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Supervisors : Prepared by :
Dr Ahmad Tarawneh Dr Luma Najada
Dr Raghda Shammout
Dr Anwar Rahamneh
Dr Hanan Habarneh
B. Medical disorders
1. Cardiovascular disease
2. Haematological disease
3. Respiratory disease
4. Neurological disease
5. Prosthetic joints
8. Endocrine disease
9. Cerebral palsy and learning difficulties
10. Musculo-skeletal disorders
11. Kidney disorders
12. Blood borne viruses
13. Side effects of medications
14. Eating disorders
15. down syndrome & Autism
16. MRI and CT scan
The goal of a treatment plan is to achieve optimal oral
health, esthetics, and function for the patient. In treatment
planning for an orthodontic patient, there are two primary
questions to be addressed: What is the patient’s main
concern? And, perhaps even more important, are there any
medical contraindications or significant considerations to
be mindful of in treatment planning?
A thorough review of the medical history is the most
significant procedure to determine whether there are
contraindications or important modifications to the
treatment of the particular case.
The medical history should be comprehensive, kept safely
with the patient’s record, and updated regularly :
1. At the first visit of a patient to the clinic.
2. At the start of any new course of orthodontic
3. Before referral to another practitioner for treatment.
Full medical details should be taken from the patient or
parents , and checked by the patient’s doctor For those
with serious medical problems.
1. Infective endocarditis.
1. Infective endocarditis
Its incidence does not appear to be higher during
orthodontic treatment, only 4 cases have been reported in
relation to orthodontics.
bacteraemia can be increased by plaque accumulation
which in turn increased with orthodontic appliances.
Adjustments of appliances never been associated with
bacteraemia nor removal of orthodontic mini-implants.
Procedures that can cause bacteraemia:
2. Separator placements
3. Fitting or removing bands
4. Surgical exposure of teeth.
1. Informed consent – patient needs to know of any
increased risk and about the uselessness of AB.
2. High standard OH with daily antimicrobial M/W- to aid
plaque control, particularly for 2 days up to fitting or removal
or major adjustment of fixed appliances.
3. Bonded appliances preferred to banded .
4. Un-erupted teeth - avoid bonding w closed eruption.
5. Antibiotic prophylaxis
In high risk cases all procedures causing bacteraemia
should be covered .
( High risk cases : prosthetic cardiac valves, previous bacterial endocarditis,
complex cyanotic congenital heart disease, surgically constructed systemic
As an initial step the orthodontist should communicate
with the patient's physician to confirm the risk of IE.
treatment should never be commenced until the patient
has excellent oral hygiene and dental health.
A non-extraction approach is preferred, if xtn planned
inform pt’s cardiologist.
prevent gingival bleeding before it occurs - best achieved
by maintaining excellent oral hygiene, and avoidance of
any form of gingival or mucosal irritation.
Arch wire should be secured with elastomeric modules
rather than wire ligatures and special care is required to
avoid mucosal cuts when placing and removing the wire.
NICE guidelines 2008 no Antibiotic nor chlorohexidine
MW are given except very high risk patients.
Post-op dose of antibiotic is no longer recommended.
No penicillin Allergy :
1 hr pre-op
penicillin Allergy :
1 hr pre-op
0-5 years 750mg 100mg
5-10 years 1.5g 300mg
10+ years 3g 600mg
Antibiotic prophylaxis regime
No contraindications for well-controlled hypertensive
patients- defer elective tx if uncontrolled.
Get physician appraisal.
Always detect the gingival health as hypertensive drugs
have been associated with gingival overgrowth. Surgical
resection of the enlarged tissues is effective in preventing
Avoid any form of gingival irritation.
Minimizing stress is important.
appointments should be less than one hour to minimize
Maintaining periodontal health and good oral hygiene,
educating the patient on this, and recommending specific
oral hygiene aids.
Calcium channel blockers can cause gingival hyperplasia in
addition to the irritation caused by the fixed appliance.
Depending on the condition refer the patient back to his
cardiologist to prescribe an alternative therapy.
1. bleeding disorders
2. sickle cell anemia
3. haematological malignancies
1. Bleeding disorders (hemophilia)
No contraindicatios-consult haematologist before any
Fixed appliances are preferable to removable appliances-
Self-ligating brackets are preferable to conventional
brackets, If conventional brackets are used, arch wires
should be secured with elastomeric modules.
