Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
EFFECTIVENESS OF BANANA PEEL (MUSA ACUMINATA) EXTRACT AS AN
ALTERNATIVE INSECTICIDE
A Research Proposal
Presented to
Rolan...
EFFECTIVENESS OF BANANA PEEL (MUSA ACUMINATA) EXTRACT AS AN
ALTERNATIVE INSECTICIDE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
I...
insecticides can occur via runoff (either dissolved or sorbed to
soil particles), atmospheric deposition (primarily spray ...
including amino acids and alkaloids. The tannin compounds are
widely distributed in many species of plants, where they pla...
oldest name for the species and thus has precedence over the
others from the rules of the International Code of Botanical
...
Statement of the Problem:
This study aims to determine the effectiveness of a Banana
peel (Musa acuminata) extract in term...
Significance of the Study:
This study would be most useful and significant to the
following:
(1) Farmers who are a victim ...
Conceptual Framework
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
Banana (Musa Acuminata)
Peel Extract
Commercialized Insecti...
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This study is only limited to determine the effectiveness
of Banana (Musa Acuminata) Peel Extract at...
Definition of Terms
Banana Peel
- the skin of a banana (especially when it is stripped off
and discarded) that contains a ...
Alternative
- Other possibility: something different form, and able to
serve as a substitute for something else. (Encarta
...
CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literature and studies
Different related literature and studies were made by the
different au...
should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can
serve as alternative energy source.(International Journal...
According to the Indian Journal of Biotechnology, banana
peels can be used for the production of Amylase through the use
o...
biomaterial that proved to be as heavy metals sorbent was
bagasse. Cellulose can be used as an adsorbent for the carboxyl
...
According to Anderson, banana peels can be an alternative
fertilizer and a good insecticide to the plants found in the
law...
Review of Related Studies
In cartoon shows, banana peels are commonly present when
characters in the show are about to sli...
According to a study, banana peel can be an energy juice
drink through the banana peel’s compound who can act as an
altern...
According to a study, bio-absorbent made from banana peels
and stems have ability to absorb copper metal. (Hasanah et.al,
...
Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
Research Design and Purpose of the Study
This chapter presents methods and procedures that were used...
and spraying of extract for 3 days to determine the mortality
rate of Banana Fruit Peel Extract to the insects. Necessary
...
The test conducted using insects with three different
species, to furthermore know the effectiveness of banana peels
as an...
dictionaries, encyclopedia, journals, and internet for online
searching.
Percentage Yield
3kg fresh Banana peel were washe...
taken as the subjects in this study. The fire ants were sprayed
with banana peel extract and were observed to know the eff...
Mortar & Pestle – The mortar & pestle were used to extract the
banana peel.
Plastic Bottle – The plastic bottle is used as...
different concentration of banana peel extract to the insects,
the researcher examined the insects if it is alive. Then re...
Statistical Tool
The statistical tool used in this study is T Test:
Formula:
Where,
x1¯ = Mean of first set of values
x2¯ ...
The researcher was able to interpret the data. T Test is
often called Student's T test in the name of its founder
"Student...
Procedural Design
Collection and Preparation of Banana (Musa
Acuminata)PeelExtract.
Preparation of Materials
Preparation o...
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abbassi Z., (2013). Universal Journal of Chemistry. Iran.
Anderson, (2011). Musa acuminataColla. Germplasm Re...
http://omtimes.com/2013/07/eating-banana-peels-will-make-
you-extremely-healthy/, last accessed October 29, 2013.
Hansson ...
Lalitha B. et al., (2011). Research Journal of Pharmaceutical,
Biological and Chemical Sciences. India.
L. Clark, (2013). ...
ESTIMATED COSTS
Research Budget
Item Amount
1.) Digitalizing and making the research proposal (700
Cash)
2.) Communication...
