about designing for behavior change and persuasive technology translates practically to my work designing products and services today.
“Life as it is.” —Dziga
Vertov “A factual film which is dramatic” —Dziga VertovDocumentary filmmaking is an analogy I’ve often used. Long considered the “objective” formof cinema, in contrast to fictional, scripted and reenacted films. However, the moment you“frame” a story with constraints (for example tell a story in 2 hours that played out over 2years), you make decisions; where the filmmaker points the camera, how they edit the story,all these decision affect how the view receives—perceives and understands—the story.Interaction design is no different.
Un off ici al!Behavior Design
(short for designing for behavior change)Design with the intent to change someone’sbehavior or attitude.Persuasive TechnologyTechnology designed to persuade the user to use asystem or platform in a desired way.(may/may not have intent to change someone’s behavior or attitude) These are unofficial definitions that may differ from academic thinking. This represents my synthesis and understand and how I’ve chosen to make sense of them in the context of my work.
2004: During a layover you’re
sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.Your heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s halfway around the world. But the story understandably createssympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the redcross.org.To do this, you may need to take your flight, get home, remember that you wanted to donate, then go through traditional ecommerce funnel,providing billing address and credit card details. Then you also have to think, “how much do I want to donate?”You have to be fairly motivated to follow-through and donate.
909992010: During a layover you’re
sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Yourheart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s in another part of the world. But the story understandably createssympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the Red Cross by texting “Haiti” to 90999. $10 will be added to yourphone bill.You pull out your phone there at the bar (it can even be a feature phone), type 90999, and “Haiti”, hit send, and you’re done. No billing, andit’s just $10. And you feel good about helping out.
Opportune Moments We can see
these “triggers” at other opportune moments. How about when you go to the pet store and buy pet supplies? The POS credit card swiper asks if you want to add $1 to your charge to help animal shelters. You’re already spending $50, what’s $51? And you’ll feel good about donating, since you do love animals. Would they be just as successful if they gave you a flyer that made the case to donate and asked you to get online and donate an unspecified amount?
Active Design “ Active Design
is the idea that we can design...buildings to encourage people to get more exercise... By attacking obesity through urban design and architecture, governments are beginning to realize that designers might be their best warriors in the battle against obesity and its costs.Active Design are guidelines by the city in conjunctionwith architects and urban planning academics. ” —Fast Company
Active Design “ This strategy
recognizes that the public’s underlying motivations are not about health, but rather, about what is ” convenient and enjoyable.These examples reinforce the fact that we, asdesigners, are not simply designing for cognition – —Fast Companyor to support behavior.
Patterns, Principles Dan Lockton Design
with Intent & Heuristics Stephen Anderson Mental Note Cards Fabrique InsightsLots of patterns and heuristics that can be used for idiation. This has just been thetip of the iceberg, we could spend the whole talk as a survey of behavior designthinking. But this is just meant to make things more concrete so we have a commonframe of reference.
Feedback Loops The feedback loop,
the response or feedback someone gets when they interact with a system—a core interaction design principle. The idea that as people ‘interact’ with a system through tracking their behaviors, it’s the feedback loop, they response they get from the system (cue’s, visualizations, etc.) with the data that tells the story.
Framing Framing is where good
designers of products and services will differentiate themselves. We’re currently throwing an array of design patterns at the problem, while we need to think about how we frame the feedback loops to be most effective.
Asian Flu has hit, and
expected to kill 600 people...Option A: 200 people will be saved.Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people willbe saved and 2/3 probability that no peoplewill be saved.Option A: 400 people will die.Option B: 1/3 probability no one will dieand 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. A psychological problem presented to physicians, in each case they are given two sets of options. The two options in each instance is exactly the same, but framed differently... How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
Asian Flu has hit, and
expected to kill 600 people...Option A: 200 people will be saved.Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will A = 72%be saved and 2/3 probability that no peoplewill be saved. B = 28%Option A: 400 people will die. A = 22%Option B: 1/3 probability no one will dieand 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. B = 78% ...yet the option the physician picks is influenced by how the problem and options are framed. How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
Passive data collection (or reduced
to a few taps—i.e. the check-in), enablesthe feedback loop. The cycle of data collection to feedback is realtime -which didn’t exist in a mass produced scale prior to circa 2007.
Our behaviors write the story.
Our actions create data, that data is visualizedover time to tell a story. We have an emotional response to this story thatinfluences how we will continue to ‘write the story’ with future behaviors.
Betty Draper has gained weight,
and joined Weight Watchers. In the 60s,people didn’t have household scales. Betty went weekly to be weighed, thiswas her (slow) feedback loop. Then she’d here a counselor give general (notpersonalized) guidance. This is how it was. Now scales can be connected,and feedback in realtime, customized and personalized for you.
