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Design & Construction of a model CARP hatchery

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Design & Construction of a model CARP hatchery

  1. 1. DESIGN DETAIL OF DIFFERENT HATCHERY COMPONENTS DEPARTMENT OF AQUACULTURE MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY VIDYASAGAR UNIVERSITY, MIDNAPORE – 721 102, WEST BENGAL, INdIA DR. MANOJ KUMAR PATI Assistant Professor
  2. 2. Design & Construction of a Model Carp Hatchery (Chinese Circular Hatchery)  The most important component in the aquaculture practices is the availability of quality seed of different species at desirable time.  The technology of brood stock development, induced breeding, multiple breeding, fish gamete cryopreservation and seed production of Indian and exotic carps have been standardized.  Cost effective standard is a pre-requisite for commercial production of carp seed in different agro-climatic regions of the country.  The details of design, estimating, water requirement relating with the unit of carp seed production have been described here for the construction of different facilities of a carp seed production complex  It will be beneficial to decide the appropriate size of different pools and water tanks etc. while planning of a carp seed production complex, as per the unit production
  3. 3.  A carp hatchery complex would generally have different main units  The Brood-stock Units (for rearing & management of carp brood stocks with different size of ponds varying from 0.1 to 1.0 ha)  The main Hatchery Unit for spawn production o Spawning chamber o Egg incubation chamber o Egg & Spawn Collection chamber o Water supply system for the above units  The Nursery Unit (for raising fry from stocked spawn (4 - 5mm to 25 - 30mm))  The Rearing Unit (for raising fry to fingerlings (50mm and above))  The packing & Marketing Unit  Success of a hatchery depends on proper planning, design and site selection
  4. 4. SELECTION OF A SUITABLE SITE The selection of a suitable site for a hatchery is the first criterion for its successful operation Demand of fish seed in locality, accordingly size of the fish seed farm may be decided; There should not be chances of pouching; Area used for farm construction should be almost plain of suitable shape and sufficient size; Water source, quality and quantity should be adequate; Water supply to fish farm by gravity reduce the operational cost; Soil of the area selected should be impervious as far as possible to reduce the water loss; The soil for the rearing tank for fry and brood stock has to be impervious type such as clay or silty clay or clay loam etc;
  5. 5. Fish farm located in areas unsuitable for other agricultural uses but soil should be suitable for fish culture; Site should be free from frequent deep flooding and should be away from flooding areas; The site should be easily accessible by rail and/or road; There must be availability of cheap labourers; There must be access to electricity; There should be a market in the vicinity; There may be scope for integration of aquaculture with agriculture, horticulture or floriculture at the site.
  6. 6. Types of Soil There are three basic types of soil: sand, silt and clay. But most soils are composed of a combination of the different types. How they mix will determine the texture of the soil, or, in other words, how the soil looks and feels.  One type of soil is sand. Sand within soil is actually small particles of weathered rock. Sand is fairly coarse and loose so water is able to drain through it easily. While this is good for drainage, it is not good for growing plants because sandy soil will not hold water or nutrients.  Silt is another type of soil. Silt can be thought of as fine sand, and it will hold water better than sand. If you were to hold a handful of dry silt in your hand, it would feel almost like flour. If you were to add water to the silt in your hand, it would do a fair job of holding the water and feels slick and smooth.  Clay is very fine-grained soil. Its particles are even smaller than silt, so there is very little space between the fine grains for air or water to circulate. Therefore, clay does not drain well or provide space for plant roots to flourish. If you were a farmer, you would not want your field to be mostly clay. However, if you were a potter, you would think clay was the best type of soil. When moisture is added to clay, it can be molded into shapes, such as a pottery bowl or a building brick.  Now, we can consider loam as our fourth type of soil, even though it is really a combination of sand, silt and clay. Loam will vary depending on how much of each component is present, but generally if you are a gardener, this is the type of soil you want because it holds moisture, but also allows for good drainage. If you were to hold loam in your hand, you could mold it into a ball, but the ball would easily crumble when disturbed.
  7. 7. Mountain Soils: These soils are formed as a result of the accumulation of organic matter derived from forest growth. They are found in Himalayan region and vary in different regions according to altitude. Tea is grown in those areas which receive sufficient rainfall. Desert Soils: In the desert regions of Rajasthan, soils are not well developed. As evaporation is in excess of rainfall, the soil has a high salt content and saline layer forms a hard crust. These soils are gen­erally sandy and deficient in organic matter.  Soils of India: Six Different Types of Soils Found in India  Soil is our prime natural and economic resource.  Soils in India differ in composition and structure.