It is possible that this research will gain new knowledge
commercially, but identities of the subjects will remain
strictl...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Effectiveness of banana peel

74,431 views

Published on

edit and recommendation is highly appreciated

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Login to see the comments

Effectiveness of banana peel

  1. 1. EFFECTIVENESS OF BANANA PEEL (MUSA ACUMINATA) EXTRACT AS AN ALTERNATIVE INSECTICIDE A Research Proposal Presented to Rolando S. Delgado In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Research of The Grade 9 STE By GRAZIELLA G. LEONORAS
  2. 2. EFFECTIVENESS OF BANANA PEEL (MUSA ACUMINATA) EXTRACT AS AN ALTERNATIVE INSECTICIDE INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Insecticides are chemicals used to control insects by killing them or preventing them from engaging in behaviors deemed undesirable or destructive. They are classified based on their structure and mode of action. Many insecticides act upon the nervous system of the insect (e.g., Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition) while others act as growth regulators or endotoxins. Insecticides are commonly used in agricultural, public health, and industrial applications, as well as household and commercial uses (e.g., control of roaches and termites). The most commonly used insecticides are the organophosphates, pyrethroids and carbamates. The USDA (2001) reported that insecticides accounted for 12% of total pesticides applied to the surveyed crops. Corn and cotton account for the largest shares of insecticide use in the United States. It is applied in various formulations and delivery systems (e.g., sprays, baits, slow-release diffusion) that influence their transport and chemical transformation. Mobilization of
  3. 3. insecticides can occur via runoff (either dissolved or sorbed to soil particles), atmospheric deposition (primarily spray drift), or sub-surface flow (Goring and Hamaker 1972, Moore and Ramamoorthy 1984). Soil erosion from high intensity agriculture, facilitates the transport of insecticides into waterbodies (Kreuger et al. 1999). Some insecticides are accumulated by aquatic organisms and transferred to their predators. Insecticides are designed to be lethal to insects, so they pose a particular risk to aquatic insects, but they also affect other aquatic invertebrates and fish. An insecticide contains chemical content named tannin, in which it is highly present in Banana (Musa Acuminata) peels. Tannins are phenolic compounds that precipitate proteins. It is any of a group of pale-yellow to light-brown amorphous substances in the form of powder, flakes, or a spongy mass, widely distributed in plants and used chiefly in tanning leather, dyeing fabric, making ink, and in various medical applications. It can be used as a medicine because of its styptic and astringent properties. We already know that these tannins can be used to treat tonsillitis, pharyngitis, hemorrhoids, and skin eruptions. A tannin is an astringent, bitter plant and has a polyphenolic compound that binds to and precipitatesproteins and various other organic compounds
  4. 4. including amino acids and alkaloids. The tannin compounds are widely distributed in many species of plants, where they play a role in protection from predation, and perhaps also as pesticides, and in plant growth regulation. (Katie E. Ferrell; Thorington, Richard W., 2006) This tannin compound in bananas will be the main chemical compound to be used as an insecticide. On the other hand, Musa acuminata is a species of wild banana native to Southeast Asia. It is the progenitor of modern edible bananas, along with Musa balbisiana.First cultivated by humans at around 8000 BC. (Chandramita Bora, 2011). It is one of the earliest examples of domesticated plants. Musa acuminata belongs to sectionMusa (formerly Eumusa) of the genus Musa. It belongs to the familyMusaceae of the orderZingiberales.(GRIN online database, 2011). It is divided into several subspecies. Musa acuminata was first described by the ItalianbotanistLuigi Aloysius Colla in the book MemoriedellaRealeAccademiadelleScienze di Torino (1820). Although other authorities have published various names for this species and its hybrids mistaken for different species (notably Musa sapientum by Linnaeus which is now known to be a hybrid of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana), Colla's publication is the
  5. 5. oldest name for the species and thus has precedence over the others from the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Colla also was the first authority to recognize that both Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana were wild ancestral species, even though the specimen he described was a naturally occurring seedless polyploid like cultivated bananas. Presently, insects are now one of the major problems of the farmers in the society. They kill the crops in the farm, or these insects are eating the farmed crops. The main solution to this problem is by the use of insecticides and one of these will be an insecticide made from a banana peel extract. In this context, the researcher is motivated to find out the use of a Banana peel extract as an alternative insectide in farms.
  6. 6. Statement of the Problem: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of a Banana peel (Musa acuminata) extract in terminating insects for the year 2014-2015 specifically it sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the level of effectiveness of a Banana (Musa Acuminata) peel extract in terminating insects? 2. What is the level of commercialized insecticides in terminating insects? 3. Is there a significant difference in the level of effectiveness of Banana (Musa Acuminata) peel extract and a commercialized insecticide in eliminating insects? Hypothesis: The following hypotheses were formulated to this study: 1. There is no significant difference in the level of effectiveness of Banana (Musa Acuminata) peel extract and a commercialized insecticide in eliminating insects of a different species. 2. There is no significant relationship between the effectiveness level of Banana (Musa Acuminata) peel extract and a commercialized insecticide in eliminating insects.
