Niosomes are a novel drug delivery system,
in which the medication is encapsulated in a
vesicle. The vesicle is composed of a bilayer
of non-ionic surface active agents and hence
the name niosomes.
Nios = non ionic surfactant
somes = vesicles
They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be
used as carriers of hydrophilic, ampiphilic and lipophilic drugs.
The niosomes are very small, and microscopic in size.
Their size lies in the nanometric scale.
Most surface active agents when immersed in water yield
micellar structures, however some surfactants can yield
bilayer vesicles which are niosomes.
Niosomes may be-
MECHANISMS OF NIOSOMAL SKIN DELIVERY
Noisomes interact with stratum corneum with aggregation, fusion
and adhesion to the cell surface which causes a high
thermodynamic activity gradient of the drug at the vesicle-stratum
corneum surface, which is the driving force for the penetration of
lipophilic drugs across the stratum corneum
New smaller vesicles are formed in skin
Niosomes diffuse from the stratum corneum layer of skin
as a whole
NIOSOMES V/S LIPOSOMES
.Niosomes do not have any of these
1) Niosomes are made of
uncharged single-chain surfactant
2) Structure of niosomes is different
from that of liposomes
Liposomes face problems such as:
2) chemically unstable
ADVANTAGES OF NIOSOMES
Increase the stability of the entrapped drug
Handling and storage of surfactants do not require
any special conditions.
Can increase the oral bioavailability of drugs
Can enhance the skin penetration of drugs
can be used for oral, parenteral as well topical use.
The surfactants are biodegradable, biocompatible,
and non-immunogenic .
Improve the therapeutic performance of the drug
by protecting it from the biological environment and
restricting effects to target cells
Niosomes are thoughts to be better candidates
drug delivery as compared to liposomes due to
various factors like cost, stability etc.
Various type of drug deliveries can be possible
using niosomes like targeting, ophthalmic, topical,
Book- Controlled and Novel Drug Dilevery by N.K. JAIN
Malhotra, M. & Jain, N.K., (1994). Niosomes as drug carriers. Ind
Drugs, Vol. 31
Azeem, A.; Anwer, M.K. & Talegaonkar, S., (2009).
Niosomes in sustained and targeted drug delivery: some recent
advances. J Drug Target, Vol. 17
NIOSOME: A PROMISING PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG