EFFECTIVENESS OF BANANA PEEL (MUSA ACUMINATA) EXTRACT AS AN
A Research Proposal
Rolando S. Delgado
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Research of
The Grade 9 STE
GRAZIELLA G. LEONORAS
EFFECTIVENESS OF BANANA PEEL (MUSA ACUMINATA) EXTRACT AS AN
Background of the Study
Insecticides are chemicals used to control insects by
killing them or preventing them from engaging in behaviors
deemed undesirable or destructive. They are classified based on
their structure and mode of action. Many insecticides act upon
the nervous system of the insect (e.g., Cholinesterase (ChE)
inhibition) while others act as growth regulators or endotoxins.
Insecticides are commonly used in agricultural, public
health, and industrial applications, as well as household and
commercial uses (e.g., control of roaches and termites). The
most commonly used insecticides are the organophosphates,
pyrethroids and carbamates. The USDA (2001) reported that
insecticides accounted for 12% of total pesticides applied to
the surveyed crops. Corn and cotton account for the largest
shares of insecticide use in the United States.
It is applied in various formulations and delivery systems
(e.g., sprays, baits, slow-release diffusion) that influence
their transport and chemical transformation. Mobilization of
insecticides can occur via runoff (either dissolved or sorbed to
soil particles), atmospheric deposition (primarily spray drift),
or sub-surface flow (Goring and Hamaker 1972, Moore and
Ramamoorthy 1984). Soil erosion from high intensity agriculture,
facilitates the transport of insecticides into waterbodies
(Kreuger et al. 1999). Some insecticides are accumulated by
aquatic organisms and transferred to their predators.
Insecticides are designed to be lethal to insects, so they pose
a particular risk to aquatic insects, but they also affect other
aquatic invertebrates and fish.
An insecticide contains chemical content named tannin, in
which it is highly present in Banana (Musa Acuminata) peels.
Tannins are phenolic compounds that precipitate proteins. It is
any of a group of pale-yellow to light-brown amorphous
substances in the form of powder, flakes, or a spongy mass,
widely distributed in plants and used chiefly in tanning
leather, dyeing fabric, making ink, and in various medical
applications. It can be used as a medicine because of its
styptic and astringent properties. We already know that these
tannins can be used to treat tonsillitis, pharyngitis,
hemorrhoids, and skin eruptions. A tannin is an astringent,
bitter plant and has a polyphenolic compound that binds to and
precipitatesproteins and various other organic compounds
including amino acids and alkaloids. The tannin compounds are
widely distributed in many species of plants, where they play a
role in protection from predation, and perhaps also as
pesticides, and in plant growth regulation. (Katie E. Ferrell;
Thorington, Richard W., 2006) This tannin compound in bananas
will be the main chemical compound to be used as an insecticide.
On the other hand, Musa acuminata is a species of wild
banana native to Southeast Asia. It is the progenitor of modern
edible bananas, along with Musa balbisiana.First cultivated by
humans at around 8000 BC. (Chandramita Bora, 2011). It is one of
the earliest examples of domesticated plants.
Musa acuminata belongs to sectionMusa (formerly Eumusa) of the
genus Musa. It belongs to the familyMusaceae of the
orderZingiberales.(GRIN online database, 2011). It is divided
into several subspecies.
Musa acuminata was first described by the
ItalianbotanistLuigi Aloysius Colla in the book
MemoriedellaRealeAccademiadelleScienze di Torino (1820).
Although other authorities have published various names for this
species and its hybrids mistaken for different species (notably
Musa sapientum by Linnaeus which is now known to be a hybrid of
Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana), Colla's publication is the
oldest name for the species and thus has precedence over the
others from the rules of the International Code of Botanical
Nomenclature. Colla also was the first authority to recognize
that both Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana were wild ancestral
species, even though the specimen he described was a naturally
occurring seedless polyploid like cultivated bananas.
Presently, insects are now one of the major problems of the
farmers in the society. They kill the crops in the farm, or
these insects are eating the farmed crops. The main solution to
this problem is by the use of insecticides and one of these will
be an insecticide made from a banana peel extract.
