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Jin Mao Tower


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Building Layout
Structure System
Vertical Transportation

Published in: Design
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Jin Mao Tower

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), Adrian Smith Built: 1994-1998 Height: 420.5M Floors: 88 Architectural Style: Neo-Futurism Site Area: 24,000 M² Use: Modern Offices, Exhibition/Banquet Halls A deluxe 5-Star Hotel – The Grand Hyatt Shanghai Observatory Deck, Entertainment Facilities
  3. 3. With its postmodern form, it evokes the architecture of the traditional Chinese pagoda by creating a rhythmic pattern growing in height. The proportion of the building revolves around the number 8. In Buddhism 8 is a lucky number, associated with prosperity, economy, gold and trade. CONCEPT + =
  4. 4. Basement - Parking area Level 1 and Level 2 – Lobby Level 3 to Level 52 - Five different Office zones Service Level - A double height Mechanical Level Level 53 to Level 87 – Hotel The major tenant of the building is the five-star 555-room Shanghai Grand Hyatt hotel The barrel-vaulted atrium starts at the 56th floor and extends upwards to the 87th. Level 88 – Observatory Deck BUILDING LAYOUT UNDERGROUND PARKING MECHANICAL LEVEL
  5. 5. SPACES In this 88-story skyscraper, which becomes 93 if we include those located in the needle, which are not technical floors accessible to the public offices and are located in different enterprises of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt hotel. The building has 3 main entrances, two for the office area and third for the hotel. • Basement - There are three levels of basement for underground parking with capacity for 800 cars and 2000 bicycles - The parking area is equipped with surveillance cameras that cover an angle of 360 degrees and that are part of the complex security system of the building.
  6. 6. SPACES • Pool - On the floor 57 is installed a pool. - The seriousness of the charges is supported by the eight cores of large steel columns along the perimeter • Monitoring - A 340 meters above street level, on the floor 88 is installed an observatory occupying 1520 square meters, is the observation deck largest and highest of China.
  7. 7. SPACES • Offices - The offices occupy the floors from level 3 to 50 and have a total of 123,000 square meters. - The surfaces are clear, free of columns and are accessed by 26 lifts that have an average wait of 35 seconds during peak hours. - Levels 51 and 52 are occupied by the center of mechanical and electrical installations of the tower, which only has access to specialist staff.
  8. 8. SPACES • Hotel - The Grand Hyatt Hotel, 5 stars occupies 53 to 87 with 555 rooms. - The atrium of the hotel begins at the plant 53 has a height of 152 meters and a diameter of 27mts, and one of the highest courts of the world. - Together with the monitoring center, the hotel is part of only two sections that are accessible to the public, offers business services, high-level banquets, entertainment, 8 restaurants and shops.
  9. 9. STRUCTURE SYSTEM Foundation The tower superstructure is founded on an octagonal reinforced concrete mat, measuring 62M x 62M and 4M thickness with C50 concrete strength. Mat is supported on 429 open ended steel pipes piles, 914 mm in diameter, @c/c 2.7M Due to poor upper strata soil conditions, the piles were driven 83.5M deep. It was the deepest elevation ever attempted at that time in Shanghai to achieve a load capacity of over 750 tonnes. Based on settlement criteria the depth of these piles was selected to minimize both the overall settlement and differential settlements between the building vertical support elements.
  10. 10. STRUCTURE SYSTEM The advanced structural system that has been used in its construction allows it to withstand winds up to 200 km/h and earthquakes up to 7 on the Richter scale. The tower is built around a central octagonal concrete surrounded by 8 exterior composite super-column as and eight other steel, including outdoors. Core wall thickness: 450 mm Super-columns: 1500mm x 5000mm to 1000mm x 3500mm Steel columns: 1000mm x 10000mm Materials – Composite Core: Reinforced Concrete Columns: Concrete Encased Steel Floor Spanning: Steel The concrete core provides excellent stiffness, while the structural steel floor framing allows to use long, column-free spans with minimal weight. This, in turn, reduces the size of the vertical members and the foundation, creating a system that resists winds and earthquakes with the fewest possible structural elements. CORE PLAN
  11. 11. STRUCTURE SYSTEM Adhering to the theme of eight, which signifies good luck in China, the structure of the tower contains an octagonal central reinforced concrete core. Eight concrete and steel perimeter super columns, and eight steel built-up columns.
  12. 12. STRUCTURE SYSTEM SUPERCOLUMN PLAN The supercolumns are comprised of steel and concrete.Gravity loads are resisted by the composite floor members frames, called structural steel columns. The central core and composite supercolumns provide additional support counteracting the gravity loads. STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMN PLAN