  7. 7. Significance of the Study: This study would be most useful and significant to the following: (1) Farmers who are a victim of insects. The outcome of this study will provide them more knowledge to the insects they are facing today. The findings will pinpoint the effectiveness of a banana peel extract as their homemade insecticide with a lesser expense from their pocket. (2) Farmers who spent a lot of money to the commercialized insecticides. This normally happens throughout every year in a farmer’s life. Commercialized insecticide costs a lot of money in which a regular farmer could not sustain to buy from their own pockets, but with banana peel extract, this would help farmers have a higher income with lesser expenses for keeping their farmed goods healthy. (3) Households who problems insects on their home. The result of this study will help households upon eliminating unneeded insects to their houses without buying any expensive insecticide.
  8. 8. Conceptual Framework Independent Variables Dependent Variables Banana (Musa Acuminata) Peel Extract Commercialized Insecticide Mortality Rate of Insects Figure 1: Schematic Diagram: Diagram showing the relationships of the variables in the study. The independent variables are the Banana Peel extract and the commercialized medicine in which it influences the dependent variable, the insects. The insects offer a great opportunity for the effectiveness of a Banana Peel extract in terminating their kind is greatly increased. Banana Peel extract are far more satisfying when used, benefited, and exists as an insecticide.
  9. 9. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS This study is only limited to determine the effectiveness of Banana (Musa Acuminata) Peel Extract at Leonoras’s residence, Saintsville Subdivision, Iloilo. This study is only limited to determine the effectiveness of Banana (Musa Acuminata) Peel Extract as an alternative insecticide. There are 10 ants, flies, and 10 mosquitoes in each set. Set A will be tested using the banana peel extract and set B will be tested using a commercialized insecticide. The study was limited to the use of independent variables such as the banana peel extract and the commercialized insecticide. The independent variable of the study is the banana peel extract and commercialized insecticide, while the dependent variable of the study is the mortality rate of different insects. The banana peel extract comes from the variety of Musa Acuminata while the insects are from the varieties of Culicidae, Dipteraand Formicidae. This study will be conducted on the year 2015 at Leonoras’s residence, Saintsville Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo.
  10. 10. Definition of Terms Banana Peel - the skin of a banana (especially when it is stripped off and discarded) that contains a certain compound called Tannin. - In this study, banana peel refers to an alternative insecticide to be used for eliminating insects such as mosquitoes, flies, and ants. Extract - Is the proportion of a plant or substance removed by solvents and used in chemical preparations it maybe in solid, powder or liquid form. - In this study, extract is also the agent in eliminating insects. Effectiveness - Adequate to accomplish a purpose; producing the intended or expected result. - In this study, effectiveness refers to the efficiency level of a Banana Peel Extract as an alternative insecticide.
  11. 11. Alternative - Other possibility: something different form, and able to serve as a substitute for something else. (Encarta Dictionary, 2009) - In this study, alternative refers to a substitute insecticide for mosquitoes, flies, and ants using banana peel extract. Insecticide - An agent or a chemical substance used for killing insects. - In this study, insecticide refers to the use of banana peel extract as a substitute in killing or terminating insects such as ants, mosquitoes and flies.