In this context, the researcher is motivated to find out
the use of a Banana peel extract as an alternative insectide in
Statement of the Problem:
This study aims to determine the effectiveness of a Banana
peel (Musa acuminata) extract in terminating insects for the
year 2014-2015 specifically it sought answers to the following
1. What is the level of effectiveness of a Banana (Musa
Acuminata) peel extract in terminating insects?
2. What is the level of commercialized insecticides in
3. Is there a significant difference in the level of
effectiveness of Banana (Musa Acuminata) peel extract and a
commercialized insecticide in eliminating insects?
The following hypotheses were formulated to this study:
1. There is no significant difference in the level of
effectiveness of Banana (Musa Acuminata) peel extract and a
commercialized insecticide in eliminating insects of a
2. There is no significant relationship between the
effectiveness level of Banana (Musa Acuminata) peel extract
and a commercialized insecticide in eliminating insects.
Significance of the Study:
This study would be most useful and significant to the
(1) Farmers who are a victim of insects. The outcome of
this study will provide them more knowledge to the insects they
are facing today. The findings will pinpoint the effectiveness
of a banana peel extract as their homemade insecticide with a
lesser expense from their pocket.
(2) Farmers who spent a lot of money to the commercialized
insecticides. This normally happens throughout every year in a
farmer’s life. Commercialized insecticide costs a lot of money
in which a regular farmer could not sustain to buy from their
own pockets, but with banana peel extract, this would help
farmers have a higher income with lesser expenses for keeping
their farmed goods healthy.
(3) Households who problems insects on their home. The
result of this study will help households upon eliminating
unneeded insects to their houses without buying any expensive
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
Banana (Musa Acuminata)
Mortality Rate of Insects
Figure 1: Schematic Diagram: Diagram showing the relationships of
the variables in the study.
The independent variables are the Banana Peel extract and the
commercialized medicine in which it influences the dependent
variable, the insects.
The insects offer a great opportunity for the effectiveness
of a Banana Peel extract in terminating their kind is greatly
increased. Banana Peel extract are far more satisfying when used,
benefited, and exists as an insecticide.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This study is only limited to determine the effectiveness
of Banana (Musa Acuminata) Peel Extract at Leonoras’s residence,
Saintsville Subdivision, Iloilo.
This study is only limited to determine the effectiveness
of Banana (Musa Acuminata) Peel Extract as an alternative
insecticide. There are 10 ants, flies, and 10 mosquitoes in each
set. Set A will be tested using the banana peel extract and set
B will be tested using a commercialized insecticide.
The study was limited to the use of independent variables
such as the banana peel extract and the commercialized
The independent variable of the study is the banana peel
extract and commercialized insecticide, while the dependent
variable of the study is the mortality rate of different
insects. The banana peel extract comes from the variety of Musa
Acuminata while the insects are from the varieties of Culicidae,
This study will be conducted on the year 2015 at Leonoras’s
residence, Saintsville Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo.
Definition of Terms
- the skin of a banana (especially when it is stripped off
and discarded) that contains a certain compound called
- In this study, banana peel refers to an alternative
insecticide to be used for eliminating insects such as
mosquitoes, flies, and ants.
- Is the proportion of a plant or substance removed by
solvents and used in chemical preparations it maybe in
solid, powder or liquid form.
- In this study, extract is also the agent in eliminating
- Adequate to accomplish a purpose; producing the intended
or expected result.
- In this study, effectiveness refers to the efficiency
level of a Banana Peel Extract as an alternative
- Other possibility: something different form, and able to
serve as a substitute for something else. (Encarta
- In this study, alternative refers to a substitute
insecticide for mosquitoes, flies, and ants using banana
- An agent or a chemical substance used for killing
- In this study, insecticide refers to the use of banana
peel extract as a substitute in killing or terminating
insects such as ants, mosquitoes and flies.
Review of Related Literature and studies
Different related literature and studies were made by the
different authors. In this chapter are the following related
literature and studies were collected.
Review of Related Readings
According to the African Journal of Food Science and
Technology, banana peels can be alternative wine vinegar. The
banana wine vinegar which complied with the standard ranges of
brewed vinegar after complete fermentation. The aroma of the
vinegar produced was appreciated by the consumers who were
acquainted with vinegar. (African Journal of Food Science and
In the Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, banana
pulp and banana peel have been successfully used to treat tomato
fungus in an agricultural setting. Also, tannins present in ripe
banana peel act as tanning agents in leather processing.
(Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2013)
Pineapple and banana peelsethanol yields were significantly
higher than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this
study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable
sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but
should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can
serve as alternative energy source.(International Journal of
Environmental Science and Development,2013)
Banana peels particles can be effectively used as a
replacement for asbestos inbrake pad manufacture in automobiles.
Another, banana peel is also used in treating warts,
treating poison ivy rashes, bruises, mosquito bites, and it even
helps in combatting alcohol addiction by drinking the water in
the boiled banana peels. (Journal of Pharmacognosy and
The banana peels will be a natural insecticide, which can
be non-toxic to humans and pets and safe for the environment.
Reader’s Digest once suggested that aphid-infected
lawns and gardens should bury dried-up banana peels since it
kills or terminates the insects found in anybody’s lawn.
(Reader’s Digest, 2012)
Banana peels can be a good source of wine through its
compound called tannin that is common as a tanning agent and as
a food preserver. (Idise, 2012)
According to the Indian Journal of Biotechnology, banana
peels can be used for the production of Amylase through the use
of Aspergillusniger. (Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 2012)
Banana peels can be ensiled but it lacks the appropriate
amounts of easily fermentable carbohydrates that are needed for
good quality preservation, they should be ensiled together with
a feed rich in fermentable carbohydrates.(Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences, 2012)
Banana peel, an underutilized source of phenolic compounds
is considered as a good source of antioxidants for foods and
functional foods against cancer and heart disease. The peel of
the fruit contains various antioxidant compounds such as
gallocatechin and dopamine. (Food and Nutrition Sources, 2011)
In the Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, banana peel
is said to be a source of valuable components, the nutritional
composition, and antioxidant components. Banana peel is rich in
Dietaryfibre, proteins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated
fatty acids and potassium, good source of carotenoids, relief
from pain, swelling, itching, bruising, wrinkles and sunburn.
(Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 2011)
According to theResearch Journal of Pharmaceutical,
Biological and Chemical Sciences, materials that contain
cellulose can be used to treat heavy metal waste and one of the
biomaterial that proved to be as heavy metals sorbent was
bagasse. Cellulose can be used as an adsorbent for the carboxyl
and hydroxyl functional group which becomes the active binding
site of the metal. Other biomaterials containing cellulose is a
banana peel and banana stem. (Research Journal of
Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2011)
According to Delana Brooks, banana peels can be used to
relieve itching from a poison ivy and mosquito bites. (Brooks,
In the Asiatic Journal of Biotechnology Resources, the
banana peels and beet waste can produce ethanol. (Asiatic
Journal of Biotechnology Resources, 2011)
According to Songklanakarin Journal of Science and
Technology, banana peel is a good source of dietary fibre.
(Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 2011)
Banana costs one-third of the annual insecticidal imports
in Costa Rica, since these insecticides were used to repel or
kill the parasites on a banana. (Alan et. al, 2008) Banana peels
were suggested by Priya Johnson to be a natural insecticide,
since it does not bring harm to the plants, instead, it gives a
lot of benefits for the plant—especially when it is used to
eliminate aphids. (Johnson, 2010)
According to Anderson, banana peels can be an alternative
fertilizer and a good insecticide to the plants found in the
lawns. This will create a good and big help to the household
with more plants since there are no more insects found in the
plants, and it will also give potassium to the soil, making the
soil fertilized. (Anderson, 2009)
Banana peels can also be used in smoking through its
substance, bananadine. It is a psychoactive tryptamine
chemically related to LSD and DMT and it has carbon atoms.
Banana peelings have a number of positive attributes,
which make them suitable as animal feed and as an alternative
complementary feed during periods of forage shortage. They have
high moisture content, which helps animals to stay hydrated.