If xtn cannot be avoided, primary closure with suturing and
supplementation of factor 8 may be required
A Vacuum formed aligners may be the appliances of choice
for selected malocclusions.
Avoid drugs that increase bleeding tendency (aspirin) or
cause gastric bleeding (NSAID).
Be careful in prescribing analgesia and other drugs since
Warfarin interacts with other drugs (aspirin, NSAID,
metronidazole, erythromycin, cephalosporins and
The duration of treatment should be kept to a minimum to
reduce the potential for complication.
2.Sickle cell anemia
Maintain Good oral hygiene
Avoid emotional stress .
Avoid EOA - compromise the airway
An Extraction is contraindicated-if necessary they are best
carried out in a hospital.
General anaesthetics for elective procedures are
contraindicated so orthognathic surgery is not
recommended ( deoxygenation induce red cell to deform
to a sickle shape).
↓ orthodontic forces and ↑ resting period between
activation with Long treatment duration – to restore the
Be aware of possible pulpal necrosis involving healthy
teeth, the changes in bone turnover, mandibular vaso-
occlusive crises, and the greater susceptibility to infections.
3. Haematological malignancies
50% of childhood malignancies are leukaemias or
Orofacial complications : lymphadenopathy, spontaneous
gingival bleeding caused by thrombocytopenia , ulceration,
gingival swelling, and infection..etc
After diagnosis : treatment should be postponed if the
patient requires chemotherapy.
After treatment : treatment should be postponed
until at least 2 years after BMT - relapse of the
malignancy has diminished and the patient is no longer on
immunosuppressive therapy, the growth rate and the need
for supplemental growth hormone have been assessed.
If malignancy is diagnosed during treatment remove
appliances and use retainers.
TBI (Total body irradiation) can suppress growth, so the
prognosis for growth modification in skeletal Class II
malocclusions is guarded
Treatment mechanics should be aimed at minimising the
risk of root resorption, keeping the forces low and
accepting a compromised treatment result.
Patients with short blunt roots : monitor the crown/root
length after 6 months of fixed appliance treatment. If there
is apical root resorption, archwire should be left passive for
Caries risk may be ↑ due to salivary dysfunction- excellent
OH,topical fluoride application and artificial saliva may be
Side effect of anti-cancer treatment is a reduced resistance
to infections and atrophy of the oral mucosa. Even minor
irritation from orthodontic appliances can lead to severe
ulceration-Vacuum formed aligners may be the appliances
Do not treat lower jaw; as its at risk of ORN because of its
limited blood supply. Indian journal of oral sciences 2013
Atraumatic extraction techniques should be applied to
reduce the risk of ORN.
Antibiotic prophylaxis must be given during invasive
procedures like extraction.
Functional & EO appliances : skeletal forces must be less
than what is used with normal patients - thin cortical
Radiographs at 3 months intervals - thin cortical plates
complicate orthodontic treatment.
Extraction should be carried out at the time of admission
for blood transfusion .
Patients are at an increased risk of viral hepatitis and AIDS
due to repeated blood transfusion and therefore screening
test for the same should be carried out at regular intervals.
2. cystic fibrosis
Consult the patient’s physician .
First goal is to prevent acute asthmatic attack - avoid any
triggers factors and ensure that patient is carrying inhaler.
Treat early in the day and minimise stress to reduce risk of
patients is at a high risk for developing excessive root
resorption, low forces is needed.
Chronic use of corticosteriod inhalers develop candidial
infection esp with pt wearing removable appliance - rinse
with water after inhaler is requested.
Patient may be allergic to NSAIDS
Avoid rubber dams.
Care should be used in the positioning of suction tips as
they may elicit a cough reflex.
How to manage an acute asthmatic attack in the dental
1. Discontinue the dental procedure and allow the patient
to sit up or lie down in a comfortable position
2. Keep the airway open and administer Beta2-agonists
3. Administer oxygen via face mask nasal hood
4. If no improvement takes place and the patient is
worsening, administer epinephrine subcutaneously (1:1000
solution, 0.01 mg/kg of body weight to a maximum dose)
Oral effects : hypoplastic enamel, reduced salivary flow and
Consult the physician
Good OH because of dryness
Avoid GA . Postpone extractions untill patient is old
enough to have local anasthesia .
Short compromised treatment
Elective dental treatment including should be deferred
until a physician confirms that a patient does not have
The challenge to orthodontics is to be prepared for all
infectious diseases that may affect the practice.
