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Mapping the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami event with a remote sensing satellite constellation


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A reference case for emerging Early Warning System Dissemination Services

Published in: Technology
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Mapping the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami event with a remote sensing satellite constellation

  1. 1. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Conference The 23rd International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Anchorage, Alaska, USA, June 30−July 5, 2013:; Mapping the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami event with a remote sensing satellite constellation – a reference case for emerging Early Warning System Dissemination Services Peter Löwe, Joachim Wächter Centre for GeoinformationTechnology (CeGIT), GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences Potsdam, Germany
  2. 2. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage ISOPE-2013 Anchorage TRIDEC • New technologies for real time‐ intelligent information management in collaborative, complex critical decision processes • In TRIDEC new developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are used to extend existing platforms with a component-based technology framework. • Demonstration in two scenarios: Tsunami Early Warning Systems (Natural Crisis Management) and Drilling Operations. 2
  3. 3. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage The potential of improved satellite crisis mapping •During a Tsunami early warning event, TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management (NCM) systems provide crucial information on when and where coastlines will be affected. •This critical information can be provided to the operators of satellite remote sensing systems for follow up actions. TRIDEC NCM GUI
  4. 4. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Remote Sensing for Disaster Mitigation • 1999: International Charter "Space and Major Disasters“ founded by ESA and CNES. • Approach: „An authorized user can request the mobilization of the space and associated ground resources of the member agencies to obtain data and information on a disaster occurrence.“ • An Emergency On-Call Officer prepares an archive („before“) and acquisition („after“) plan. • Charter-Members handle data acquisition and delivery on an emergency basis.
  5. 5. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Tohoku 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami • In the wake of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster of March 11 2011, the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters was activated to coordinate both the imaging campaigns and the creation of crisis maps. • The affected areas were imaged by satellite-based remote sensing sensors. • Crisis map products were used by Search and Rescue to save lifes.
  6. 6. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Charter Crisis Map Product Example This information is crucial for Search and Rescue operations
  7. 7. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage The Disaster Cycle, TRIDEC, and the Charter
  8. 8. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Integrated Approach Decide & Act Downstream Warning
  9. 9. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Benefits from a EO dissemination channel • Preparations for satellite imaging can begin before the tsunami devastates an Area of Interest, • reducing the time between tsunami landfall and first satellite image take, • speeding up production of crisis maps, • enabling earlier and better coordinated response by Search and Rescue (SAR), • potenially allowing for before/after coverage.
  10. 10. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Workflow Integration: Status Disaster Strikes Recovery Reaction Phase Crisis Maps available Message to EO communities EO-Crisis Maps become available Downstream Warning
  11. 11. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Workflow Integration: Capabilities Disaster Strikes Recovery Reaction Phase Crisis Maps available EO community: Heads Up ! EO-Crisis Maps become Available earlier Downstream Warning EO: Early Preparation Reaction Phase Crisis Maps available
  12. 12. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Evolution of Earth Observation Systems Core parameters for satellite-based remote sensing: • Spatial/spectral resolution („Pixel size“ of sensor) • Temporal resolution (Revisit rate: „Number of satellites“) •Single satellite • Pace for image acquisition planning: Weeks / Days •Constellations of several satellites in one orbit plane • Pace: Day(s) / Hours •Multiple Constellations in multiple orbit planes (upcoming) • Pace: Hours / Minutes
  13. 13. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Workflow Integration: Status •Currently, Tsunami Early Warning only considers bullets 2 and 3. •Tsunami Early Warning must provide Tsunami Information (bullet 1) to start the image acquisition process (orange) Satellite Image Data Save lives MappingTaskingOrderingTsunami Warning Imaging Satellite Image Map 1 2 3