Usability/Utility PersuasionIn some camps, certain
techniques are seen as a means to persuade, in others that same technique is a means to aidcognition. Trialability is the concept that if you simulate an activity, or demonstrate a product, the user will be morelikely to engage in that activity, or with that product - it’s a tool for persuasion. But others, such as an informationarchitect or usability specialist, may see this as a means for aiding cognition, allowing the user to better complete theactivity, or understand how to use the product.
Usability/Utility PersuasionAmazon One Click is
a persuasive tool designed to prompt more impulsepurchases (think: reduce friction, increase ability).But it’s not a binary proposition only in Amazon’s interest. The feature has value tothe user, it makes purchasing an item easier.
Usability/Utility Persuasion Good Defaults (AKA
Smart Defaults) are intended to aid in completing forms or wizards easily and correctly. But it also persuades the user’s actions. People will be less likely to consider their options. This ‘cognitive shortcut’ persuades the user to go with the system defaults.
Clearly intent and purpose are
key. Defaults can be pushed within thespectrum, like in the case of defaulting to “yes” in selecting organ donationwhen applying for a driver’s license, and needing to opt out.Countries that require opt-out have very high organ donation volunteerism,and countries that require you to opt in are much lower. Usability/Utility Persuasion Example: Organ Donation Opt-in vs. Opt-out
Let’s take the scale and
add a second axis. This is the user’s awareness of your intent as a designer. (or as a product/service) High Awareness (of your intent) Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
We’ve seen where features like
good defaults and one-click are. We can plot other design patterns, such as progress indicators. The middle horizontal line represents the ‘intent declaration’ line, these don’t “declare” their intent, yet they don’t deliberately conceal it either. So they sit slightly below that. High Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Manipulation: all persuasion with no
value to the user Deception: covert in intentions Stay away from this ethically mucky area. This is where you see products and services that hide their true intent (deception) and involve you in a service High that you were not aware of or didn’t explicitly approve (manipulation). Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Products and services above the
horizontal line have a clearly stated value proposition (creating explicit awareness of their intent). High utility High persuasion High Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Applications with high utility (iTunes,
Gmail, Basecamp, etc.). Intent of utility is fairly high, usually as part of value proposition. A product like Basecamp deliberately constrains features, as part of their value proposition, so they may move slightly to the right of the scale, as High utility High persuasion the product’s features will influence how you manage your projects with High Obvious intent (value prop) the tool. intent (value prop) Obvious Gmail Flickr iTunes Basecamp Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
High utility High persuasion High
Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Gmail Flickr Nike+ Nest Weight iTunes Mint.com Basecamp Watchers Shortmail Awareness Active Space (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
We now have an influx
of products and services, enabled by technology, that are designed with the intent of influencing our behavior. Intent is made clear, usually in value proposition (reduce your debt, get in shape, etc.) High utility High persuasion High Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Gmail Flickr Nike+ Nest Weight iTunes Mint.com Basecamp Watchers Shortmail Awareness Active Space (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Behavior change as value proposition.
High utility High persuasion High Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Gmail Flickr Nike+ Nest Weight iTunes Mint.com Basecamp Watchers Shortmail Awareness Active Space (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress indicator Freecreditreport.com Manipulation Deception Low Utility / Persuasion UsabilityMicro Macro(usability / features) (utility / prods. & services)
Behavior Changeas Value PropositionValue proposition
is directly related to behaviorSystem makes recommendations or guidanceData collection is primary featureBehavior is measurable. (feedback loop)Scaling self-determination(some products you have to use as prescribed)Personal(health, environment, finances, personal habits)
ResearchStrategy drives questions you want
tohave answered.MotivationAbilityKnowledge (i.e. awareness and understanding)Doubts/Barriers (i.e. security issues)-Mental model with behavior profile-Thinking, feeling, doing
Behavior Heuristics“ Rules (of thumb)
that people might follow when ” interacting with a system. —Dan Lockton“ Asking users questions about how and why they behaved in certain ways with technology led to answers which were ” resolvable into something like rules. http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Behavior HeuristicsPeel back layersSimilar to
“5 Whys”“Let’s look in more detail at ‘People will do what theysee other people doing’: Why? Why will people dowhat they see other people doing? If we break thisdown, asking ‘Why?’ a couple of times, we get totease out some slightly different possible factors.” http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Behavior HeuristicsCreate heuristics ▶ If