2. multiple sclerosis.
3. Hydrocephalus and Cerebrospinal shunts
Anti-epileptic drugs should be taken regularly.
Sedation - in stress induced procedure.
Use mouth prop at the beginning of procedure
if poorly controlled avoid removable App,bands, EO
If an individual having a class II Division I incisor
relationship experiences an aura before a seizure, he should
carry a soft mouth guard with palatal coverage and
extending into the buccal sulci to use at such times.
Small low profile brackets .
Avoid Space closing mechanics : nickel titanium closing
springs, elastomeric power chain or active elastics because
they affect the hyperplastic gingival tissue.
Essix based retainers should be relieved around the
Bonded retainers are avoided in patients at risk of
past dental or facial trauma should be considered when
planning treatment and reviewed as part of patient
Anti-epileptic drugs side effects include gingival
hyperplasia, ulcerations, gingival bleeding,
hypercementosis, root shortening, anomalous tooth
development, delayed eruption, and xerostomia
supplemental topical fluoride
Appointments should be scheduled during a time of day
when seizures are less likely to occur.
Investigative procedure such as MRI should be taken prior
to treatment as the metal components may distort the
image,an acceptable MRI may be obtained if arch wires and
other removable components are removed before the scan
Removable appliances should be designed for maximum
retention and made of high impact acrylic.
Regular preventative dental care to avoid dental disease.
How to manage an epileptic attack in the dental office ?
1. Clear all instruments away from the patient.
2. Place the dental chair in a supported, supine position as
near to the floor as possible.
3. Place the patient on his or her side (to decrease the
chance of aspiration of secretions.
4. Do not restrain the patient.
5. Do not put your fingers in his mouth.
6. Time the seizure (the duration of the event may seem
longer than it actually is).
7. Call 911 if the seizure lasts longer than 3 minutes or the
patient becomes cyanotic .
9. Administer oxygen at a rate of 6–8 L/minute.
10. If the seizure lasts longer than 1 minute or for repeated
seizures, administer a 10-mg dose of diazepam
intramuscularly (IM) or intravenously (IV), or 2 mg of
ativan, IV or IM, or 5 mg of mid-azolam, IM or IV.
11. Be aware of the possibility of compromised airway or
Once the seizure is over :
1. Do not undertake further dental treatment .
2. Try to talk to the patient to evaluate the level of
3. Do not attempt to restrain the patient.
4. Do not allow the patient to leave the office if his level of
awareness is not fully restored.
5. Contact the patient’s family, if he is alone.
6. Do a brief oral examination for sustained injuries.
7. Depending on consciousness, discharge the patient
home with a responsible person, to his family physician or
to an emergency room for further assessment.
2. multiple sclerosis
May not tolerate long appointments.
May not tolerate use of intermaxillary traction.
Need multidisciplinary approach
Custom made toothbrush handles - improve grip
electric toothbrushes - compensate for the loss of manual
dexterity and coordination.
Patients with spasms - allowed to get out of the dental chair
and move around to relieve them.
Individuals with dysphagia should be treated in a semi-
severe MS - best treated to a compromised result.
Removable appliances may not be tolerated well.
ABP may be needed – consult specialist
3. Hydrocephalus and Cerebrospinal
No AB prophylaxis needed
Gingivitis results from ↑ level of progesterone and
estrogen- exaggerated gingival inflammatory reaction
to local irritants.
Maintain a healthy oral environment .
Extensive elective procedures, such as surgical exposure
of impacted tooth should be postponed until after delivery.
Avoid X-rays or drug therapy, particularly in the first
Prescribe medications based on drug safety categories.
Avoid supine position in late pregnancy.
Patients have a high awareness of and sensitivity to taste,
smell and environmental temperature. Unpleasant tastes
and odours can cause severe nausea , gagging and
Patients should be well hydrated, and the duration of chair
treatment time should be as short as possible.
1. latex allergy
2. nickle allergy
3. bis-gma allergy
1. latex allergy
Who at risk?
Patient with allergic rhinitis,Asthmatic ,Eczema,
hypersensitive to certain food,Atopic patients, Patients
with spina bifida,Healthcare professional, Latex
industry worker... Etc
1. Definitive diagnosis:
Patch testing ,Pin prick testing, Blood test.
If latex allergy suspected refer to dermatologist
2. Staff training : should be aware of emergency protocols
for dealing with anaphylactic reactions .
