JIN MAO TOWER
ROLL NO: 14034
Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), Adrian Smith
Architectural Style: Neo-Futurism
Site Area: 24,000 M²
Use: Modern Offices, Exhibition/Banquet Halls
A deluxe 5-Star Hotel – The Grand Hyatt Shanghai
Observatory Deck, Entertainment Facilities
With its postmodern form, it evokes the architecture of the traditional Chinese
pagoda by creating a rhythmic pattern growing in height.
The proportion of the building revolves around the number 8. In Buddhism 8
is a lucky number, associated with prosperity, economy, gold and trade.
Basement - Parking area
Level 1 and Level 2 – Lobby
Level 3 to Level 52 - Five different Office zones
Service Level - A double height Mechanical Level
Level 53 to Level 87 – Hotel
The major tenant of the building is the five-star 555-room
Shanghai Grand Hyatt hotel
The barrel-vaulted atrium starts at the 56th floor and extends
upwards to the 87th.
Level 88 – Observatory Deck
In this 88-story skyscraper, which becomes 93 if we
include those located in the needle, which are not
technical floors accessible to the public offices and are
located in different enterprises of the Shanghai Grand
The building has 3 main entrances, two for the office area
and third for the hotel.
- There are three levels of basement for underground
parking with capacity for 800 cars and 2000 bicycles
- The parking area is equipped with surveillance cameras
that cover an angle of 360 degrees and that are part of
the complex security system of the building.
- On the floor 57 is installed a pool.
- The seriousness of the charges is supported by the eight
cores of large steel columns along the perimeter
- A 340 meters above street level, on the
floor 88 is installed an observatory occupying
1520 square meters, is the observation deck
largest and highest of China.
- The offices occupy the floors from level 3 to 50 and
have a total of 123,000 square meters.
- The surfaces are clear, free of columns and are
accessed by 26 lifts that have an average wait of 35
seconds during peak hours.
- Levels 51 and 52 are occupied by the center of
mechanical and electrical installations of the tower,
which only has access to specialist staff.
- The Grand Hyatt Hotel, 5 stars occupies 53 to 87 with
- The atrium of the hotel begins at the plant 53 has a
height of 152 meters and a diameter of 27mts, and
one of the highest courts of the world.
- Together with the monitoring center, the hotel is part
of only two sections that are accessible to the public,
offers business services, high-level banquets,
entertainment, 8 restaurants and shops.
The tower superstructure is founded on an octagonal
reinforced concrete mat, measuring 62M x 62M and
4M thickness with C50 concrete strength.
Mat is supported on 429 open ended steel pipes piles,
914 mm in diameter, @c/c 2.7M
Due to poor upper strata soil conditions, the piles were
driven 83.5M deep.
It was the deepest elevation ever attempted at that
time in Shanghai to achieve a load capacity of over
Based on settlement criteria the depth of these piles
was selected to minimize both the overall settlement
and differential settlements between the building
vertical support elements.
The advanced structural system that has been used in its
construction allows it to withstand winds up to 200 km/h
and earthquakes up to 7 on the Richter scale.
The tower is built around a central octagonal concrete
surrounded by 8 exterior composite super-column as and
eight other steel, including outdoors.
Core wall thickness: 450 mm
Super-columns: 1500mm x 5000mm to 1000mm x 3500mm
Steel columns: 1000mm x 10000mm
Materials – Composite
Core: Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Concrete Encased Steel
Floor Spanning: Steel
The concrete core provides excellent stiffness, while the
structural steel floor framing allows to use long, column-free
spans with minimal weight. This, in turn, reduces the size of
the vertical members and the foundation, creating a
system that resists winds and earthquakes with the fewest
possible structural elements.
Adhering to the theme of eight, which signifies good
luck in China, the structure of the tower contains an
octagonal central reinforced concrete core.
Eight concrete and steel perimeter super columns,
and eight steel built-up columns.
The supercolumns are comprised of steel and concrete.Gravity loads are resisted by the composite floor members
frames, called structural steel columns. The central core
and composite supercolumns provide additional support
counteracting the gravity loads.