Banana peelings are also a good source of minerals, especially
in potassium (Anhwange, 2008) and have a fiber content
(HappiEmagaet al, 2011). In comparison to many grass species,
that has NDF fractions (NRC, 2001), banana peelings have a lower
fiber content, which gives an improved digestibility and
subsequently an elevated intake compared those of grasses
Review of Related Studies
In cartoon shows, banana peels are commonly present when
characters in the show are about to slip, and some scientists
wondered if this is true. A scientific research was conducted
about this matter and states that it is possible to slip when
stepping on a banana peel-since the banana peel decreases the
friction of the shoe sole by one-fifth of it. (J. Ballini, 2014)
According to Liesl Clark, banana peels can also be natural
alternative sources of shoe polish, teeth whitener, and a tomato
plant fertilizer. It also has compounds that can be used as
insecticides. (L. Clark, 2013)Banana peels are also good in
depression, sleeping better, lowering cholesterol, and being
safe from cardiovascular diseases. (Dr. Haider, 2013)
Studies have found that banana peels contain more tannin
compared to the fruit itself. Tannins are in great use for food
preservation, and an element of an insecticide. (H. M., 2013)
Also, researchers found out that the fruit peels have collected
all the insecticidal residue when they are compared to the fruit
inside it. (H. M., 2013)
A study once concluded that banana peels, a waste material,
have good potential as an adsorbent to remove toxic metals like
Co2+ and Ni2+ from water. (Universal Journal of Chemistry, 2013)
According to a study, banana peel can be an energy juice
drink through the banana peel’s compound who can act as an
alternative energy juice drink. (T. Garcia et. al, 2013)
A main problem of the society is the price hike of gasses
and banana peels are just a trash in every body’s household. A
study in the year 2012 revealed that banana peels can also be a
good source of methane gas. (G. Ayate, 2012)
Most insect bites and stings cause small reactions that are
confined to the area of the bite—localised reactions. They are
usually treated at home but with preventions like using natural
insecticides like banana peels, which will kill insects without
damaging the environment. (Liesl Clark, 2012)
According to Ivy Morris, dried banana peels will destroy
ant colonies by killing their queen, by eating the banana peel
which makes the queen to swell up and die.
According to a scientific research, banana peels are not
just used in polishing silverware, leather shoes, and the leaves
of house plants but some scientists have also discovered that
banana peels can also be a water purifier and that it can
perform better than in purifying metals. (American Chemical
According to a study, bio-absorbent made from banana peels
and stems have ability to absorb copper metal. (Hasanah et.al,
2012) Also, banana peels have the ability to remove chromium in
water.Chromium is toxic, corrosiveand irritant. (J. Memon, 2008)
According to a study, banana peels can be an energy source
of vinegar through its content, the malic acid whereas it is
used as a main ingredient in making substances taste sour.
According to a study, banana peels can be a bio-plastic.
Through its starch and cellulose – whom really needed in making
a plastic.This bio-plastic will help environment to remain its
clean state, since it will lessen the present pollutions found
in the society.
Banana peels can also be an alternative commercial linen
paper and alternative toothpaste, according to Precious Cabrido
and M.J.A.C., since the peels has this property who can be used
in making papers, and banana peels are also a healthful one
since it contains soluble fiber, vitamin B6, potassium etc. and
that it can protect and maintain the health of the teeth every
Research Design and Purpose of the Study
This chapter presents methods and procedures that were used
to attain valid and relevant results for the study.
The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect
of Banana Peel (Musa acuminata) extract as an insecticide.
This study used the experimental method; scientific method
of research relating to scientific experiments: involving or
based on scientific experiments. This method is based on
experience and evidence.
The specific experimental design used in the study was the
single-group design in which a group of subjects are
administered to a single treatment.
The researcher used complete randomized sampling design in
gathering their samples. This design in which a group of test
plants or animals is studied only once and subsequent treatment
is applied to determine the effect.In this study, the following
process were conducted, extraction of Banana (Musa acuminata)
Fruit Peel to determine the percentage yield, determine the
presence of tannin of Banana Fruit Peel by the use of extracting
the juice from the fruit peel, acclimatization period of 1 week
and spraying of extract for 3 days to determine the mortality
rate of Banana Fruit Peel Extract to the insects. Necessary
information was obtained from thesis books, dictionaries,
journals, encyclopedias and internet for online searching.
