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Learning & Development

Mickael Dubucq - APU 2006

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Learning & Development

  1. 1. Learning and Development Strategy John Mullen/Hermione McIntosh Anglia Ruskin University March 2006
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>By the end of this session you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>understand the aims and objectives and philosophy underpinning strategic HRD </li></ul><ul><li>have an overview of the elements of HRD </li></ul><ul><li>analyse the concepts of a learning culture, organisational learning and learning organisations </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate the tensions between control and development in terms of HRD </li></ul><ul><li>discuss the emphasis on individual learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Strategic Human Resource Development (HRD) <ul><li>‘… employees are key players contributing to the core competencies of the organisation’ ( Hamel and Prahald, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>harnessing the talents and capabilities of employees is a significant managerial activity ( Leopold et al., 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Strategic human resource development involves introducing, eliminating, modifying, directing and guiding processes in such a way that all individuals and teams are equipped with the skills, knowledge and competences they require to undertake current and future tasks required by the organisation’ (Walton, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>takes a broad and long-term view (Armstrong, 2006) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Strategic HRD (Armstrong, 2006) <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>to produce a framework for developing people through creating a learning culture and formulating organisational and individual learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>to enhance resource capability </li></ul><ul><li>to develop intellectual capital required by the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure right quality of people available to meet current and future needs </li></ul><ul><li>to provide an environment which encourages learning an development </li></ul><ul><li>to consider individual aspirations and needs </li></ul><ul><li>to increase employability </li></ul><ul><li>What do you understand by the term employability? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Philosophy underpinning HRD <ul><li>makes a major contribution to the successful achievement of the organisations’ objectives </li></ul><ul><li>benefits all stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>should be integrated with and support the business and HR strategies </li></ul><ul><li>should be performance related </li></ul><ul><li>should involve everyone </li></ul><ul><li>individual learning based on PDPs, self-managed learning supported by coaching, mentoring and formal training </li></ul><ul><li>organisation should invest in learning and development but prime responsibility rests with individual </li></ul>
  6. 6. Elements of HRD <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>‘ a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience’ (Bass and Vaughan, 1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>‘ planned and systematic modification of behaviour through learning events, programmes and instruction that enable individuals to achieve the levels of knowledge, skill and competence needed to carry out their work effectively’ (Armstrong, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on immediate changes in job performance </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>‘ the growth or realisation of a person’s ability and potential through the provision of learning and educational experiences’ (Armstrong, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>concerned with long-term improvement in the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>‘ development of knowledge, values and understanding required in all aspects of life rather than the knowledge and skills relating to particular areas of activity’ (Armstrong, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>geared towards intermediate changes in individual capabilities </li></ul>
  7. 7. A learning culture <ul><li>learning is recognised by everyone in the organisation as essential </li></ul><ul><li>everyone is committed to and engaged in learning </li></ul><ul><li>emphasis is on </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discretionary learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>empowerment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>self-managed learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>acts as a ‘growth medium’ (Reynolds, 2004) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Strategy for creating a learning culture (Reynolds, 2004) <ul><li>develop and share the vision </li></ul><ul><li>empower employees </li></ul><ul><li>provide a supportive learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>use coaching techniques </li></ul><ul><li>provide guidance, time, resources and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>managers act as ‘role models’ </li></ul><ul><li>encourage networks – communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>align systems to vision </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organisational learning <ul><li>‘ All organisations learn whether they consciously choose to or not’ (Kim, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a viable assertion? </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation memory: ‘Stored information from an organisation’s history that can be brought to bear on present decisions. This information is stored as a consequence of implementing decisions to which they refer, by individual recollections and through shared interpretations’. (Walsh and Ungson, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any evidence of organisational amnesia? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Single and double loop learning (Argyris, 1978, 1992; Schon, 1981; Armstrong, 2006) <ul><li>Single-loop learning - whenever an error is detected and corrected without questioning or altering the underlying values of the systems (helps everyday tasks). </li></ul><ul><li>addresses the surface symptoms of a problem </li></ul><ul><li>lower-level reactive learning </li></ul><ul><li>‘ six sigma’ is an example of operational or single-loop learning </li></ul><ul><li>Single-loop learning organisations : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define what they expect to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor achievements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take corrective action as necessary </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Single and double loop learning (Argyris, 1978, 1992; Schon, 1981; Armstrong, 2006) <ul><li>Double-loop learning - when mismatches are corrected by first examining and altering governing variables and then taking action (more relevant for complex tasks) </li></ul><ul><li>asks the question why the problem arose and tackles root causes </li></ul><ul><li>‘… people are encouraged to think holistically and to challenge fundamental assumptions that underpin the organisation’s systems and procedures’ (Walton, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Double-loop learning organisations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learn something new about what has to be achieved in the light of changed circumstances and then decide how this should be achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are adaptive, dynamic and customer driven </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Learning organisation <ul><li>concept stimulated by the need to be competitive in an environment characterised by uncertainty and change </li></ul><ul><li>‘ learning company…facilitates the learning of all its members and continually transforms itself’ (Pedler et al., 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>a learning organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adapts to its context and develops its people to match the context (Burgoyne, 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is ‘skilled at creating, acquiring and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights’. Good at: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>systematic problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experimentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning from past experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning from others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organisation (Garvin, 1993) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Learning Organisation (Pedler et al., 1988) <ul><li>has a climate in which individual members are encouraged to learn and develop their full potential </li></ul><ul><li>two hallmarks of a learning climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the primary task of managers is to facilitate the learning of their staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mistakes are seen as experiments that did not produce the right results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Pedler, et al., 1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>extends the learning culture to include customers, suppliers and other significant stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>makes HRD strategy central to business policy </li></ul><ul><li>learning is a continuous process of organisational transformation rather than a set of discrete training activities </li></ul>
  14. 14. Soft and hard approaches to HRD (Leopold et al., 2005) <ul><li>High control/low development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high degree of fit between training and organisation’s immediate need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of investment in training and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low commitment to developing people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>short-term approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High control/high development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high commitment to developing people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training is job-related and located in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>driven by the needs of the business </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Soft and hard approaches to HRD (Leopold et al., 2005) <ul><li>Low control/high development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high commitment to developing people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovative training and development activities are encouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training and development linked to organisational learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>future orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aim ‘long run agility’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low control/low development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual commitment to training and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little or no investment in training and development by the organisation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Tensions continuum between development and control (Leopold et al., 2005) Self-development CPD Self and company funded Individual and company needs Non-standard forms of training Seen as an investment Long-term Fit for future Low control High development Individual and group performance appraisal Management development Business needs driven Job-related training funded On-the-job training Teamworking Quality circles Make/develop skills High control Low development Individually driven Self-directed Self-funded Performance management Individual job performance Fit for purpose Short term Training necessities e.g. H&S Minimum investment Seen more as a cost Buy in skills Tensions between control and development
  17. 17. Individual learning strategies (Armstrong, 2006) <ul><li>driven by an organisation's human resource requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills and behaviours required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>identifies how learning needs will be identified </li></ul><ul><li>role of PDP and self-managed learning </li></ul><ul><li>support provided for individual learning </li></ul><ul><li>important that organisation develops a climate which supports effective and appropriate learning </li></ul>
  18. 18. Current approaches to learning <ul><li>individual learner takes more responsibility for his/her learning </li></ul><ul><li>learning is an individual activity </li></ul><ul><li>it is trainee centred rather than organisation centred </li></ul><ul><li>experiential learning is important </li></ul><ul><li>participative training is important </li></ul><ul><li>flexible training programmes – trainees work at their own pace </li></ul><ul><li>blended learning – a mix of approaches to suit individual’s learning needs, learning style and work-life situation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Continuous development <ul><li>many organisations have a philosophy of continuous development </li></ul><ul><li>learning should be seen as a continuous process </li></ul><ul><li>less emphasis on formal instruction </li></ul><ul><li>self-managed or self-directed learning encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>personal development plans may be an important part of the learning process </li></ul>
  20. 20. Continuous development spiral