  8. 8. Alluvial Soils: These are formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers. They are rich in humus and very fertile. They are found in Great Northern plain, lower valleys of Narmada and Tapti and Northern Gujarat. These soils are renewed every year. Black Soils: These soils are made up of volcanic rocks and lava-flow. It is concentrated over Deccan Lava Tract which includes parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It consists of Lime, Iron, Magnesium and also Potash but lacks in Phosphorus, Nitrogen and Organic matter. Red Soils: These are derived from weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan Plateau. Its redness is due to iron composition. When iron content is lower it is yellow or brown. They cover almost the whole of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Orissa. Laterite Soils: These soils are formed due to in­tense leaching and are well developed on the sum­mits of hills and uplands. They are commonly found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
  9. 9. Calculation of Brood fish requirement: • The total area of brood stock rearing pond shall depend on the number of brood fish required which in turn depends on the target of seed production • Suppose the target is 50 million spawn per year • Then the quantity of brood fish required is calculated as follows:  The standardized spawn yield of a major carp is 1 lakh/kg body weight (average)  So, the female brood required for production of 50 million spawn is 50 million /1 lakh i.e. (50 × 10 lakh)/1 lakh = 500 kg • Equal number of male are required so male + female brood fish = 500 + 500= 1000kg • Risk factor is 30% let i.e. 300 kg • So total brood fish required is 1000 + 300 = 1300 kg
  10. 10. Calculation of the Area required for Brood fish rearing pond  The optimum stocking density = 1000kg/ha  So for 1300 kg, area required = (1 × 1300)/1000 = 1.3ha  Another 1.3 ha is required for the release of the spent brood after each spawning  Continuous supply of brood fish shall be ensured for each year  So, The total area for brood husbandry shall be 1.3+1.3 = 2.6 ha
  11. 11. Calculation of dimension of different Hatchery Components for production of 30 lakh eggs in one cycle 1. Calculation of dimension of Spawning/Breeding Pool • Assume the tank have the capacity for 30 lakh eggs production • Let spawning fecundity is 1 lakh per kg body weight in average • 30 kg female & 30kg male required for the purpose • 6ppm DO in water is required conducive for spawning of fishes • 1m3 of water is required for 3.5 kg of brood fish  Total brood fish required = 30+30=60kg  Total quantity water required = 60/3.5= 17.14m3 i.e. V  The height of the tank is 1.2 m including 0.2m free board (1.2-0.2=1m water height)  Volume of circular breeding pool V = r2H  or V =  × D2/4 × H  D2 = (V × 4)/ ( ×H)  D2 = (17.14 × 4)/ (22 × 1m water)/7  D2 = 21.814  D = 4.670 ≈ 5.0 m  Hence the diameter of the breeding tank will be 5m for the production capacity of 30 lakh eggs
  12. 12. 2. Calculation of dimension of Incubation pool  1 m3 water is required for 7 lakh eggs  For 30 lakh eggs = 30/7 = 4.3m3 of water  Depth of chamber is 1.2m (1m water + 0.2m free board)  The central chamber is provided with 1/80nos. net wrapped around to arrest the eggs from escaping and regulates circular flow for egg rolling and also allow the water to drain out during hatching through central outlet. The ratio between central/inner chamber and outer chamber should be 1:4.  The eggs are incubated in outer chamber of the incubation pool  The volume of outer chamber means the total volume of incubation pool – volume of the inner chamber
  13. 13.  Let the radius of inner chamber is ‘r’ and radius of incubation pool is ‘R’  So, the volume of outer chamber (V ) is R2h - r2h or, V =  (R2 - r2) × h h= 1m (water depth) V =  (R2 - r2)  As we know R/r =4/1 so, R = 4r  Then V =  [(4r)2 – r2]  Or, V =  ×(16r2 –r2)  Or, V =  × 15 r2  As V = 4.3m3, 4.3 =  × 15 r2, r2 = 4.3 /15 , r2 = 4.3× 7 15 × 22  r2 = 0.0912 so r ≈ 0.3 m and R= 4 × 0.3 = 1.2m  So diameter of the pool shall be 2.4 m and height shall be 1+0.2=1.2m
  14. 14. 3. Calculation of dimension of over-head water tank  The most important requirement of an Chinese circular hatchery is the water supply system  Let the standard velocity (flow/second) in spawning pool and incubation pool is 0.2 -0.3m/sec  The water requirement in breeding pool will be 2 Lit/sec and in IP = 4Lit/sec Flow in BP will be 2x3600=7200lit/hr, 1 cubic meter = 1000L So flow rate is 7200/1000 =7.2 m3/hour in BP and in IP= 14.4 m3/hour  Let the over-head tank may be designed for 15m3 (15000 ltr)/hr capacity  Therefore the dimension of the tank may be 3 x 2.5 x 2m (h) with a minimum staging height 2.5m to regulate the flow in the spawning and incubation units
  15. 15. 4. Estimation of the area required for Nursery Tank  Average stocking density for nursery pond is 5 million/ha  For rearing of 50 million spawn, area required is 50/5 = 10ha  In one season, one pond can be used for 3 -4 times for spawn rearing  Duration of a crop cycle is 15 -20 days  If 5 crops are raised in one season for rearing 50 million spawn then area required shall be 10/4= 2.5 ha

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