3. Appointment :
Treat as first patient of the day to minimise airborne
4. Appliance design and handling
Latex free gloves.
self-ligating brackets to avoid elastomeric ties.
Space closure with nickel– titanium coils.
Inter-maxillary elastics : latex-free elastics ( although they
are subject to greater force degradation).
Medical history need up to date.
Elastomeric separators can be replaced with self-locking
Types of reaction to Latex:
1. Type I hypersensitivity reaction
5-60 minutes after contact .
Severe systematic reactions have been reported following
Flare and wheal to anaphylactic shock.
May induce delayed hypersensitivity reaction ( type 4)
2. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction (Allergic contact
Due to chemicals in gloves
Eczema rash and skin maybe swollen, vesicular and
Signs & Symptoms: Rapid weak, Facial flushing, itching,
cold extremities, bronchospasm, Loss of consciousness,
Facial edema, Deep fall in BP .
2. Nickel allergy
↑ in asthmatic patients
More serious if contact the skin than mucosa, 5 - 12 times
the concentration of nickel required to provoke mucosal
lesions compared with skin lesions
Nickel is found in arch wires, bands, brackets and
Signs and symptoms of nickel allergy:
1. For the gingivae:
Gingivitis in the absence of plaque
2. For the tongue:
Soreness of the side of the tongue
3. For the lip:
4. EO signs
dermatitis in sites of prolonged skin contact with nickel-
containing objects (headgear studs.)
1. Definitive diagnosis:
In case of doubt, a trial appliance can be placed which may
include two to four brackets with a Ni-Ti archwire and
assess a reaction.
2. Appliance design and handling
A. Nickel free brackets
SS because it releases less nickel than NiTi
B. Nickel free archwires
No evidence of archwires causing reactions.
Titanium Molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires
Fibre-reinforced composite archwires
Pure Titanium archwires
Gold plated archwires
C. Extra oral appliances
exposed metalwork should be covered with tape or plasters
or headgear use discontinued.
Plastic coated headgear studs .
3. BIS-GMA allergy
Allergic contact dermatitis to dental materials uncommon
for patients but may become an issue for dental team.
Avoid placing polymer on hands to reduce risk.
Dental materials in their pre-polymerised state are
1. Diabetes mellitus.
2. Thyroid disorders.
Avoided in poorly controlled DM
If longer sessions are scheduled then patient is advised to
take meal and medication
Periodontal health is to be evaluated regularly.
Strict oral hygiene measures .
Orthodontic forces are kept to minimum because
there is weakening of periodontal ligament and
The orthodontic team should be trained to deal with
Oral complications include : xerostomia, burning mouth,
candidal infection, altered taste, progressive periodontal
disease, dental caries, acetone breath, parotid enlargement,
delayed wound healing.
vitality of the teeth should be checked regularly -
Diabetic related microangiopathy affect the peripheral
vascular supply, resulting in unexplained toothache,
tenderness to percussion and loss of vitality.
There is no treatment preference with regard to fixed or
Diabetic emergencies are two complications :
Symptoms : rapidly occur ,appear intoxicated, signs of
anger, confusion ,hungry, ↑ BP.
If not treated convulsion, coma, or death.
Symptoms : occur slowly ,flushed and warm, thirsty ,fruity
odour breath,vomiting, ↓BP.
Treat both as hypoglycemia :
Conscious : 50 g of glucose as a drink, tablet or gel.
Unconscious : 20 ml of 50% Dextrose IV or 1 mg of
When the patient is cooperative oral glucose should be
given to prevent recurrent hypoglycaemia. If recovery is
delayed, the emergency services should be called.
2. Thyroid disorders
patients are more susceptibile to cardiovascular
disease. Check cardiovascular statuses first.
oral findings: macroglossia, delayed eruption, poor
periodontal health ,delayed wound healing .
Oral findings : Early eruption and premature shedding
of deciduous dentition, followed by accelerated
emergence of permanent dentition.
Require minimal alterations in patient with managed
In hyperthyrodiosm enlarged tongue may pose problem
The bone turn over can influence orthodontic treatment :
High bone turnover (hyperthyrodism) increase amount of
Low bone turnover (hypothyrodism) increase the risk of
Cerebral palsy and learning
Good motivation and oral hygiene
Ensure parent is supportive of treatment.
Keep treatment simple
Use URA if possible
Sedation - to ease treatment.