  12. 12. CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and studies Different related literature and studies were made by the different authors. In this chapter are the following related literature and studies were collected. Review of Related Readings According to the African Journal of Food Science and Technology, banana peels can be alternative wine vinegar. The banana wine vinegar which complied with the standard ranges of brewed vinegar after complete fermentation. The aroma of the vinegar produced was appreciated by the consumers who were acquainted with vinegar. (African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014) In the Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, banana pulp and banana peel have been successfully used to treat tomato fungus in an agricultural setting. Also, tannins present in ripe banana peel act as tanning agents in leather processing. (Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2013) Pineapple and banana peelsethanol yields were significantly higher than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but
  13. 13. should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as alternative energy source.(International Journal of Environmental Science and Development,2013) Banana peels particles can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos inbrake pad manufacture in automobiles. (Idris, 2013) Another, banana peel is also used in treating warts, treating poison ivy rashes, bruises, mosquito bites, and it even helps in combatting alcohol addiction by drinking the water in the boiled banana peels. (Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2012) The banana peels will be a natural insecticide, which can be non-toxic to humans and pets and safe for the environment. (Permasofty, 2012) Reader’s Digest once suggested that aphid-infected lawns and gardens should bury dried-up banana peels since it kills or terminates the insects found in anybody’s lawn. (Reader’s Digest, 2012) Banana peels can be a good source of wine through its compound called tannin that is common as a tanning agent and as a food preserver. (Idise, 2012)
  14. 14. According to the Indian Journal of Biotechnology, banana peels can be used for the production of Amylase through the use of Aspergillusniger. (Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 2012) Banana peels can be ensiled but it lacks the appropriate amounts of easily fermentable carbohydrates that are needed for good quality preservation, they should be ensiled together with a feed rich in fermentable carbohydrates.(Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2012) Banana peel, an underutilized source of phenolic compounds is considered as a good source of antioxidants for foods and functional foods against cancer and heart disease. The peel of the fruit contains various antioxidant compounds such as gallocatechin and dopamine. (Food and Nutrition Sources, 2011) In the Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, banana peel is said to be a source of valuable components, the nutritional composition, and antioxidant components. Banana peel is rich in Dietaryfibre, proteins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and potassium, good source of carotenoids, relief from pain, swelling, itching, bruising, wrinkles and sunburn. (Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 2011) According to theResearch Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, materials that contain cellulose can be used to treat heavy metal waste and one of the
  15. 15. biomaterial that proved to be as heavy metals sorbent was bagasse. Cellulose can be used as an adsorbent for the carboxyl and hydroxyl functional group which becomes the active binding site of the metal. Other biomaterials containing cellulose is a banana peel and banana stem. (Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2011) According to Delana Brooks, banana peels can be used to relieve itching from a poison ivy and mosquito bites. (Brooks, 2011) In the Asiatic Journal of Biotechnology Resources, the banana peels and beet waste can produce ethanol. (Asiatic Journal of Biotechnology Resources, 2011) According to Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, banana peel is a good source of dietary fibre. (Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 2011) Banana costs one-third of the annual insecticidal imports in Costa Rica, since these insecticides were used to repel or kill the parasites on a banana. (Alan et. al, 2008) Banana peels were suggested by Priya Johnson to be a natural insecticide, since it does not bring harm to the plants, instead, it gives a lot of benefits for the plant—especially when it is used to eliminate aphids. (Johnson, 2010)
  16. 16. According to Anderson, banana peels can be an alternative fertilizer and a good insecticide to the plants found in the lawns. This will create a good and big help to the household with more plants since there are no more insects found in the plants, and it will also give potassium to the soil, making the soil fertilized. (Anderson, 2009) Banana peels can also be used in smoking through its substance, bananadine. It is a psychoactive tryptamine chemically related to LSD and DMT and it has carbon atoms. Banana peelings have a number of positive attributes, which make them suitable as animal feed and as an alternative complementary feed during periods of forage shortage. They have high moisture content, which helps animals to stay hydrated. Banana peelings are also a good source of minerals, especially in potassium (Anhwange, 2008) and have a fiber content (HappiEmagaet al, 2011). In comparison to many grass species, that has NDF fractions (NRC, 2001), banana peelings have a lower fiber content, which gives an improved digestibility and subsequently an elevated intake compared those of grasses (Nambi-Kasozi, 2008).