  13. 13. Core and super columns connect through main beams on each floor and Outrigger Truss steel beams to form a space integrate structure resist to lateral loads. Core play the most important role on resisting moment, 8 super-columns are good for balancing overturning moment by outrigger truss connecting with core. Outrigger Truss Core Super-columns Wind load works on the surface of the building, then transferred to super columns. With the trusses connection between super columns and core, the load finally reaches to the core and gets to the foundation. Consist of - braced frames in the core, - outriggers from core to perimeter, - super-columns and moment resisting frames in the perimeter STRUCTURE SYSTEM 24 26 51 53 85 87
  14. 14. The final structure that enables the tower to function uniquely is its outrigger truss system. This provides resistance of lateral loads through a central reinforced concrete shear-wall core interconnected with the composite super columns. STRUCTURE SYSTEM
  15. 15. ELEVATOR RISER DIAGRAM PLAN VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION There are more than 130 elevators in the tower - Office zones are serviced by 26 elevators in five zones. - 10 elevators for the hotel, express shuttle elevator bay - 10 service elevators - 7 sets of escalators for podium - An observation deck served by 2 elevators
  17. 17. Mechanical Systems Jin Mao’s mechanical system services two distinct areas of the building: offices and hotels. This separation is necessary since the building itself is so large. The systems themselves are independent of each other and are not linked because the allocated sizes are sufficient for each area. The chiller room is located beneath the podium and houses refrigeration machines, pumps, and heat exchangers. SERVICES CHILLERROOM COOLING TOWER LEVEL 22 OFFICE HOTEL LEVEL 52 PODIUM CHILLER ROOM Location of Chiller Room
  18. 18. Heat Exchanger A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. It uses two different types of heat exchangers: - The Plate and Frame HX are used with the Condenser Water Supply (CWS) - The Shell and Tube HX are used with the Hot Water Supply(HWS) and are also pressurers. SERVICES Plate and Frame Shell and Tube
  19. 19. Space Conditioning Systems Jin Mao’s space conditioning system is organized based on services, which are primarily office and hotel use. This ‘service zoning’ organization requires several different space conditioning systems (Air Handling Units, Packaged Air Conditioning Units, and Fan Coil Units) that provide the following: - Independent operation and control of the spaces if distinct characteristics (i.e., hotel and office). - Greater reliability and operational versatility (functionality). - Greater constructability and maintenance (economical). SERVICES OFFICE HOTEL LEVEL 51/52 AIR-WATERALL-AIR
  20. 20. Offices Air is conditioned and delivered by supply fans (also known as air handling units) as well as packaged air conditioning units, which provide the following: - Heating and cooling of ambient air. - Controlled air movement (with controlled temperature provides high level of thermal comfort). - Ventilation for environmental comfort and health (circulation of fresh outside air). SERVICES Space conditioning for the office area is an all air system, which supplies conditioned air exclusively to office space. - Requires extensive ductwork (supply and return), which consumes space and is expensive (takes approximately 6” of floor height). Return Supply Diffusers
  21. 21. Hotel Cool or warm air is produced by running air over chilled/hot water through individually controlled fan coil units, which provide the following: - Heating and cooling of ambient air locally - Control of temperature is easy, precise, and economical - No need for reliable humidity control Space conditioning for the hotel area is an air water system, which supplies air partially conditioned by fresh air and chilled water. All water systems require ventilation, which is fully provided by centrally supplied conditioned fresh air coupled with the required exhaust from bathrooms and kitchens. The system is relatively expensive to build as well as maintain (requires condensation drain, making the system tedious). SERVICES t SUPPLY RETURN RETURN SUPPLY LEVEL 65-66 (HOTEL) Return Supply Return
  22. 22. Electrical System Four sets of 35 KV/6.3 KV transformers with a capacity of 48,000 KVA handle two separate incoming power lines from the city grid, which provide enough power for daily operation. In addition, there are three efficient 1,600-KW diesel-fueled generators for emergency supply. Bus duct system: Bus duct is an enclosed metal unit containing copper or aluminum bus bars for distribution of large amounts of power between components of the distribution system. Bus duct is used for the effective and efficient supply of electricity in mostly industrial locations. Copper or aluminum is used for the conductor of bus duct that can be insulated and enclosed completely for protection against mechanical damage and dust accumulation. A bus duct system is an effective method of distributing power to Jin Mao switchgear and various loads. SERVICES
  23. 23. Fire-Fighting System - Active Fire system - Means of Egress Refuge Floors - Level 15 and Level 30 for Office - Every floor for Hotel Stairs interrupt at Refuge Floors - Egress to refuge floor - Reduces stack Effect - Allows transfer to other stairs Refuge Floors - 2 hour enclosures - Mechanical Pressurization SERVICES