Oral hygiene , drooling and manual dexterity maybe a
Clinician approach to behaviour management must be
flexible and longer appointments may be required
1. juvenile idiopathic arthritis
1. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Limiting mouth opening -difficulty in brushing.
Oral hygiene aids - modified toothbrush handles &
Bite splint – to unload the joint during acute periods of
A distracted splint to modify mandibular growth in the
same way as conventional functional appliances.
The use of functional appliances in patients is a
debatable area. It has been argued that functional
appliances and class II elastics put increased stress on the
TMJs and should be avoided; however, it has also been
suggested that functional appliances protect the joints by
relieving the affected TMJ.
Drugs used : steriods which may affect growth, and
NSAIDS which may inhibit tooth movement.
Destruction of condyles is common.
No clear guidlines on treatment.
Patients with severe disease have characteristic facial
morphology : skeletal Class II and open bite
Surgery can be considered if the problem cannot be treated
orthodontically; however, it has been suggested that
mandibular surgery should be avoided and instead a
patient with severe mandibular deficiency should have
maxillary surgery and a genioplasty
Drugs used : bisphosphonate, estrogen .
Estrogen has no effect on orthodontic tx, not widely used
Tx must include the consideration of problems such as
bone loss, retention instability and Tmj dysfunction.
BP affect treatment by delaying tooth eruption, inhibit
tooth movement, and impaired bone healing by causing
bp-induce ORN of jaws.
Assess the risk of osteoradionecrosis - route of
administration, duration of treatment, dose and frequency
If possible, treatment should be carried out prior to BP
In patients at high risk of ONJ, it may be better to accept
the malocclusion and consider the benefits of cosmetic
Avoid Extraction- BP indeuce ORN.
patients who take oral BPs are no more at risk of implant or
temporary anchorage device failure than other patients
Orthodontic tx is possible after 3 months with no BP
The child has retarded growth.
Impaired growth may influence our treatment plan in
case of functional appliances.
Orthodontic forces are kept to minimum.
The most common is CRF .
treatment is not contraindicated in well controlled patients.
postpone if renal failure is advanced and dialysis is imminent.
If necessary treatment can be carried out it should be prior to
transplantation to avoid the risks associated with
Appointments on non-dialysis days and the day after dialysis is
the optimum time for treatment for surgical procedures .
Surgical procedures are best carried out under local anaesthetic.
The anaemia and the potential electrolyte disturbances that can
predispose the patient to cardiac arrhythmias can complicate
Avoid ulceration and sharp edges
The value of prophylactic antibiotics in renal transplant
patients on prevention of post-operative complications is
questionable or unproven, consult patient’s physician
Transplant patient and
Drugs include cyclosporin induce gingival hyperplasia.
Treat prior to transplant if possible, but defer if
Orthodontic treatment should be simple.
Blood borne viruses (Hepatitis
B, C, D and G, HIV)
All patients are treated as infected and universal cross-
infection control precautions are to be followed
All members of the team must be immunized against
HBV ,Follow up and booster dose are done regularly
wear heavy utility gloves and personal protective
Increase tendency to infection and ulceration
Increase tendency to bone resorption because of the
Instruments used on these patients are carried in the
instrument processing area cautiously to prevent cross
Care should be taken when prescribing any medication for
patients with liver disease. Hepatic impairment can lead to
failure of metabolism of some drugs and result in toxicity.
Patients undergoing liver transplantation will be receiving
immunosuppressive drugs that can cause gingival
Haemostasis will be affected and this should be accounted
for when planning treatment.
HBVcan survive for 7 days, Impressions can be one of the
links in transmitting the virus- must be disinfected by
dipping them in glutaldehyde or by spraying sodium
hypochlorite and leaving it for 10 min.
If extraction is required, special attention should be paid as
the risk of bleeding increases; an infusion of fresh frozen
plasma may be indicated.
Side effects of medications
1. prostaglandin inhibitors.
2. oral contraceptive.
Drugs affect prostaglandin activity :
1. corticosteriods and NSAIDS.
2. other agents have agonist and antagonsit effect on
Prostaglandins are formed from arachidonic acid which in
turn derived from phospholipid
Corticosteriods reduce prostaglandin synthesis by
inhibiting the formation of AA, NSAIDS inhibit the
conversion of AA to prostaglandins.
Low doses and short duration of analgesic therapy in
orthodontic patient dosent interfere with tooth
movement, but it can become a problem in adults or
children being treated for arthritis.
