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Le Cerveau

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Le Cerveau

  1. 1. LE CERVEAU «   triunique  » est une théorie développée par Paul Mac Lean en 1970.
  2. 3. <ul><li>Stress hormones have been shown to be directly toxic to memory centers (hippocampus) </li></ul><ul><li>Managing stress effectively is essential to good brain function. </li></ul>
  3. 4. LE CERVEAU <ul><li>Le cerveau est UNE maison a TROIS étages, et chaque étage a ses particularités. </li></ul><ul><li>Le cerveau est physiologiquement structuré en 3 niveaux : </li></ul><ul><li>le cerveau reptilien, siège des instincts, </li></ul><ul><li>le cerveau limbique, siège des émotions </li></ul><ul><li>le cortex, siège du raisonnement. </li></ul>
  4. 5. LE CERVEAU « reptilien » est le plus ancien . <ul><li>Il assure les fonctions vitales de l’organisme en contrôlant, la fréquence cardiaque, la respiration, la température corporelle, l’équilibre, etc…. </li></ul><ul><li>Il comprend le tronc cérébral et le cervelet . </li></ul><ul><li>Il a tendance à être plutôt rigide et compulsif… </li></ul>
  5. 6. Le cerveau reptilien. <ul><li>C' est le cerveau reptilien qui se charge de la survie de l' organisme : respirer, boire, manger, dormir, assurer la défense du territoire (agressivité) et la survie de l' espèce (se reproduire). </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Quand un élève mécontent dit &quot;Dégage de MA place !&quot;, Il laisse s' exprimer son reptilien. </li></ul><ul><li>Le cerveau reptilien aime garder la même place et conserver les mêmes habitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>C' est lui qui a l' instinct d' imitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Il privilégie l' odorat sur les autres sens. </li></ul>Le cerveau reptilien.
  7. 8. LE CERVEAU « limbique », apparu avec les premiers mammifères, <ul><li>Il comprend principalement l’hippocampe , l’amygdale et l’hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>C’est le siège de nos jugements de valeur, souvent inconscients, qui exercent une grande influence sur notre comportement. </li></ul>
  8. 9. LE CERVEAU « limbique » est responsable des émotions .
  9. 11. LE CERVEAU limbique <ul><li>son fonctionnement domine l’affectivité et la mémoire. </li></ul><ul><li>Il mémorise les comportements agréables ou désagréables </li></ul><ul><li>Il est en étroite relation avec les centres des pulsions . </li></ul>
  10. 12. LE CERVEAU limbique <ul><li>Comme le cerveau reptilien, </li></ul><ul><li>il ne s’exprime pas verbalement </li></ul><ul><li>mais peut exciter le cortex qui lui, </li></ul><ul><li>s’exprime par la parole. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Sa fonction essentielle est la survie par une bonne adaptation à l’environnement social : empathie, statut social, intégration à un groupe, convictions et croyances, sentiment de sécurité… </li></ul><ul><li>C’est aussi le lieu des mécanismes de motivation, des réussites et échecs, du plaisir et de déplaisir… </li></ul>LE CERVEAU limbique
  12. 14. Le cerveau limbique <ul><li>Le cerveau limbique a une certaine autonomie par rapport au cortex: il peut bloquer toute réactivité des zones corticales, et anesthésier les informations déplaisantes qui n’atteignent pas le cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Mais il peut aussi stimuler certaines zones du cortex. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Le cerveau limbique enregistre d’abord l’action vécue qui deviendra réflexion </li></ul><ul><li>La réflexion est ainsi soumise à l’action: le cerveau ne peut résoudre un problème que s’il expérimente de nouvelles solutions </li></ul>LE CERVEAU limbique
  14. 16. <ul><li>&quot;Un cheval sans cavalier&quot;. </li></ul>LE CERVEAU limbique
  15. 17. <ul><li>&quot;Le cavalier&quot; . </li></ul>LE CERVEAU « néo-cortex »
  16. 18. LE CERVEAU « néo-cortex » <ul><li>Le « néo-cortex » culmine chez l’humain les deux hémisphères cérébraux. </li></ul><ul><li>C’est grâce aux deux hémisphères que se développent: le langage , la pensée abstraite, l’imagination, la conscience . </li></ul><ul><li>Le néocortex est souple et a des capacités d’apprentissage quasi infinies. </li></ul><ul><li>C’est aussi grâce au néo- cortex que peut se constituer la culture . </li></ul>
  17. 19. LE CERVEAU <ul><li>L’outil Herrmann prend en considération la distinction entre les deux niveaux supérieurs qu’il combine avec le modèle initial de Sperry </li></ul><ul><li>le cerveau gauche (logique, analytique, rationnel) </li></ul><ul><li>le cerveau droit (intuitif, global, imaginatif).     </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>&quot; la finalité de l'Être, c'est d'être... &quot;. </li></ul>

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