lots of people are doing it, do it Show directly how many (or what proportion of) people areor principles choosing an option ▶ If people like me are doing it, do it Show the user that his or her peers, or people in a similar situation, make a particular choice ▶ If people that I aspire to be like are doing it, do it Show the user that aspirational figures are making a particular choice ▶ If something worked before, do it again Remind the user what worked last time ▶ If an expert recommends it, do it Show the user that expert figures are making a particular choice http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
Mapping e Map Rail Europe
Experienc t is respectful, effective People value service tha plans over time. Guiding Principles People build their travel and personable. part of people’s larger Rail booking is only one because it is People choose rail travel travel process. ﬂexible. convenient, easy, and Post Travel vel Travel Post-Booking, Pre-Tra Customer Journey Booking Share experience Shopping STAGES Research & Planning Activities, unexpected chan ges Follow-up on refunds for booking changes arrive Delivery Payment Review & Wait for paper tickets to Enter trips Review fares Conﬁrm conﬁrm options options itinerary Share routes and products Select pass(es) Research destinations, photos RAIL EUROPE Change Check ticket E-ticket Print plans status at Station Get stamp Web Destination Look up for refund pages time tables Share Live chat for experience raileurope.com questions (reviews) Buy additional Map itinerary Plan with tickets (ﬁnding pass) interactive map May call if difﬁculties View occur web/ maps apps DOING Print e-tickets Plan/ Kayak, Paper tickets Mail tickets Blogs & at home Look up conﬁrm Request compare arrive in mail for refund Travel sites airfare timetables Arrange activities refunds travel Web Talk with Google Research I was not able to use. Not searches hotels • Trying to return ticket friends grab a train but there are sure if I’ll get a refund or not. • I just ﬁgured we could these photos! need? can we do now? • People are going to love routes and availability s • Do I have everything I not more trains. What s, passes and reservation easy and friendly, but on the right train? If not, what next? Next time, we will explo re but I’m willing to pay a • Do I have all the ticket I don’t pay more • Rail Europe website was n’t get help. • Am I travel plans. How do I • • I want to get the best price, I need in this booking so when an issue came up, I could • I want to make more more carefully. way to get around Europe? little more for ﬁrst class. ts don’t arrive in time? do that? • What is the easiest trip cost me? What are my shipping? ering the phone. 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Everyone is sooner about which pe won’t ship tickets connection. d is fun, • It’s hard to trust Trip • Frustrated to not know which are paper tickets. • Frustrated that Rail Euro • Meeting people who want to show us aroun e! • I’m excited to go to Europthing I can? so negative. tickets are eTickets and to Europe. serendipitous, and speci al. different products arrive in time. ts in the mail! • Will I be able to see every • Keeping track of all the Not sure my tickets will • Happy to receive my ticke this? is confusing. • What if I can’t afford trip I want to take? Enjoyability FEELING the wrong choice. • Am I sure this is the • I don’t want to make Enjoyability e Enjoyability Relevance of Rail Europ e Enjoyability Relevance of Rail Europ e Relev ance of Rail Europe Helpfulness of Rail Europ Enjoyability e Relevance of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ Enjoyability e Relevance of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ e Relevance of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ EXPERIENCE e Helpfulness of Rail Europ e Helpfulness of Rail Europ POST-TRAVEL POST-BOOK, TRAVEL, and t Accommodate planning G, BOOKING Improve the paper ticke booking in Europe too. PLANNING, SHOPPIN Arm customers with information Opportunities over time. Visualize the trip for planning for making decisions. experience. ting their Enable people to plan and booking. , Travel, Post-Travel STAGE: Traveling GLOBAL help they Support people in crea STAGES: Post-Booking Help people get the ng STAGES: Shopping, Booki r value own solutions. clearly at Communicate a clea need. ing STAG ES: Planning, Shopping ple deal Communicate status proposition. STAGES: Planning, Shopp Proactively help peo all times. STAGES: Global STAGES: Global with a with change. ping and Aggregate shipping , Post Travel STAGE: Initial visit Connect planning, shop reasonable timeline. , Traveling STAGES: Post-Booking STAGES: Post-Booking Engage in social med ia with booking on the web. into better, Make your customers explicit purposes. ing, Booking STAGE: Booking Non-linear, but STAGES: Planning, Shopp more savvy travelers. Ongoing, Linear process time based Survey STAGES: Global Customer Experience non-linear Stakeholder interviews mentation STAGES: Global Information Existing Rail Europe Docu Cognitive walkthroughs Euro pe | August 2011 sources Experience Map for Rail
I see the best behavior-influencing
design“to be where the needs of two (or more)parties align......There are people in the persuasivetechnology community who would arguethat this isn’t persuasion, and perhaps itisn’t, but it’s certainly interaction design ”that affects user behavior. —Dan Lockton
“ We should look at
what kind of impact people’s behavior ” should have on design. —Paola Antonelli