  17. 17. Review of Related Studies In cartoon shows, banana peels are commonly present when characters in the show are about to slip, and some scientists wondered if this is true. A scientific research was conducted about this matter and states that it is possible to slip when stepping on a banana peel-since the banana peel decreases the friction of the shoe sole by one-fifth of it. (J. Ballini, 2014) According to Liesl Clark, banana peels can also be natural alternative sources of shoe polish, teeth whitener, and a tomato plant fertilizer. It also has compounds that can be used as insecticides. (L. Clark, 2013)Banana peels are also good in depression, sleeping better, lowering cholesterol, and being safe from cardiovascular diseases. (Dr. Haider, 2013) Studies have found that banana peels contain more tannin compared to the fruit itself. Tannins are in great use for food preservation, and an element of an insecticide. (H. M., 2013) Also, researchers found out that the fruit peels have collected all the insecticidal residue when they are compared to the fruit inside it. (H. M., 2013) A study once concluded that banana peels, a waste material, have good potential as an adsorbent to remove toxic metals like Co2+ and Ni2+ from water. (Universal Journal of Chemistry, 2013)
  18. 18. According to a study, banana peel can be an energy juice drink through the banana peel’s compound who can act as an alternative energy juice drink. (T. Garcia et. al, 2013) A main problem of the society is the price hike of gasses and banana peels are just a trash in every body’s household. A study in the year 2012 revealed that banana peels can also be a good source of methane gas. (G. Ayate, 2012) Most insect bites and stings cause small reactions that are confined to the area of the bite—localised reactions. They are usually treated at home but with preventions like using natural insecticides like banana peels, which will kill insects without damaging the environment. (Liesl Clark, 2012) According to Ivy Morris, dried banana peels will destroy ant colonies by killing their queen, by eating the banana peel which makes the queen to swell up and die. According to a scientific research, banana peels are not just used in polishing silverware, leather shoes, and the leaves of house plants but some scientists have also discovered that banana peels can also be a water purifier and that it can perform better than in purifying metals. (American Chemical Society, 2011)
  19. 19. According to a study, bio-absorbent made from banana peels and stems have ability to absorb copper metal. (Hasanah et.al, 2012) Also, banana peels have the ability to remove chromium in water.Chromium is toxic, corrosiveand irritant. (J. Memon, 2008) According to a study, banana peels can be an energy source of vinegar through its content, the malic acid whereas it is used as a main ingredient in making substances taste sour. According to a study, banana peels can be a bio-plastic. Through its starch and cellulose – whom really needed in making a plastic.This bio-plastic will help environment to remain its clean state, since it will lessen the present pollutions found in the society. Banana peels can also be an alternative commercial linen paper and alternative toothpaste, according to Precious Cabrido and M.J.A.C., since the peels has this property who can be used in making papers, and banana peels are also a healthful one since it contains soluble fiber, vitamin B6, potassium etc. and that it can protect and maintain the health of the teeth every day.
  20. 20. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY Research Design and Purpose of the Study This chapter presents methods and procedures that were used to attain valid and relevant results for the study. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Banana Peel (Musa acuminata) extract as an insecticide. This study used the experimental method; scientific method of research relating to scientific experiments: involving or based on scientific experiments. This method is based on experience and evidence. The specific experimental design used in the study was the single-group design in which a group of subjects are administered to a single treatment. The researcher used complete randomized sampling design in gathering their samples. This design in which a group of test plants or animals is studied only once and subsequent treatment is applied to determine the effect.In this study, the following process were conducted, extraction of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel to determine the percentage yield, determine the presence of tannin of Banana Fruit Peel by the use of extracting the juice from the fruit peel, acclimatization period of 1 week
  21. 21. and spraying of extract for 3 days to determine the mortality rate of Banana Fruit Peel Extract to the insects. Necessary information was obtained from thesis books, dictionaries, journals, encyclopedias and internet for online searching. Data Gathering Procedure Collection and Preparation The peel of the Banana fruit was collected from Zarraga Public Market, Zarraga, Iloilo. The preparation of Banana (Musa acuminate) Peel extract, acclimatization period for one week, preparation of the materials, finding the total mortality number of insects, experimentation proper and collection of data was performed at Saintsville Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo. Extraction, weighing, and determination of tannin in Banana peel was held at STE department, Zarraga National High School, Zarraga, Iloilo. T-test was used as a statistical method in gathering and determining the effectiveness of banana peel as an eco-friendly insecticide. The fresh peels of banana were washed thoroughly with water and cut into pieces. The thin pieces were washed and were subjected to extraction.