  14. 14. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Earth Observation: Planning and Tasking • Operators of remote sensing satellites operate a planning and tasking/commandeering cycle to control image acquisition. • Planning: Arrange and prioritize image orders by • Area of Interest (AOI) • Time of Interest (TOI) • Optical Sensors: Cloud Forecast Constraints • Other Factors: Urgency, on-board memory availability, power, etc. • Tasking: Setting of an imaging schedule. • Commandeering: Upload of imaging schedule to sensors + execution.
  15. 15. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Case Study: Rapid Eye Constellation • Commercially operated constellation of five satellites • Charter Member • Disaster Mapping since 2009 Summer 2013; Flooding in Central Europe
  16. 16. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Example: The RapidEye Satellite Constellation • Constellation operational since February 2009 • Five identical optical remote sensing satellites • ~ 630km above ground • ~ 90 minutes orbit period • Sun-synchronous (overpass 11:30 a.m. local time) Images: RapidEye
  17. 17. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage RapidEye: Optical Imaging Sensors •Five spectral bands: red / green / blue / red-edge / near-infrared •Resolution of data products: 5m*5m pixel. •Swath width: 77 km •Max. swath length: 1200 km Egypt 2010 Image: RapidEye AG Example: Anchorage
  18. 18. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Example: Order Planning/Tasking/Execution The timeline reflects the RapidEye “Two plannings per day” scenario. 10h – 25h Daily Deadlines Order turnaround time Source: Hoja et al.: Optimised Near-Real Time Data Acquisition and Pre- processing of Satellite Data for Disaster Related Rapid Mapping : PFG2010/6,429-438
  19. 19. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Daily Planning Sessions Europe, Asia, Oceania Americas
  20. 20. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Daily Planning Sessions Europe, Asia, Oceania Americas March 11 2011: Tohoku EQ became news by 8:00 CET. RapidEye was immediately contacted by GFZ.
  21. 21. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Image Product Processing Chain Worldwide Level3A grid of orthorectified tiles (25x25km). Level 1b image product: 2011-3-12, Japan. Crisis Mapping Product Level3A tiles
  22. 22. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Daily Imaging by the RapidEye Constellation March 12 2011 March 13 2013 March 14 2011
  23. 23. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Use of Volunteered Geographic Information by the EO Community • Gulf of Mexico Oilspill 2010 • Louisiana Bucket Brigade • Ushahidi Open Source Social Mapping Before Ushahidi/Bucket Brigade: Oil residue found on beach Confirmation by EO
  24. 24. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage TRIDEC Information Logistics NCM Control and Command User Interface DisseminationInterface(Text + Maps)
  25. 25. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Components for an EO Dissemination Product EO Tile Grid Tsunami Simulation Isochrones
  26. 26. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage XML-based Message Format Candidates: CAP and EDXL • Common Alert Protocoll (CAP): Data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. • Flexible geographic targeting using latitude/longitude “boxes”; • Facility for digital images, audio, and video. • Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - a suite of messaging standards, advanced by the OASIS Emergency Management Technical Committee, EDXL spatial tags
  27. 27. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Outline of an automated heads-up process • Derivation of affected coastline segments from Tsunami- simulations and run-up modelling. • Prioritization by estimated time of arrival and severity estimates. • Mapping of affected areas to EO tile grids. • Tasking of EO constellations.
  28. 28. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Conclusion: EO Operators Perspective Benefits from dedicated EO warning services: •Preparation for short term crisis mapping ahead of time •Image acquisition as early as possible •Larger data stock •Increased business opportunities
  29. 29. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Conclusion: Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) •The earlier crisis maps become available after a Tsunami, the more lives can be saved. •Satellite-based crisis mapping for large areas is a valuable tool for disaster and crisis management. •TEWS dissemination components can provide customized message formats for EO communities including AOI/ETA . •A suitable dissemination channel for EO will speed up Crisis Mapping and will help to save lives. Satellite Image Data Save lives MappingTaskingOrderingTsunami Warning Imaging Satellite Image Map
  30. 30. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage Thank you very much
  31. 31. ISOPE-2013 Anchorage