Data Gathering Procedure
Collection and Preparation
The peel of the Banana fruit was collected from Zarraga
Public Market, Zarraga, Iloilo. The preparation of Banana (Musa
acuminate) Peel extract, acclimatization period for one week,
preparation of the materials, finding the total mortality number
of insects, experimentation proper and collection of data was
performed at Saintsville Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo.
Extraction, weighing, and determination of tannin in Banana peel
was held at STE department, Zarraga National High School,
T-test was used as a statistical method in gathering and
determining the effectiveness of banana peel as an eco-friendly
The fresh peels of banana were washed thoroughly with water
and cut into pieces. The thin pieces were washed and were
subjected to extraction.
The test conducted using insects with three different
species, to furthermore know the effectiveness of banana peels
as an alternative insecticide.
20 fire ants, 20 house spiders and 20 cockroaches procured
from a local area in Zarraga specifically in Saintsville
Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo, was used in the study and divided
randomly into two groups for each species, with each group
containing 10 insects of the same species. Group A received
Banana (Musa acuminata) peel extract while Group B received
The researcher made a letter to the adviser, to inform and
ask permission to conduct the experiment needed in their study.
Letters were sent to the principal and head of the STE
Department, to their research adviser and to the veterinarian.
The researcher also sent a letter to the homeowner (Leonoras
Family) to conduct the research experimentation, at Saintsville
Subdivision, Zarraga, Iloilo. Likewise, the researcher also
asked the consent of her parents through sending those letters.
When the researcher was finally ready to conduct the
experiment, they gathered their materials needed to be used. The
researcher used ant, cockroach and spider as the subject of the
study that will be treated and tested by the concentration of
banana peel extract, specifically the researcher used fresh
peels. Necessary information was obtained from thesis books,
dictionaries, encyclopedia, journals, and internet for online
3kg fresh Banana peel were washed and subjected to
The 3kg fresh peels of banana were placed in a bowl and
used mortar & pestle and a blender. Cheese cloth was used for
filtration and extraction. Gentle suction was applied to
complete the collection of banana peel extract. The residue and
spoiled peels will be discarded.
After acquiring the peel extract of banana, percentage
yield was determined by dividing the weight of the extract by
the weight of sample and multiplying it by 100%.
T-test was used to determine the significant difference
between the mortality rates of banana peel extract insecticide
with the commercialized insecticide.
20 fire ants (Solenopsismandibularis), 20 house spiders
(Palystescastaneus)20 cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana) –
There were 20 fire ants, 20 house spiders and 20 cockroaches
taken as the subjects in this study. The fire ants were sprayed
with banana peel extract and were observed to know the effect of
the banana peel extract to their health.
Banana Peel (Musa acuminata) Leaf extract. The 100%
concentration level was used to test an alternative insecticide.
Commercialized insecticide – The commercialized insecticide was
used for comparison in the effectiveness of the banana peel
Sprayer – This device was used as an instrument to spray the
banana peel extract as an insecticide to the insects used as a
Blender – The blender was used to blend the Banana peel.
Cheese Cloth – Used to filter the banana peel extract to get the
Gloves – The gloves were used to protect the hands of the
researcher during the experiment and to avoid contaminations in
some procedures and for some safety precautionary measures.
Mortar & Pestle – The mortar & pestle were used to extract the
Plastic Bottle – The plastic bottle is used as a container to
put the different concentrations of the banana peel extract.
Cage – The cage is used to prevent the insects to escape during
Preparation for Banana Peel Extract
First, gather the fresh peels of Banana, next chop it into
small pieces. Extract the peels using the blender and the mortar
& pestle. Filter the leaf using the cheese cloth. 100%
concentration would not be added by water.
Preparation of Insects
First, the researchers grouped the 20 ants, 20 spiders and
20 cockroaches into four sets (Set A and Set B) with each set
containing10 insects. The researcher conditioned the insects
with their natural food and 200ml of water three times a day for
5 weeks and put them on cage. In the pre-treatment of the
different concentration of banana peel extract to the insects,
the researcher examined the insects if it is alive. Then record
the result. After a day, the researcher sprayed Set A with 100%
concentration of banana peel extract, Set B with 100%
concentration level of commercialized insecticide. The
researcher used sprayer to spray the banana peel extract to the
insects. After a day, the researcher checked the insects and
seeks the result of the banana peel extract as an insecticide as
well as the commercialized insecticide and recorded the amount
of insects killed in each sets.