  22. 22. The test conducted using insects with three different species, to furthermore know the effectiveness of banana peels as an alternative insecticide. 20 fire ants, 20 house spiders and 20 cockroaches procured from a local area in Zarraga specifically in Saintsville Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo, was used in the study and divided randomly into two groups for each species, with each group containing 10 insects of the same species. Group A received Banana (Musa acuminata) peel extract while Group B received commercialized insecticide. The researcher made a letter to the adviser, to inform and ask permission to conduct the experiment needed in their study. Letters were sent to the principal and head of the STE Department, to their research adviser and to the veterinarian. The researcher also sent a letter to the homeowner (Leonoras Family) to conduct the research experimentation, at Saintsville Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo. Likewise, the researcher also asked the consent of her parents through sending those letters. When the researcher was finally ready to conduct the experiment, they gathered their materials needed to be used. The researcher used ant, cockroach and spider as the subject of the study that will be treated and tested by the concentration of banana peel extract, specifically the researcher used fresh peels. Necessary information was obtained from thesis books,
  23. 23. dictionaries, encyclopedia, journals, and internet for online searching. Percentage Yield 3kg fresh Banana peel were washed and subjected to extraction process. The 3kg fresh peels of banana were placed in a bowl and used mortar & pestle and a blender. Cheese cloth was used for filtration and extraction. Gentle suction was applied to complete the collection of banana peel extract. The residue and spoiled peels will be discarded. After acquiring the peel extract of banana, percentage yield was determined by dividing the weight of the extract by the weight of sample and multiplying it by 100%. Data analysis T-test was used to determine the significant difference between the mortality rates of banana peel extract insecticide with the commercialized insecticide. Materials: 20 fire ants (Solenopsismandibularis), 20 house spiders (Palystescastaneus)20 cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana) – There were 20 fire ants, 20 house spiders and 20 cockroaches
  24. 24. taken as the subjects in this study. The fire ants were sprayed with banana peel extract and were observed to know the effect of the banana peel extract to their health. Banana Peel (Musa acuminata) Leaf extract. The 100% concentration level was used to test an alternative insecticide. Commercialized insecticide – The commercialized insecticide was used for comparison in the effectiveness of the banana peel extract. Sprayer – This device was used as an instrument to spray the banana peel extract as an insecticide to the insects used as a subject. Blender – The blender was used to blend the Banana peel. Cheese Cloth – Used to filter the banana peel extract to get the pure concentration. Gloves – The gloves were used to protect the hands of the researcher during the experiment and to avoid contaminations in some procedures and for some safety precautionary measures.
  25. 25. Mortar & Pestle – The mortar & pestle were used to extract the banana peel. Plastic Bottle – The plastic bottle is used as a container to put the different concentrations of the banana peel extract. Cage – The cage is used to prevent the insects to escape during the experiment. Procedures: Preparation for Banana Peel Extract First, gather the fresh peels of Banana, next chop it into small pieces. Extract the peels using the blender and the mortar & pestle. Filter the leaf using the cheese cloth. 100% concentration would not be added by water. Preparation of Insects First, the researchers grouped the 20 ants, 20 spiders and 20 cockroaches into four sets (Set A and Set B) with each set containing10 insects. The researcher conditioned the insects with their natural food and 200ml of water three times a day for 5 weeks and put them on cage. In the pre-treatment of the
  26. 26. different concentration of banana peel extract to the insects, the researcher examined the insects if it is alive. Then record the result. After a day, the researcher sprayed Set A with 100% concentration of banana peel extract, Set B with 100% concentration level of commercialized insecticide. The researcher used sprayer to spray the banana peel extract to the insects. After a day, the researcher checked the insects and seeks the result of the banana peel extract as an insecticide as well as the commercialized insecticide and recorded the amount of insects killed in each sets.
  27. 27. Statistical Tool The statistical tool used in this study is T Test: Formula: Where, x1¯ = Mean of first set of values x2¯ = Mean of second set of values S1 = Standard deviation of first set of values S2 = Standard deviation of second set of values n1 = Total number of values in first set n2 = Total number of values in second set. The formula for standard deviation is given by: Where, x = Values given x¯ = Mean n = Total number of values.
  28. 28. The researcher was able to interpret the data. T Test is often called Student's T test in the name of its founder "Student". T test is used to compare two different set of values. It is generally performed on a small set of data. T test is generally applied to normal distribution which has a small set of values. This test compares the mean of two samples. T test uses means and standard deviations of two samples to make a comparison.