Several other drugs can affect prostaglandin levels include
tricyclic antidepressents, antiarrhythmic agents,
antimalarial drugs, anticonvulsant drugs and tetracycline.
2. Oral contraceptives
Antibiotic therapy can reduce effectiveness of the pill
The most common are anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia
referral should be done to the patient's physician.
Patients should be counseled not to brush their teeth
immediately after vomiting.
They should be given advice on how to increase the intra-
oral pH by chewing gum, or rinsing the mouth with water
Children with heart defects should be given AB prophylaxis
OHI- every visit.
Ensure that patient is vaccinated for hepatitis before
starting dental treatment – patients are at increased risk of
developing the carrier state if they are infected with HBV.
Seizures occur in 5-10% of children with Down syndrome.
Impressions using quick-set materials -reduce the
tendency for activation of the more sensitive gag reflex
frequently experienced with Down syndrome patients.
High-memory wires - longer activation interval between
Self-ligating brackets- more patient friendly activation
The main challenge is the communication .
The 1st several visits : raising the patient's confidence and
determining the maximum level of compliance that is
At the same time, an estimate of the most suitable way
(behavior management, sedation or general anesthesia ) to
perform the more difficult procedures, such as impressions
or bracket bonding may be made.
Jackson was the first to suggest using GA for the placement
of orthodontic bands.
Patient should be treated in a quiet, shielded single
operatory arrangement, with reduced decoration and
Procedures such as tell-show-do, voice control, and positive
reinforcement are effective with children.
MRI and CT scan
CT images not affected by products used in orthodontic
All removable appliances or easy-to-remove components,
e.g. Spring or archwire, should be removed before MRI.
All fixed components, e.g. brackets, bands or tubes, can
remain in the patient’s mouth, as long as they are firmly
bonded and carefully ligated
Ceramic brackets with a metal slot and titanium
brackets cause no artefacts on MRI images, only have to be
removed if the area under investigation is close to the fixed
appliances, i.e. in the oral cavity.
SS brackets and retainers caused extensive artefacts-
should always be removed before MRI images of the
head and neck area are taken.
If the dento-alveolar region is the study, the plane of
the scan should be altered to avoid the site of metal
Postgraduate Notes in Orthodontics (7th Edition) for DDS and MOrth programmes from the University of Bristol.Importance of orthodontic considerations in medically
compromised patients- part I,Reddy R*, Satish M**, Pasam N****Department of Orthodontics, Rungta Colleges of Dental Sciences and Research, Bhilai**Department of Oral
and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rungta Colleges of Dental Sciences and Research, Bhilai***Department of Prosthodontics, Rungta Colleges of Dental Sciences and Research, Bhilai.
Clinical Management of Medical Disorders in Orthodontics Anila Charles1,*, Senkutvan RS1, Sanjay Jacob1, Krishnan C.S2, Sivaram Subbiah3 1Department of
Orthodontia, Madha Dental College, M.G.R University, Chennai 2Department of Periodontics, Madha Dental College, M.G.R University, Chennai 3Department of
Orthodontics Penang International Dental College
The Importance of a Complete Medical History in Orthodontic Treatment Planning by Joycelyn A. Dillon, RDH, MA
Orthodontic Management of Medically Compromised Patients ,Mohammed Almuzian , glasgow university.
Orthodontic treatment of patients with medical disorders,Burden D1, Mullally B, Sandler J
Contemporary Orthodontics, 5th Edition, by William R. Proffit, DDS, PhD, Henry W. Fields, DDS, MS, MSD, and David M. Sarver, DMD, MS.
Postgraduate Notes in Orthodontics (7th Edition) for DDS and MOrth programmes from the University of Bristol.
Orthodontic care of medically compromise patients, sandhya maheshwari
Medical disorders and orthodontics
Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, Sheffield, UK
Donald J Burden
Orthodontic Division, The Queen’s University of Belfast, UK
Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Orthodontic care of medically compromised patients
Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Juhi Ansar, KC Prabhat
Department of Orthodontics and Dental Anatomy, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Orthodontic products and appliances during magnetic
resonance imaging and
computer tomography by Dr Christoph Schippers
: Influence of common fixed retainers on the diagnostic quality of cranial magnetic resonance images
Magnetic resonance imaging artefacts and fixed orthodontic attachments
Eur J Orthod (2015) 37 (1): 105-110.
04 July 2014