Core and super columns connect
through main beams on each floor
and Outrigger Truss steel beams to
form a space integrate structure
resist to lateral loads.
Core play the most important role
on resisting moment, 8 super-columns
are good for balancing overturning
moment by outrigger truss
connecting with core.
Wind load works on the surface
of the building, then transferred
to super columns.
With the trusses connection
between super columns and
core, the load finally reaches
to the core and gets to the
- braced frames in the core,
- outriggers from core to
- super-columns and moment
resisting frames in the
The final structure that enables the tower to function
uniquely is its outrigger truss system. This provides
resistance of lateral loads through a central reinforced
concrete shear-wall core interconnected with the
composite super columns.
ELEVATOR RISER DIAGRAM PLAN
There are more than 130 elevators in the tower
- Office zones are serviced by 26 elevators in
- 10 elevators for the hotel, express shuttle
- 10 service elevators
- 7 sets of escalators for podium
- An observation deck served by 2 elevators
OFFICE HOTEL SERVICES OBSERVATION DECK
Jin Mao’s mechanical system services two distinct areas of
the building: offices and hotels.
This separation is necessary since the building itself is so
The systems themselves are independent of each other and
are not linked because the allocated sizes are sufficient for
The chiller room is located beneath the podium and houses
refrigeration machines, pumps, and heat exchangers.
Location of Chiller Room
A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer
from one medium to another. In parallel-flow heat
exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same
end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side.
It uses two different types of heat exchangers:
- The Plate and Frame HX are used with the
Condenser Water Supply (CWS)
- The Shell and Tube HX are used with the Hot
Water Supply(HWS) and are also pressurers.
Plate and Frame
Shell and Tube
Space Conditioning Systems
Jin Mao’s space conditioning system is organized based on
services, which are primarily office and hotel use.
This ‘service zoning’ organization requires several different
space conditioning systems (Air Handling Units, Packaged
Air Conditioning Units, and Fan Coil Units) that provide the
- Independent operation and control of the spaces if
distinct characteristics (i.e., hotel and office).
- Greater reliability and operational versatility
- Greater constructability and maintenance
Air is conditioned and delivered by supply fans (also known
as air handling units) as well as packaged air conditioning
units, which provide the following:
- Heating and cooling of ambient air.
- Controlled air movement (with controlled temperature
provides high level of thermal comfort).
- Ventilation for environmental comfort and health
(circulation of fresh outside air).
Space conditioning for the office area is an all
air system, which supplies conditioned air exclusively
to office space.
- Requires extensive ductwork (supply and return),
which consumes space and is expensive (takes
approximately 6” of floor height).
Cool or warm air is produced by running air over chilled/hot
water through individually controlled fan coil units, which
provide the following:
- Heating and cooling of ambient air locally
- Control of temperature is easy, precise, and economical
- No need for reliable humidity control
Space conditioning for the hotel area is an air water system,
which supplies air partially conditioned by fresh air and
All water systems require ventilation, which is fully provided
by centrally supplied conditioned fresh air coupled with the
required exhaust from bathrooms and kitchens.
The system is relatively expensive to build as well as maintain
(requires condensation drain, making the system tedious).
LEVEL 65-66 (HOTEL)
Four sets of 35 KV/6.3 KV transformers with a capacity of 48,000 KVA handle two separate incoming power lines
from the city grid, which provide enough power for daily operation.
In addition, there are three efficient 1,600-KW diesel-fueled generators for emergency supply.
Bus duct system:
Bus duct is an enclosed metal unit containing copper or aluminum bus bars for distribution of large amounts of
power between components of the distribution system.
Bus duct is used for the effective and efficient supply of electricity in mostly industrial locations. Copper or
aluminum is used for the conductor of bus duct that can be insulated and enclosed completely for protection
against mechanical damage and dust accumulation.
A bus duct system is an effective method of distributing power to Jin Mao switchgear and various loads.
- Active Fire system
- Means of Egress
- Level 15 and Level 30 for Office
- Every floor for Hotel
Stairs interrupt at Refuge Floors
- Egress to refuge floor
- Reduces stack Effect
- Allows transfer to other stairs
- 2 hour enclosures
- Mechanical Pressurization