  29. 29. Procedural Design Collection and Preparation of Banana (Musa Acuminata)PeelExtract. Preparation of Materials Preparation of Insects (Solenopsismandibularis Palystescastaneus, Periplaneta Americana) Preparation of Insects (Solenopsismandibularis Palystescastaneus, Periplaneta Americana) Preparation of Set-Ups Testing of Set-Ups Observations
  30. 30. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbassi Z., (2013). Universal Journal of Chemistry. Iran. Anderson, (2011). Musa acuminataColla. Germplasm Resources Information Network Online database. Anderson et al., (2009). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. India. B.A. Anhwange, (2008). Chemical Composition of Musa sapientum (Banana) Peels. Journal of Food Technology, 6: 263-266. Bora C., (2011). History of Bananas (pg. 147-159) New York: Springer. Colla, L. A. (1820). Description of Musa acuminate and Musa balbisiana. Memorie del la Reale Academia delleScienze di Torino. Philadelphia. Croft, H. L. (2001). Insecticides to surveyed crops. United States of Agriculture. New York: Macmillan. C. Sodchit et al., (2011). Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology. Thailand. Goring &Hamaker (1972). Organic Chemicals in the Soil Environment, 2 vols. Marcel Dekker, New York. G. Ayate, (2012). Analytical Quality and Accceptability of Fresh Banana Peels. China. Haider P., “Eating banana peels will make you extremely healthy.” OM Times web site, July 10, 2013;
  31. 31. http://omtimes.com/2013/07/eating-banana-peels-will-make- you-extremely-healthy/, last accessed October 29, 2013. Hansson U., (2001). Ensiling Characteristics of Banana Peelings. Sweden. Hasanah et al, (2012). Biosorption and Kinetic Studies on Oil Removal from Produced Water Using Banana Peel. Nigeria. Ivarrson et al., (2012) Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Sweden. Johnson et al., (2010). The use of Principal Component and Cluster Analysis to Differentiate Banana Peel Flours Based on Their Starch and Dietary Fibre Components. Malaysia. J. Ballini, (2014). Apparently This Matters: Slipping on banana Peels. New York. J. Memon, (2008). Banana Peel: A Green and Economical Sorbent for Chromium Removal. Pakistan. Katie F. &Thorington, R., (2006). Tannins as compound for insecticide. Squirrels: The Animal Answer Guide. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Kreuger et al. (1999). Pesticides Removal Using Actinomycetes and Plants, Environmental Fate and Effects Division. New York: Springer. Krishna R. P. et al., (2012) Indian Journal of Biotechnology. India.
  32. 32. Lalitha B. et al., (2011). Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. India. L. Clark, (2013). Apparently This Matters: Slipping on banana peels. Canada. Moore, Ramamoorthy (1984). Organic Chemicals in Natural Waters. New York: Springer. M. Woods & M. Bernstein, (2011). American Chemical Society. North America. Nambi-Kasozi, (2008). Ensiing Characteristics of Banana Peelings. Sweden. Permasofty& Teresa M., (2012). Livestrong.com – banana peels. http://www.livestrong.com/article/462010-are-banana-peels- toxic/ (Accessed 24 August 2014). Saheed L. et al., (2011), Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. India. Singh, K.A. et al., (2011). Asiatic Journal of Biotechnology Resources. India. S. Maneemegalai& R. Prasad, (2011). Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry. India. Vaccariello, (2012). Reader’s Digest. New York. FACILITIES (i) Special Literature – Inter library for journal articles and books worldwide.
  33. 33. ESTIMATED COSTS Research Budget Item Amount 1.) Digitalizing and making the research proposal (700 Cash) 2.) Communication (Internal and External) e.g., postage, ethics permission (1 peso per letter) 150 Cash made on continued basis 3.) Research Proper (materials needed) a.) Cage – 1500 Cash made for the worker and for the materials b.) Insecticide – 300 Cash made for 1 Liter insecticide. c.) Others – 400 Cash made for other materials needed. 4.) Total Cash Needed – 3050 Php Source of Funding Researcher’s Fund TRAVEL PLAN The researcher will travel at any locations needed in the subject of the research. G. Confidentiality and Intellectual Property
  34. 34. It is possible that this research will gain new knowledge commercially, but identities of the subjects will remain strictly confidential. The ideas of the research were all from the researcher and there are no ideas copied by the researcher from other persons. The researcher exerted her efforts through asking other persons and through online browsing if her research was already done by others. The researcher is now sure that her research proposal is original and not copied from others. APPROVALS This research will use insects as the subjects, and so, before commencing the research, ethics approval and approval of the Bureau of Animals to undertake research involving cockroaches, mosquitoes and ants will be sought from the Research Animals Committee of the Bureau of Animals. SUBMISSION OF RESEARH PROPOSAL/DETAILS OF PROPOSED RESEARCH Two copies of this proposal that has the details of the proposed research will be submitted to Zarraga National High School. Two copies of this research proposal will also be sent to the research adviser and to the adviser of the Science Technology & Engineering Department while one copy be remained to the researcher.

×