The statistical tool used in this study is T Test:
x1¯ = Mean of first set of values
x2¯ = Mean of second set of values
S1 = Standard deviation of first set of values
S2 = Standard deviation of second set of values
n1 = Total number of values in first set
n2 = Total number of values in second set.
The formula for standard deviation is given by:
x = Values given
x¯ = Mean
n = Total number of values.
The researcher was able to interpret the data. T Test is
often called Student's T test in the name of its founder
"Student". T test is used to compare two different set of
values. It is generally performed on a small set of data. T test
is generally applied to normal distribution which has a small
set of values. This test compares the mean of two samples. T
test uses means and standard deviations of two samples to make a
Collection and Preparation of Banana (Musa
Preparation of Materials
Preparation of Insects (Solenopsismandibularis
Palystescastaneus, Periplaneta Americana)
Preparation of Insects (Solenopsismandibularis
Palystescastaneus, Periplaneta Americana)
Preparation of Set-Ups
Testing of Set-Ups
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Anderson et al., (2009). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and
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B.A. Anhwange, (2008). Chemical Composition of Musa sapientum
(Banana) Peels. Journal of Food Technology, 6: 263-266.
Bora C., (2011). History of Bananas (pg. 147-159) New York:
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balbisiana. Memorie del la Reale Academia delleScienze di
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Environment, 2 vols. Marcel Dekker, New York.
G. Ayate, (2012). Analytical Quality and Accceptability of Fresh
Banana Peels. China.
Haider P., “Eating banana peels will make you extremely
healthy.” OM Times web site, July 10, 2013;
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Hansson U., (2001). Ensiling Characteristics of Banana Peelings.
Hasanah et al, (2012). Biosorption and Kinetic Studies on Oil
Removal from Produced Water Using Banana Peel. Nigeria.
Ivarrson et al., (2012) Swedish University of Agricultural
Johnson et al., (2010). The use of Principal Component and
Cluster Analysis to Differentiate Banana Peel Flours Based
on Their Starch and Dietary Fibre Components. Malaysia.
J. Ballini, (2014). Apparently This Matters: Slipping on banana
Peels. New York.
J. Memon, (2008). Banana Peel: A Green and Economical Sorbent
for Chromium Removal. Pakistan.
Katie F. &Thorington, R., (2006). Tannins as compound for
insecticide. Squirrels: The Animal Answer Guide. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press.
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and Plants, Environmental Fate and Effects Division. New
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New York: Springer.
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(i) Special Literature – Inter library for journal
articles and books worldwide.
1.) Digitalizing and making the research proposal (700
2.) Communication (Internal and External) e.g., postage,
ethics permission (1 peso per letter) 150 Cash made on
3.) Research Proper (materials needed)
a.) Cage – 1500 Cash made for the worker and for the
b.) Insecticide – 300 Cash made for 1 Liter
c.) Others – 400 Cash made for other materials
4.) Total Cash Needed – 3050 Php
Source of Funding
The researcher will travel at any locations needed in the
subject of the research.
G. Confidentiality and Intellectual Property
It is possible that this research will gain new knowledge
commercially, but identities of the subjects will remain
strictly confidential. The ideas of the research were all from
the researcher and there are no ideas copied by the researcher
from other persons. The researcher exerted her efforts through
asking other persons and through online browsing if her research
was already done by others.
The researcher is now sure that her research proposal is
original and not copied from others.
This research will use insects as the subjects, and so,
before commencing the research, ethics approval and approval of
the Bureau of Animals to undertake research involving
cockroaches, mosquitoes and ants will be sought from the
Research Animals Committee of the Bureau of Animals.
SUBMISSION OF RESEARH PROPOSAL/DETAILS OF PROPOSED RESEARCH
Two copies of this proposal that has the details of the
proposed research will be submitted to Zarraga National High
School. Two copies of this research proposal will also be sent
to the research adviser and to the adviser of the Science
Technology & Engineering Department while one copy be remained
to the researcher.